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Topic: Testing hypotheses 

Thinking and Reasoning

 Standard 2.  Understands and applies basic principles of logic and reasoning
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 11.Understands that once a person believes a general rule, he or she may be more likely to notice things that agree with that rule and not notice things that do not; to avoid this "confirmatory bias," scientific studies sometimes use observers who do not know what the results are supposed to be
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that once a person believes a general rule, he or she may be more likely to notice things that agree with that rule
     2.Understands that once a person believes a general rule, he or she may be less likely to notice things that do not agree with the rule
     3.Knows that to avoid "confirmatory bias," scientific studies sometimes use observers who do not know what the results are supposed to be
 Standard 4.  Understands and applies basic principles of hypothesis testing and scientific inquiry
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Verifies the results of experiments
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that it is important to verify the results of experiments
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the importance of verifying the results of experiments
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that investigators verify the results of experiments to prove they are valid and not caused by something unexpected, such as a mistake in the procedure
   Benchmark 5.Formulates a new hypothesis for study after an old hypothesis has been eliminated
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that testing an hypothesis can prove it to be wrong
     2.Knows that hypothesis can be revised
   Benchmark 6.Makes and validates conjectures about outcomes of an experiment
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Makes conjectures about outcomes of an experiment
     2.Validates conjectures about outcomes of an experiment