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List of Benchmarks for Language Arts

Standard 5.Uses the general skills and strategies of the reading process
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Knows that print and written symbols convey meaning and represent spoken language
   2. Understands the differences between letters, numbers, and words and knows the significance of spaces between words
   3. Understands that illustrations and pictures convey meaning
   4. Knows the proper way to handle books (e.g., hold the book upright; turn pages from front to back, one at a time)
   5. Knows that print is read from left to right, top to bottom, and that books are read front to back
   6. Knows some letters of the alphabet, such as those in the student’s own name
   7. Knows some familiar words in print, such as own first name
   8. Knows that print appears in different forms (e.g., labels, letters, storybooks) and serves different purposes (e.g., to inform)
   9. Knows familiar print in their environment (e.g., traffic signs, store logos)
   10. Predicts story events or outcomes, using illustrations and prior knowledge as a guide
   11. Uses emergent reading skills to "read" a story (e.g., gathers meaning from words and pictures)
   12. Knows that books have titles, authors, and often illustrators
   13. Uses visual and verbal cues, including pictures, to comprehend new words and stories
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Uses mental images based on pictures and print to aid in comprehension of text
   2. Uses meaning clues (e.g., picture captions, illustrations, title, cover, headings, story structure, story topic) to aid comprehension and make predictions about content (e.g., action, events, character’s behavior)
   3. Uses basic elements of phonetic analysis (e.g., common letter/sound relationships, beginning and ending consonants, vowel sounds, blends, word patterns) to decode unknown words
   4. Uses basic elements of structural analysis (e.g., syllables, basic prefixes, suffixes, inflectional endings, root words, compound words, spelling patterns, contractions) to decode unknown words
   5. Uses a picture dictionary to determine word meaning
   6. Understands level-appropriate sight words and vocabulary (e.g., words for persons, places, things, actions, and feelings; words that appeal to the senses; high frequency words such as said, was, and where)
   7. Uses self-correction strategies (e.g., searches for cues, identifies miscues, rereads, asks for help)
   8. Reads aloud familiar stories, poems, and passages with fluency and expression (e.g., rhythm, flow, meter, tempo, pitch, tone, intonation)
   9. Knows all upper and lower case letters of the alphabet, their associated sounds, and that as letters in words change, so do the sounds.
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Previews text (e.g., skims material; uses pictures, textual clues, and text format)
   2. Establishes a purpose for reading (e.g., for information, for pleasure, to understand a specific viewpoint)
   3. Makes, confirms, and revises simple predictions about what will be found in a text (e.g., uses prior knowledge and ideas presented in text, illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words, and foreshadowing clues)
   4. Uses phonetic and structural analysis techniques, syntactic structure, and semantic context to decode unknown words (e.g., vowel patterns, complex word families, syllabication, root words, affixes)
   5. Use a variety of context clues to decode unknown words (e.g., draws on earlier reading, reads ahead)
   6. Uses word reference materials (e.g., glossary, dictionary, thesaurus) to determine the meaning, pronunciation, and derivations of unknown words
   7. Understands level-appropriate reading vocabulary (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homophones, multi-meaning words)
   8. Monitors own reading strategies and makes modifications as needed (e.g., recognizes when he or she is confused by a section of text, questions whether the text makes sense)
   9. Adjusts speed of reading to suit purpose and difficulty of the material
   10. Understands the author’s purpose (e.g., to persuade, to inform) or point of view
   11. Uses personal criteria to select reading material (e.g., personal interest, knowledge of authors and genres, text difficulty, recommendations of others)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Establishes and adjusts purposes for reading (e.g., to understand, interpret, enjoy, solve problems, predict outcomes, answer a specific question, form an opinion, skim for facts; to discover models for own writing)  A 
   2. Uses word origins and derivations to understand word meaning (e.g., Latin and Greek roots and affixes, meanings of foreign words frequently used in the English language, historical influences on English word meanings)
   3. Uses a variety of strategies to extend reading vocabulary (e.g., uses analogies, idioms, similes, metaphors to infer the meaning of literal and figurative phrases;uses context clues, such as word function and placement; uses definition, restatement, example, comparison and contrast to verify word meanings; identifies shades of meaning; knows denotative and connotative meanings; knows vocabulary related to different content areas and current events; uses rhyming dictionaries, classification books, etymological dictionaries)
   4. Uses specific strategies to clear up confusing parts of a text (e.g., pauses, rereads the text, consults another source, represents abstract information as mental pictures, draws upon background knowledge, asks for help)
   5. Understands specific devices an author uses to accomplish his or her purpose (e.g., persuasive techniques, style, word choice, language structure)  A 
   6. Reflects on what has been learned after reading and formulates ideas, opinions, and personal responses to texts  A 
   7. Knows parts of speech (e.g., noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, conjunction, preposition, interjection) and their functions
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Uses context to understand figurative, idiomatic, and technical meanings of terms
   2. Extends general and specialized reading vocabulary (e.g., interprets the meaning of codes, symbols, abbreviations, and acronyms; uses Latin, Greek, Anglo-Saxon roots and affixes to infer meaning; understands subject-area terminology; understands word relationships, such as analogies or synonyms and antonyms; uses cognates; understands allusions to mythology and other literature; understands connotative and denotative meanings)  A 
   3. Uses a range of automatic monitoring and self-correction methods (e.g., rereading, slowing down, sub-vocalizing, consulting resources, questioning)
   4. Understands writing techniques used to influence the reader and accomplish an author’s purpose (e.g., organizational patterns, figures of speech, tone, literary and technical language, formal and informal language, narrative perspective, rhetoric, refinement of key terms)
   5. Understands influences on a reader’s response to a text (e.g., personal experiences and values; perspective shaped by age, gender, class, or nationality)
   6. Understands the philosophical assumptions and basic beliefs underlying an author’s work (e.g., point of view, attitude, and values conveyed by specific language; clarity and consistency of political assumptions)

 A  = Assessment items available