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List of Benchmarks for Language Arts

Standard 6.Uses skills and strategies to read a variety of literary texts
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Knows the sequence of events (e.g., beginning, middle, and end) in a story
   2. Knows the elements that compose a story (e.g., characters, plot, events, setting)
   3. Understands the literal meaning of plays, poems, and stories
   4. Knows the difference between fact and fiction, real and make-believe
   5. Relates stories to his/her own life and experience
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Reads a variety of familiar literary passages and texts (e.g., fairy tales, folktales, fiction, nonfiction, legends, fables, myths, poems, nursery rhymes, picture books, predictable books)  A 
   2. Knows setting, main characters, main events, sequence, narrator, and problems in stories
   3. Knows the main ideas or theme of a story, drama, or poem  A 
   4. Relates stories to personal experiences (e.g., events, characters, conflicts, themes)
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Reads a variety of literary passages and texts (e.g., fairy tales, folktales, fiction, nonfiction, myths, poems, fables, fantasies, historical fiction, biographies, autobiographies, chapter books)  A 
   2. Knows the defining characteristics (e.g., rhyme and rhythm in poetry; settings and dialogue in drama; make believe in folktales and fantasies; life stories in biography; illustrations in children’s stories) and structural elements (e.g., chapter, scene, stanza, verse, meter) of a variety of literary genres
   3. Understands the basic concept of plot (e.g., main problem, conflict, resolution, cause-and-effect)  A 
   4. Understands similarities and differences within and among literary works from various genre and cultures (e.g., in terms of settings, character types, events, point of view; role of natural phenomena)   A 
   5. Understands elements of character development in literary works (e.g., differences between main and minor characters; character’s point of view; stereotypical characters as opposed to fully developed characters; changes that characters undergo; the importance of a character’s actions, motives, and appearance to plot and theme)  A 
   6. Knows themes that recur across literary works
   7. Understands the ways in which language is used in literary texts (e.g., personification, alliteration, onomatopoeia, simile, metaphor, imagery, hyperbole, rhythm, allusion)
   8. Makes connections between characters or simple events in a literary work and people or events in his or her own life  A 
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Reads a variety of literary passages and texts (e.g., fiction, nonfiction, myths, poems, fantasies, biographies, autobiographies, science fiction, historical fiction, drama)
   2. Knows the defining features(e.g., setting in science fiction, soliloquy and stage directions in drama, conflict in narratives, perspective in biographies and autobiographies) and structural elements (e.g., chapter, act, scene, stanza) of a variety of literary genres
   3. Understands complex elements of plot development (e.g., cause-and-effect relationships; use of subplots, parallel episodes, and climax; development of conflict and resolution)  A 
   4. Understands elements of character development (e.g., character traits and motivations; stereotypes; relationships between character and plot development; development of characters through their words, speech patterns, thoughts, actions, narrator’s description, and interaction with other characters; how motivations are revealed)  A 
   5. Understands the use of specific literary devices (e.g., foreshadowing, flashback, progressive and digressive time, suspense)
   6. Understands the use of language in literary works to convey mood, images, and meaning (e.g., dialect; dialogue; symbolism; irony; rhyme; voice; tone; sound; alliteration; assonance; consonance; onomatopoeia; figurative language such as similes, metaphors, personification, hyperbole, allusion; sentence structure; punctuation)  A 
   7. Understands the effects of an author’s style (e.g., word choice, speaker, imagery, genre, perspective) on the reader
   8. Understands point of view in a literary text (e.g., first and third person, limited and omniscient, subjective and objective)
   9. Understands inferred and recurring themes in literary works (e.g., bravery, loyalty, friendship, good v. evil; historical, cultural, and social themes)  A 
   10. Makes connections between the motives of characters or the causes for complex events in texts and those in his or her own life
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Reads a variety of literary texts (e.g., fiction, nonfiction, myths, poems, biographies, autobiographies, science fiction, supernatural tales, satires, parodies, plays, American literature, British literature, world and ancient literature)
   2. Knows the defining characteristics of a variety of literary forms and genres (e.g.,the dramatic elements of staging, breaking the fourth wall, expressionism, minimalism, and dramatic irony; the syntax, narrative structure, people/nature relationships, and male/female roles used in mythic traditions; the range of poem structures, such as fixed and free forms, rhymed and unrhymed, narrative and lyric)
   3. Analyzes the use of complex elements of plot in specific literary works (e.g., time frame, cause-and-effect relationships, conflicts, resolution)  A 
   4. Analyzes the simple and complex actions (e.g., internal/external conflicts) between main and subordinate characters in literary works containing complex character structures  A 
   5. Knows archetypes and symbols (e.g., supernatural helpers, banishment from an ideal world, the hero, beneficence of nature, dawn) present in a variety of literary texts (e.g., American literature, world literature, literature based on oral tradition, mythology, film, political speeches)
   6. Understands how themes are used across literary works and genres (e.g., universal themes in literature of different cultures, such as death and rebirth, initiation, love and duty; major themes in American literature; authors associated with major themes of specific eras; themes that authors draw on and transform from influential literary works)
   7. Understands the effects of author’s style and complex literary devices and techniques on the overall quality of a work (e.g., tone; irony; mood; figurative language; allusion; diction; dialogue; symbolism; point of view; voice; understatement and overstatement; time and sequence; narrator; poetic elements, such as sound, imagery, personification)
   8. Understands relationships between literature and its historical period, culture, and society (e.g., influence of historical context on form, style, and point of view; influence of literature on political events; social influences on author’s description of characters, plot, and setting; how writer’s represent and reveal their cultures and traditions)
   9. Makes connections between his or her own life and the characters, events, motives, and causes of conflict in texts  A 
   10. Uses language and perspectives of literary criticism to evaluate literary works (e.g., evaluates aesthetic qualities of style, such as diction, tone, theme, mood; identifies ambiguities, subtleties, and incongruities in the text; compares reviews of literature, film, and performances with own response; cites textual evidence to support analysis, including inferences drawn from the text; analyzes multiple interpretations of a subject, scene, or entire literary work, including their relationship to the source)

 A  = Assessment items available