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Topic: Evaluating arguments 

Thinking and Reasoning

 Standard 2.  Understands and applies basic principles of logic and reasoning
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Analyzes the deductive validity of arguments based on implicit or explicit assumptions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Analyzes the deductive validity of arguments based on implicit assumptions
     2.Analyzes the deductive validity of arguments based on explicit assumptions
 Standard 4.  Understands and applies basic principles of hypothesis testing and scientific inquiry
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Identifies and critiques studies in which data, explanations, or conclusions are presented as the only ones worth considering
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Identifies studies in which data are presented as the only ones worth considering
     2.Identifies studies in which explanations are presented as the only ones worth considering
     3.Identifies studies in which conclusions are presented as the only ones worth considering
     4.Critiques studies in which data are presented as the only ones worth considering
     5.Critiques studies in which explanations are presented as the only ones worth considering
     6.Critiques studies in which conclusions are presented as the only ones worth considering
   Benchmark 3.Critiques procedures, explanations, and conclusions in one’s own experiments and those of others
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Critiques procedures in one’s own experiments and those of others
     2.Critiques explanations in one’s own experiments and those of others
     3.Critiques conclusions in one’s own experiments and those of others