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Topic: Problem-solving 

Engineering Education

 Standard 17.  Understands elements of production planning
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Proposes alternative solutions to manufacturing problems (e.g., recommend changes to a product or process)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Proposes alternative solutions to manufacturing problems such as recommend changes to a product

Business Education

 Standard 12.   Uses common international standards of measurement to solve business problems
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Solves real-world problems involving two- and three-dimensional measures (e.g., maximizing shelf space, designing floor displays)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Solves real-world problems involving two-dimensional measures
     2.Solves real-world problems involving three-dimensional measures
     3.Solves real-world problems such as maximizing shelf space
     4.Solves real-world problems such as designing floor displays
 Standard 13.  Analyzes and interprets data using common statistical procedures, charts, and graphs
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Uses statistical concepts to analyze data, evaluate results, and draw conclusions (e.g., data found in financial reports)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses statistical concepts to analyze data
     2.Uses statistical concepts to evaluate results
     3.Uses statistical concepts to draw conclusions
     4.Uses statistical concepts to analyze data found in financial reports
 Standard 14.  Uses basic mathematical operations to solve business problems
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 12.Uses recurrence relations (i.e., formulas expressing each term as a function of one or more of the previous terms, such as the Fibonacci sequence or the compound interest equation) to model and to solve real-world problems (e.g., home mortgages, annuities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses recurrence relations to model real-world problems
     2.Uses recurrence relations to solve real-world problems
     3.Uses formulas expressing each term as a function of one or more of the previous terms in order to model and to solve real-world problems
     4.Uses the Fibonacci sequence to model and to solve real-world problems
     5.Uses the compound interest equation to model and solve real-world problems
     6.Uses recurrence relations to model and to solve problems such as home mortgages
     7.Uses recurrence relations to model and to solve problems such as annuities

Mathematics

 Standard 1.  Uses a variety of strategies in the problem-solving process
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 4.Makes organized lists or tables of information necessary for solving a problem
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1. Constructs table to solve a numerical problem
     2.Makes organized lists to solve a numerical problem
     3.Makes a chart to solve a numerical problem

Thinking and Reasoning

 Standard 2.  Understands and applies basic principles of logic and reasoning
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 10.Understands that logic may be of limited help in finding solutions to problems if the general rules upon which conclusions are based do not always hold true; most often, we have to deal with probabilities rather than certainties
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that logic may be of limited help in finding solutions to problems if the general rules upon which conclusions are based do not always hold true
     2.Knows that most often in problem-solving one has to deal with probabilities rather than certainties
 Standard 5.  Applies basic trouble-shooting and problem-solving techniques
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Identifies simple problems and possible solutions (e.g., ways to make something work better)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Identifies simple problems
     2.Identifies possible solutions
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Identifies issues and problems in the school or community that one might help solve
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Identifies school issues that one might help solve
     2.Identifies school problems that one might help solve
     3.Identifies community issues that one might help solve
     4.Identifies community problems that one might help solve
   Benchmark 2.Analyzes the problems that have confronted people in the past in terms of the major goals and obstacles to those goals
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Analyzes the problems that have confronted people in the past in terms of the major goals
     2.Analyzes the problems that have confronted people in the past in terms of the obstacles to the goals
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Generates alternative courses of action and compares the possible consequences of each alternative
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Generates alternative courses of action
     2.Compares the possible consequences of each alternative
   Benchmark 2.Selects the most appropriate strategy or alternative for solving a problem
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that one strategy or alternative for solving a problem may be more appropriate than others
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Engages in problem finding and framing for personal situations and situations in the community
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Engages in problem finding for personal situations
     2.Engages in problem framing for personal situations
     3.Engages in problem finding situations in the community
     4.Engages in problem framing situations in the community
   Benchmark 6.Represents a problem accurately in terms of resources, constraints, and objectives
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Represents a problem accurately in terms of resources
     2.Represents a problem accurately in terms of constraints
     3.Represents a problem accurately in terms of objectives
   Benchmark 7.Evaluates the effectiveness of problem-solving techniques
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows criteria to judge the effectiveness of problem-solving techniques
   Benchmark 8.Reframes problems when alternative solutions are exhausted
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Tries all alternative strategies to solve a problem
   Benchmark 9.Examines different options for solving problems of historical importance and determines why specific courses of action were taken
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Examines different options for solving problems of historical importance
     2.Determines why specific courses of action were taken for problems of historical importance
   Benchmark 10.Evaluates the feasibility of various solutions to problems; recommends and defends a solution
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Evaluates the feasibility of various solutions to problems
     2.Recommends a solution to a problem
   Benchmark 11.Understands causes and critical issues of problems (e.g., personal, social, ethical considerations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands causes of problems
     2.Understands critical issues of problems such as personal considerations
     3.Understands critical issues of problems such as social considerations
     4.Understands critical issues of problems such as ethical considerations