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List of Benchmarks for Language Arts

Standard 4.Gathers and uses information for research purposes
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Not appropriate for this level
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Researches topics of personal interest (e.g., generate questions about a topic, participates in shared research projects, records observations).
   2. Uses a variety of sources to gather information (e.g., informational books, pictures, charts, indexes, videos, television programs, guest speakers, Internet, own observation)
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Uses a variety of strategies to plan research (e.g., identifies possible topic by brainstorming, listing questions, using idea webs; organizes prior knowledge about a topic; develops a course of action; determines how to locate necessary information)
   2. Uses encyclopedias to gather information for research topics
   3. Uses dictionaries to gather information for research topics
   4. Uses electronic media to gather information (e.g., databases, Internet, CD-ROM, television shows, videos, pull-down menus, word searches)
   5. Uses key words, guide words, alphabetical and numerical order, indexes, cross-references, and letters on volumes to find information for research topics
   6. Uses multiple representations of information (e.g., maps, charts, photos, diagrams, tables) to find information for research topics
   7. Uses strategies to gather and record information for research topics (e.g., uses notes, maps, charts, graphs, tables, and other graphic organizers; paraphrases and summarizes information; gathers direct quotes; provides narrative descriptions)
   8. Uses strategies to compile information into written reports or summaries (e.g., incorporates notes into a finished product; includes simple facts, details, explanations, and examples; draws conclusions from relationships and patterns that emerge from data from different sources; uses appropriate visual aids and media)
   9. Cites information sources (e.g., quotes or paraphrases information sources, lists resources used by title)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Gathers data for research topics from interviews (e.g., prepares and asks relevant questions, makes notes of responses, compiles responses)
   2. Uses a variety of resource materials to gather information for research topics (e.g., magazines, newspapers, dictionaries, schedules, journals, surveys, globes, atlases, almanacs, websites, databases, podcasts)
   3. Organizes information and ideas from multiple sources in systematic ways (e.g., time lines, outlines, notes, graphic representations)
   4. Writes research papers (e.g., asks research questions, defines a topic, organizes information into major components and examines relationships among these components, addresses different perspectives on a topic, achieves balance between research information and original ideas, integrates a variety of information into a whole, draws conclusions)
   5. Uses appropriate methods to cite and document reference sources (e.g., footnotes, bibliography)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Uses appropriate research methodology (e.g., formulates questions and refines topics, develops a plan for research; organizes what is known about a topic; uses appropriate research methods, such as questionnaires, experiments, field studies; collects information to narrow and develop a topic and support a thesis)
   2. Uses a variety of print and electronic sources to gather information for research topics (e.g., news sources such as magazines, radio, television, and newspapers; government publications and microfiche; library databases; field studies; speeches; technical documents; periodicals; Internet sources, such as web sites, podcasts, blogs, and electronic bullentin boards)
   3. Uses a variety of primary sources to gather information for research topics
   4. Uses a variety of criteria to evaluate the validity, reliability, and usefulness of primary and secondary source information (e.g., the motives and perspectives of the author; credibility of author and sources; date of publication; use of logic, propaganda, bias, and language; comprehensiveness of evidence; strengths and limitations of the source relative to audience and purpose)
   5. Synthesizes information from multiple sources to draw conclusions that go beyond those found in any of the individual sources
   6. Uses systematic strategies (e.g., anecdotal scripting, annotated bibliographies, graphics, conceptual maps, learning logs, notes, outlines, technology) to organize and record information
   7. Scans a passage to determine whether it contains relevant information
   8. Writes research papers (e.g., includes a thesis statement; synthesizes information into a logical sequence; paraphrases ideas and connects them to other sources and related topics; identifies complexities and discrepancies in information; addresses different perspectives; organizes and converts information into different forms such as charts, graphs, and drawings; integrates quotations and citations into flow of paper; adapts researched material for presentation to different audiences and for different purposes)
   9. Use standard format and methodology for documenting reference sources (e.g., credits quotations and paraphrased ideas; understands the meaning and consequences of plagiarism; distinguishes own ideas from others; uses a style sheet method for citing sources, such as the Modern Language Association, American Psychological Association, or Chicago Manual of Style; includes a bibliography of reference material)