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List of Benchmarks for Language Arts 
 Standard 1.Uses the general skills and strategies of the writing process
Topics1. Informative writing; 2. Locating sources/gathering information; 3. Paragraph development
   Level II (Grade 3-5)
  Benchmark 7.Writes expository compositions (e.g., identifies and stays on the topic; develops the topic with simple facts, concrete details, examples, definitions, quotations, and explanations; uses domain-specific or content area vocabulary; excludes extraneous and inappropriate information; uses logical organizing structures such as cause-and-effect, chronology, similarities and differences; uses several sources of information; provides a concluding statement)
   Vocabulary terms
A.  expository composition
B.  concluding statement
C.  topic
D.  using facts
E.  structural pattern
F.  using examples
G.  using explanations
H.  extraneous information
I.  expository structure
J.  cause-and-effect structure
K.  chronological order
L.  similarity and difference structure
  Knowledge/skill statements
  1. Identifies the topic for writing   P   W.1.2; W.2.2; W.3.2.a; W.4.2.a; W.5.2.a  
  2. Stays on the topic in writing   P  
  3. Develops the topic with simple facts   P   W.1.2; W.2.2; W.3.2.b; W.4.2.b; W.4.9; W.5.2.b; W.5.9 
  4. Develops the topic with details   P    W.3.2.b; W.4.2.b; W.4.9; W.5.2.b; W.5.9; W.9-10.2.b; W.11-12.2.b 
  5. Develops the topic with examples   P    W.4.2.b; W.4.9; W.5.2.b; W.5.9; W.9-10.2.b; W.11-12.2.b 
  6. Develops the topic with definitions    W.2.2; W.3.2.b; W.4.2.b; W.4.9; W.5.2.b; W.5.9; W.9-10.2.b; W.11-12.2.b 
  7. Develops the topic with quotations    W.4.2.b; W.4.9; W.5.2.b; W.5.9; W.9-10.2.b; W.11-12.2.b 
  8. Develops the topic with explanations   P   W.4.9; W.5.9; W.9-10.2.b.; W.11-12.2.b 
  9. Excludes extraneous information   P  
  10. Excludes inappropriate information   P  
  11. Uses informational structures   P  
  12. Uses cause-and-effect structures to organize ideas in oral presentations   P  
  13. Uses chronology to structure writing   P  
  14. Uses similarities to structure writing   P  
  15. Uses differences to structure writing   P  
  16. Uses several sources of information   P   W.4.9; W.5.9 
  17. Provides a concluding statement   P   W.1.2; W.2.2; W.3.2.d; W.3.3.d; W.4.2.e; W.5.2.e 
McREL Activity(s)
   Going Camping

 P  = Performance expectation(s) available based on source documents

 CC  = Common Core standards available (Common Core ID indicated)

Citation Log: BP(CAE,30-31;​CBE,72,75;​CCE,20,42;​E2E,36;​G3E,4;​G4E,4;​G5E,4;​IAE,15;​IPI,2.36;​INE,30,36,38,46;​NS1,2E,24;​NWE,7,8,11;​NZ2I,13;​T1E,136,145)
Citation reference
BD = benchmark, declarative
BP = benchmark, procedural
BC = benchmark, contextual

1st letter/number of each code in parentheses:
*   McREL Report
A   Australian Education Council
AASL   American Association of School Librarians
AC   ACT, College Readiness Standards
AD   American Diploma Project
B   British Film Institute
C   Considine & Haley, Visual Images
CA   California: English-Language Arts Content Standards
CB   CBE: Standards for Excellence
CBS   College Board: College Board Standards for College Success: English Language Arts
CC   Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
D   Department of Defense Curriculum
E1   Edison Project: Primary Academy
E2   Edison Project: Elementary Academy
E3   Edison Project: Junior Academy
ES1   NCTE: Exemplar Series, K-5
ES2   NCTE: Exemplar Series, 6-8
ES3   NCTE: Exemplar Series, 9-12
FR   France: Programmes de l’ecole primaire francaise
G1   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 1
G2   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 2
G3   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 3
G4   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 4
G5   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 5
G6   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 6
G7   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 7
G8   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 8
G9   Georgia: English Language Arts - Grade 9
GAL   Georgia: English Language Arts - American Literature
GK   Georgia: English Language Arts - Kindergarten
HS   Head Start Child Outcome Framework
IA   International Baccalaureate: Middle Years Language A
IA1   International Baccalaureate: Language A1 Guide
IN   Indiana: English Language Arts
IP   International Baccalaureate: Primary
L   Literacy for the Information Age
LA   Louisiana Language and Literacy Development
MA   Massachusetts: English Language Arts Curriculum Framework
MA2   Massachusetts: Supplement to English Language Arts Framework, Grades 3,5,7
MH   McGraw-Hill Pre-K Standards
N   National Communication Association
N4   NAEP: Released items for grade 4 (2003)
N8   NAEP: Released items for grade 8 (2003)
NR   NAEP: 1992-1998 Achievement Levels- Reading
NS1   New Standards: Elementary School
NS2   New Standards: Middle School
NS3   New Standards: High School
NW   NAEP: 1992-1998 Achievement Levels-Writing
NZ    New Zealand Early Childhood Curriculum
NZ2   New Zealand Curriculum
O1   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 1
O10   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 10
O11   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 11
O12   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 12
O2   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 2
O3   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 3
O4   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 4
O5   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 5
O6   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 6
O7   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 7
O8   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 8
O9   Ontario Ministry of Education, Media Literacy - Grade 9
P   Partnership for 21st Century Skills
R   Russia: Beginnings: The Fundamentals of Preschool Education
S   Speech Communication Association
SP1   NCTE: Standards in Practice: K-2
SP2   NCTE: Standards in Practice: 3-5
SP3   NCTE: Standards in Practice: 6-8
SP4   NCTE: Standards in Practice: 9-12
SS   NCSS: Curriculum Standards for Social Studies
T   Texas: English Language Arts and Reading
T1   Texas: English Language Arts and Reading: Elementary
T2   Texas: English Language Arts and Reading: Middle School
T3   Texas: English Language Arts and Reading: High School
TM   Teaching the Media
TX   Texas Prekindergarten Curriculum Guidelines
U   Understanding University Success: A Report from Standards for Success
UNK   United Kingdom: Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage
UT   Utah Early Childhood Standards
V   Board of Education, Commonwealth of Virginia: Standards of Learning

2nd letter code :
E = Explicitly stated in document
I = Implicit in document

Page number of the cited document