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List of Benchmarks for Technology

Standard 4.Understands the nature of technological design
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Knows that materials and equipment can be combined in different ways to make something new (e.g., building a tent using a sheet around a table, using molding clay to make pretend food)
   2. Knows ways to communicate design ideas (e.g., pictures, models)
   3. Knows that some things are natural and others are human made
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows that both objects and systems occur in nature (e.g., stars and the solar system), but people can also design and make objects and systems (e.g., telephones and communication systems) to solve a problem and to improve the quality of life
   2. Knows that tools have specific functions, such as to observe, measure, make things, and do things better or more easily; selecting the right tool makes the task easier
   3. Knows that people are always inventing new ways to solve problems and accomplish work (e.g., a computer is a machine that helps people work and play)
   4. Knows that planning is an important part of the design process
   5. Knows that new objects can be created out of physical materials (e.g., paper, cloth)
   6. Knows that because there may be multiple solutions to a design problem, each appropriate to different situations, many creative ideas can be useful
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Categorizes items into groups of natural objects and designed objects
   2. Knows that group collaboration is useful as the combination of multiple creative minds can yield more possible design solutions
   3. Knows that the design process is a series of methodical steps for turning ideas into useful products and systems
   4. Identifies a simple problem that can be solved using technology
   5. Knows constraints that must be considered when designing a solution to a problem (e.g., cost, materials, time, space, safety, scientific laws, engineering principles, construction techniques, appearance, environmental impact, what will happen if the solution fails)
   6. Uses appropriate tools, techniques, and quantitative measurements to implement proposed solutions
   7. Evaluates a product or design (e.g., considers how well the product or design met the challenge to solve a problem; considers the ability of the product or design to meet constraints), and makes modifications based on results
   8. Knows that people have invented and used tools throughout history to solve problems and improve ways of doing things
   9. Knows that different technologies can often be combined (e.g., an escalator uses both pulleys and an electric motor)
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Knows that the design process is a slow, methodical process of test and refinement
   2. Knows that the design process relies on different strategies: creative brainstorming to establish many design solutions, evaluating the feasibility of various solutions in order to choose a design, and troubleshooting the selected design
   3. Identifies appropriate problems which can be solved using technological design (e.g., identifies a specific need, considers its various aspects, considers criteria for a suitable product)
   4. Designs a solution or product, taking into account needs and constraints (e.g., cost, time, trade-offs, properties of materials, safety, aesthetics)
   5. Implements a proposed design (e.g., organizes materials and other resources, plans one’s work, makes use of group collaboration when appropriate, chooses suitable tools and techniques, works with appropriate measurement methods to ensure accuracy)
   6. Evaluates the ability of a technological design to meet criteria established in the original purpose (e.g., considers factors that might affect acceptability and suitability for intended users or beneficiaries; develop measures of quality with respect to these factors), suggests improvements, and tries proposed modifications
   7. Understands that nonphysical objects (e.g., software) and physical objects (e.g., a telephone) are both subject to the design process
   8. Knows that invention is the process of creating a new system or object out of an idea while innovation is the process of modifying an existing system or object to improve it (e.g., the specialization of function of a subsystem)
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Knows that an optimal solution to a design problem is more likely to be found when the process followed is systematic and repetitive
   2. Proposes designs and uses models, simulations, and other tests to choose an optimal solution
   3. Implements a proposed solution (e.g., constructs artifacts for intended users or beneficiaries)
   4. Evaluates a designed solution and its consequences based on the needs or criteria the solution was designed to meet
   5. Knows that since there is no such thing as a perfect design, trade-offs of one criterion for another must occur to find an optimized solution
   6. Knows that a design involves different design factors (e.g., ergonomics, maintenance and repair, environmental concerns) and design principles (e.g., flexibility, proportion, function)