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List of Benchmarks for Thinking and Reasoning

Standard 5.Applies basic trouble-shooting and problem-solving techniques
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Identifies simple problems and possible solutions (e.g., ways to make something work better)
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Identifies issues and problems in the school or community that one might help solve
   2. Analyzes the problems that have confronted people in the past in terms of the major goals and obstacles to those goals
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Generates alternative courses of action and compares the possible consequences of each alternative
   2. Selects the most appropriate strategy or alternative for solving a problem
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Applies trouble shooting strategies to complex real world situations (e.g., workplace situations, family concerns)
   2. Understands that trouble-shooting almost anything may require many-step branching logic
   3. Trouble-shoots common mechanical and electrical systems, checking for possible causes of malfunction, and decides on that basis whether to make a change or get advice from an expert before proceeding
   4. Isolates a problem component in a schematic diagram and traces it to the cause of the problem
   5. Engages in problem finding and framing for personal situations and situations in the community
   6. Represents a problem accurately in terms of resources, constraints, and objectives
   7. Evaluates the effectiveness of problem-solving techniques
   8. Reframes problems when alternative solutions are exhausted
   9. Examines different options for solving problems of historical importance and determines why specific courses of action were taken
   10. Evaluates the feasibility of various solutions to problems; recommends and defends a solution
   11. Understands causes and critical issues of problems (e.g., personal, social, ethical considerations)