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List of Benchmarks for United States History

Standard 30.Understands developments in foreign policy and domestic politics between the Nixon and Clinton presidencies
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   1. Understands domestic politics from Nixon to Carter (e.g., the effectiveness of different social and environmental programs under the Nixon, Ford, and Carter administrations; the Nixon administration's involvement in Watergate, and the role of the media in exposing the scandal; how "law and order," the "Silent Majority," and the "New Federalism" were used by the Nixon administration)
   2. Understands elements of both the Reagan and Bush presidencies (e.g., the impact of the "Reagan Revolution" on federalism and public perceptions of the role of government, reasons for Reagan’s popularity, how each administration dealt with major domestic problems)
   3. Understands the events that influenced U.S. foreign policy from the Carter to the G.Bush administrations (e.g., Reagan’s efforts to reassert American military power and rebuild American prestige; crisis areas around the world and some of the major peace initiatives made during the Carter administration; geographic changes after the fall of the U.S.S.R. and communist states in eastern Europe; places in the Middle East, Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia where U.S. advisers and military forces were involved during the Reagan and Bush years)
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   1. Understands the domestic problems facing Presidents G.Bush and Reagan and the programs their administrations presented to deal with these issues (e.g., supply-side economic strategies, Reagan’s environmental program and the views of its supporters and opponents, how the Bush administration dealt with the recession, the effectiveness of the Republican administration in dealing with the Democratic congress)
   2. Understands major foreign policy events and how they influenced public opinion of the administrations from Nixon to Clinton (e.g., U.S. policies toward arms limitations; Nixon’s policy of detente with the U.S.S.R. and the People’s Republic of China; reasons for the collapse of communist governments in Eastern Europe and the U.S.S.R; President Carter’s role in the Camp David Accords; the Iranian hostage crisis; the foreign policy of the Reagan administration and domestic and foreign reactions to it; foreign policy goals of the G.Bush and Clinton administrations and their effectiveness)
   3. Understands the impact of the Nixon administration's ideas and policies on American society (e.g., factors that caused so many Americans to support Nixon and his "law and order" stance, Nixon's advocacy of family assistance and employment opportunity programs, the events of Watergate)
   4. Understands key domestic issues of the post-Nixon years (e.g., President Ford's pardon of Richard Nixon; the successes and failures of the Carter administration)
   5. Understands the principal issues and legislation affecting organized labor in the post-World War II era (e.g., terms such as "open shop," "closed shop," "featherbedding," "right to work" laws; how the general public has perceived labor unions; the relationship between the Reagan-Bush administrations and organized labor)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Understands how the Nixon, Ford, and Carter administrations dealt with major domestic issues (e.g., policies for dealing with problems of recession and inflation; the Nixon administration’s "southern strategy;" Carter’s program for dealing with the energy crisis)
   2. Understands the events and legacy of the Watergate break-in (e.g., the constitutional issues raised by the affair and the effects of Watergate on public opinion; the involvement of the Nixon administration in the cover-up; how Presidents Ford and Carter addressed the concept of the "imperial presidency" after Watergate and attempted to restore credibility to the presidency)
   3. Understands the impact of the Reagan presidency on relations with other countries (e.g., the issues raised in the Iran-Contra affair, Reagan’s view of the Soviet Union as an "evil empire" and how that shaped defense policy, the Reagan administration’s policy toward South Africa)
   4. Understands the major economic issues from the Reagan through the Clinton presidencies (e.g., why labor unions declined in recent decades, the impact of recession and the growing national debt on the Bush and Clinton administration's domestic agendas, the impact of Reagan's tax policies on the national economy)
   5. Understands the influence of U.S. foreign policy on international events from Nixon to Clinton (e.g., the U.S.’s role in the evolving political struggles in the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Latin America; foreign policy in the post-Cold War era; U.S. goals and objectives in the Middle East; the pros and cons of U.S. intervention in the Persian Gulf under Reagan and G.Bush; how human rights has been used in American foreign policy)
   6. Understands the causes of terrorism and its influence on recent U.S. foreign and domestic policy (e.g., the impact of the September 11, 2001 attacks; the G. W. Bush administration’s policies regarding national security and the Middle East)