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List of Benchmarks for Technology

Standard 3.Understands the relationships among science, technology, society, and the individual
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   1. Uses tools (e.g., hammer, email, telephone) that help humans do work and solve problems
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   1. Knows ways that technology is used at home and at school (e.g., computers, cell phones, DVD players)
   2. Knows that new tools and ways of doing things affect all aspects of life, and may have positive or negative effects on other people
   3. Knows that man-made materials, products, and systems can affect the environment adversely, yet there are things that can be done to circumvent this process (e.g., disposing of waste properly, reusing old objects in new designs)
   4. Understands that when an individual creates something on a computer, the created work is that person’s property, and only that person has the right to change it
   5. Knows safe and responsible online behaviors
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   1. Knows that technologies often have costs as well as benefits and can have an enormous effect on people and other living things
   2. Knows areas in which technology has improved human lives (e.g., transportation, communication, nutrition, sanitation, health care, entertainment)
   3. Knows that new inventions often lead to other new inventions and ways of doing things
   4. Knows that new inventions reflect people’s needs and wants, and when these change, technology changes to reflect the new needs and wants
   5. Understands that technology may affect the environment both negatively and positively (e.g., a mass transit system may both reduce the number of cars in an area, but also cause harm to wildlife in the area)
   6. Understands the concept of software piracy (i.e., illegally copying software), and that piracy is a violation of copyright laws
   7. Understands the risks of sharing personal information online
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   1. Knows that scientific inquiry and technological design have similarities and differences (e.g., scientists propose explanations for questions about the natural world that are always tentative and evolving, and engineers propose solutions relating to human problems, needs, and aspirations; both science and technology depend on accurate scientific information and they cannot contravene scientific laws)
   2. Knows that science cannot answer all questions and technology cannot solve all human problems or meet all human needs
   3. Knows ways in which technology has influenced the course of history (e.g., revolutions in agriculture, manufacturing, sanitation, medicine, warfare, transportation, information processing, communication)
   4. Knows that technology and science have a reciprocal relationship (e.g., technology drives science, as it provides the means to access outer space and remote locations, collect and treat samples, collect, measure, store, and compute data, and communicate information; science drives technology, as it provides principles for better instrumentation and techniques, and the means to address questions that demand more sophisticated instruments)
   5. Knows ways in which technology and society influence one another (e.g., new products and processes for society are developed through technology; technological changes are often accompanied by social, political, and economic changes; technology is influenced by social needs, attitudes, values, and limitations, and cultural backgrounds and beliefs)
   6. Knows ways technology is used to protect the environment and prevent damage caused by nature (e.g., new building technologies protect cities from earthquakes, bacteria are used in cleaning water)
   7. Knows examples of copyright violations and computer fraud (e.g., computer hacking, computer piracy, intentional virus setting, invasion of privacy) and possible penalties (e.g., large fines, jail sentences)
   8. Knows etiquette rules when using the internet
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   1. Knows that science and technology are pursued for different purposes (e.g., scientific inquiry is driven by the desire to understand the natural world and seeks to answer questions that may or may not directly influence humans; technology is driven by the need to meet human needs and solve human problems)
   2. Knows ways in which social and economic forces influence which technologies will be developed and used (e.g., cultural and personal values, consumer acceptance, patent laws, availability of risk capital, the federal budget, local and national regulations, media attention, economic competition, tax incentives)
   3. Knows that alternatives, risks, costs, and benefits must be considered when deciding on proposals to introduce new technologies or to curtail existing ones (e.g., Are there alternative ways to achieve the same ends? Who benefits and who suffers? What are the financial and social costs and who bears them? How serious are the risks and who is in jeopardy? What resources will be needed and where will they come from?)
   4. Knows that technological knowledge is often not made public because of patents and the financial potential of the idea or invention; scientific knowledge is made public through presentations at professional meetings and publications in scientific journals
   5. Knows examples of advanced and emerging technologies (e.g., virtual environment, personal digital assistants, voice recognition software) and how they could impact society
   6. Knows that the rate of technological development and diffusion is increasing rapidly, even though individual technologies may be developed at a slow pace due to technical difficulties or consumer resistance
   7. Knows that technology can benefit the environment by providing scientific information, providing new solutions to older problems, and reducing the negative consequences of existing technology (e.g., monitoring a habitat or measuring greenhouse gases, improving renewable energy sources, and creating scrubbers to improve coal-burning facilities)
   8. Knows that mathematics, creativity, logic, and originality are all needed to improve technology
   9. Observes common courtesies and acceptable use policies while telecomputing
   10. Knows the role of technology in a variety of careers
   11. Understands the impact of the internet on society (e.g., addiction to and dependence on the internet; identity theft; access to unsuitable material)