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List of Benchmarks for Technology

Standard 6.Understands the nature and uses of different forms of technology
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Knows different materials (e.g., glass, metal, plastic, wood) and their uses
   2. Knows that for certain purposes some materials work better than others
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows that technology is used in medicine to prevent and cure disease (e.g., through vaccinations and medications)
   2. Knows that technology is used to improve what humans get from crops by reducing the amount of work needed, keeping food fresh, and moving it long distances to where people need it
   3. Knows that energy comes from different sources (e.g., electricity, gas, water) and is used in many common objects (e.g., a stove, some toys)
   4. Knows that communication technology allows people to exchange and find information quickly, cheaply, and reliably over a distance
   5. Knows that a transportation system is tailored to a society's needs and consists of rules (e.g., which side of the road to drive on) and components (e.g., vehicles and the surface upon which they move)
   6. Knows that manufacturing technology first creates a complete and detailed design of a product and then produces this product in quantity
   7. Knows that there are different types of structures (e.g., house, airport, highway) and each one requires different materials and parts
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows that medical technology is used to provide information about a patient’s body (e.g., measuring blood glucose levels) and to repair, replace, and support parts of the body
   2. Knows that elements of an agricultural system are designed to maximize the interaction and production of all the elements in the system (e.g., by composting, using plants for food, oxygen, and water and air filtration)
   3. Knows that different types of energy (e.g., solar, fossil fuels) have different advantages and disadvantages (e.g., solar energy is a cleaner source of energy than fossil fuels, but currently is more expensive), and that regardless of the source of energy, the technological design should attempt to maximize the use of it
   4. Knows that technology facilitates better communication by providing storage and retrieval of large amounts of data, an easy means of accessing data, a means of processing and displaying data, and faster communication among individuals
   5. Knows that transportation systems affect society (e.g., where people live) and are affected by society and nature (e.g., activists may request more public transit, a severe thunderstorm may cause flights to be canceled)
   6. Knows that manufacturing processes include designing the product, gathering natural and/or synthetic resources, and final production
   7. Knows that construction technology requires building materials, specialized tools and machines, money, time, energy, land, and human work and that the final structures are subject to local building codes
   8. Knows that buildings require several subsystems (e.g., a phone system, heating) and these subsystems may be associated with other types of technology (e.g., communications, energy)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Understands ways in which medical technology improves the quality of health care (e.g., advanced diagnosing equipment, increased hospital sanitation)
   2. Knows ways in which biotechnology results in benefits for humans, including more convenience, less labor, improved health and medicine, and improved food
   3. Knows that most technological systems require an input of energy, which is an important consideration both in designing an object or a system and in conserving energy (e.g., so many things require energy that alternative sources to fossil fuels should be used when possible)
   4. Knows the components of a communication system (i.e., a source, encoder, transmitter, receiver, decoder, and destination)
   5. Knows that individual transportation vehicles contain several subsystems (e.g., structural, propulsion, control)
   6. Knows that manufacturing processes use hand tools, human-operated machines, and automated machines to separate, form, combine, and condition natural and synthetic materials; these changes may either be physical or chemical
   7. Knows that construction design is influenced by factors such as building laws and codes, style, convenience, cost, climate, and function
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Knows that genetic engineering is the process by which controlled changes in a genetic structure can be made and that this process is used to research and diagnose disease and create pharmaceuticals
   2. Knows that biotechnology is used in a variety of areas (e.g., agriculture, pharmaceuticals, food and beverage, fuels and energy, the environment, genetic engineering) and requires specific scientific knowledge about the natural system being modified
   3. Understands scientific principles of energy, work, and power in relation to technological design (e.g., the Second Law of Thermodynamics means that a system cannot be designed which is 100% efficient)
   4. Knows that power systems (i.e., systems which convert energy from one form to another) have a source of energy, a process, loads, and some have a feedback system
   5. Knows that communication systems can transfer information from person to person (e.g., a telephone), person to machine (e.g., a person inputting information into a computer), or machine to machine (e.g., an automated payroll system where the record of the money goes from one computer to another)
   6. Knows that modern transportation systems are diverse (allowing humans to combine types of transportation for the most direct and convenient route), intelligent (requiring coordinated subsystems, such as a traffic light system), and are necessary in the functioning of most other technologies
   7. Knows that there are different types of manufacturing systems (customized, batch, and continuous production) and manufacturing results in two different types of goods, durable and non-durable
   8. Knows different requirements for structural design (e.g., strength, maintenance, appearance) and that these structures require maintenance