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Topic: Transportation and communication networks 

Behavioral Studies

 Standard 1.  Understands that group and cultural influences contribute to human development, identity, and behavior
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands that technology, especially in transportation and communication, is increasingly important in spreading ideas, values, and behavior patterns within a society and among different societies
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that technology is important in spreading the ideas, values, and behavior patterns within a society
     2.Understands that technology is important in spreading the ideas, values, and behavior patterns among different societies
     3.Understands that transportation technology is increasingly becoming more important in spreading the ideas, values, and behavior patterns within a society
     4.Understands that communication technology is increasingly becoming more important in spreading the ideas, values, and behavior patterns within a society
     5.Understands that transportation technology is increasingly becoming more important in spreading the ideas, values, and behavior patterns among different societies

Geography

 Standard 2.  Knows the location of places, geographic features, and patterns of the environment
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the spatial dynamics of various contemporary and historical events (e.g., the spread of radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear accident, how physical features have deterred migrations and invasions, trade and transportation in the contemporary world, the diffusion of contagious diseases such as the bubonic plague in 14th-century Europe or AIDS in the present-day world)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Understands the spatial dynamics of transportation in the contemporary world
 Standard 3.  Understands the characteristics and uses of spatial organization of Earth's surface
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how changing transportation and communication technology have affected relationships between locations
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how changing transportation technology has affected relationships between locations
     2.Understands how changing communication technology has affected relationships between locations
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how places are connected and how these connections demonstrate interdependence and accessibility (e.g., the role of changing transportation and communication technology, regions and countries Americans depend on for imported resources and manufactured goods)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the role changing transportation technology in the connection between places
     5.Understands the role changing communication technology in the connection between places
 Standard 10.  Understands the nature and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands how communication and transportation technologies contribute to cultural convergence or divergence (e.g., convergence created by electronic media, computers, and jet aircraft; divergence created by technologies used to reinforce nationalistic or ethnic elitism or cultural separateness and independence)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how communication technology contributes to cultural convergence
     2.Understands how communication technology contributes to cultural divergence
     3.Understands how transportation technology contributes to cultural convergence
     4.Understands how transportation technology contributes to cultural divergence
     5.Understands the cultural convergence created by electronic media
     6.Understands the cultural convergence created by computers
     7.Understands the cultural convergence created by jet aircraft
     8.Understands the cultural divergence created by technologies used to reinforce nationalistic elitism
     9.Understands the cultural divergence created by technologies used to reinforce ethnic elitism
     10.Understands the cultural divergence created by technologies used to reinforce cultural separateness
     11.Understands the cultural divergence created by technologies used to reinforce cultural independence
 Standard 11.  Understands the patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the modes of transportation used to move people, products and ideas from place to place (e.g., barges, airplanes, automobiles, pipelines, ships, railroads), their importance and their advantages and disadvantages
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the modes of transportation used to move people from place to place
     2.Knows the modes of transportation used to move products from place to place
     3.Knows the modes of transportation used to move ideas from place to place
     4.Understands the importance of different modes of transportation
     5.Understands the advantages of different modes of transportation
     6.Understands the disadvantages of different modes of transportation
     7.Knows that barges move products from place to place
     8.Knows that airplanes move people from place to place
     9.Knows that airplanes move products from place to place
     10.Knows that automobiles move people from place to place
     11.Knows that automobiles move products from place to place
     12.Knows that pipelines move products from place to place
     13.Knows that ships move people from place to place
     14.Knows that ships move products from place to place
     15.Knows that railroads move people from place to place
     16.Knows that railroads move products from place to place
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 3.Knows how transportation and communication have changed and how they have affected trade and economic activities (e.g., regions can specialize economically; with improved roads and refrigerated trucking, more fresh fruits and vegetables are available out of season; regional, national, and global markets expand as transportation and communication systems improve)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how transportation has changed over time
     2.Knows how communication has changed over time
     3.Knows how changing transportation has affected trade activities
     4.Knows how changing transportation has affected economic activities
     5.Knows how changing communication has affected trade activities
     6.Knows how changing communication has affected economic activities
     7.Knows that changing transportation has allowed regions to specialize economically
     8.Knows that changing communication has allowed regions to specialize economically
     9.Knows that improved roads have helped make fresh fruits and vegetables available out of season
     10.Knows that refrigerated trucking has helped make fresh fruits and vegetables available out of season
     11.Knows that regional markets expand as transportation systems continue to improve
     12.Knows that regional markets expand as communication systems continue to improve
     13.Knows that national markets expand as transportation systems continue to improve
     14.Knows that national markets expand as communication systems continue to improve
     15.Knows that global markets expand as transportation systems continue to improve
     16.Knows that global markets expand as communication systems continue to improve
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands historic and contemporary systems of transportation and communication in the development of economic activities (e.g., the effect of refrigerated railroad cars, air-freight services, pipelines, telephone services, facsimile transmission services, satellite-based communications systems)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how historic systems of transportation contributed to the development of economic activities
     2.Understands how historic systems of communication contributed to the development of economic activities
     3.Understands how contemporary systems of transportation contribute to the development of economic activities
     4.Understands how contemporary systems of communication contribute to the development of economic activities
     5.Understands how refrigerated railroad cars have affected the development of economic activities
     6.Understands how air-freight services have affected the development of economic activities
     7.Understands how pipelines have affected the development of economic activities
     8.Understands how telephone services have affected the development of economic activities
     9.Understands how facsimile transmission services have affected the development of economic activities
     10.Understands how satellite-based communications systems have affected the development of economic activities
 Standard 16.  Understands the changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution and importance of resources
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 4.Knows the major transportation routes that link resources with consumers and the transportation modes used (e.g., ships, pipelines, barges, railroads)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the major transportation routes that link resources with consumers
     2.Knows the transportation modes used to link resources with consumers
     3.Knows that ships are used to link resources with consumers
     4.Knows that pipelines are used to link resources with consumers
     5.Knows that barges are used to link resources with consumers
     6.Knows that railroads are used to link resources with consumers

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 8.  Understands major discoveries in science and technology, some of their social and economic effects, and the major scientists and inventors responsible for them
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 3.Knows basic information about marine transportation (e.g., the technology and activities of people along the Erie Canal)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the technology of the Erie Canal
     2.Understands the activities of people along the Erie Canal
   Benchmark 4.Knows the ways people communicate with each other now and long ago, and the technological developments that facilitated communication (e.g., speaking by gestures, transmitting stories orally, pictographs, hieroglyphics, different alphabets, writing by hand, printing techniques, the invention of the telegraph and telephone, satellite transmission of messages)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     11.Knows that the invention of the telegraph facilitated communication between people
     12.Knows that the invention of the telephone facilitated communication between people
   Benchmark 5.Knows various systems of long-distance communication and their effects (e.g., runners, the "talking drums" of Africa, smoke signals of Native Americans, the pony express, the telegraph, telephones, satellite systems)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that runners have been used as a system of long-distance communication
     2.Knows the effects of using runners as a system of long-distance communication
     3.Knows that "talking drums" have been used in Africa as a system of long-distance communication
     4.Knows the effects of using "talking drums" as a system of long-distance communication
     5.Knows that Native Americans used smoke signals as a system of long-distance communication
     6.Knows the effects of using smoke signals as a system of long-distance communication
     7.Knows that the pony express was a system of long-distance communication
     8.Knows the effects of the pony express as a system of long-distance communication
     9.Knows that the telegraph is a system of long-distance communication
     10.Knows the effects of using the telegraph as a system of long-distance communication
     11.Knows that telephones are used as a system of long-distance communication
     12.Knows the effects of using telephones as a system of long-distance communication
     13.Knows that satellite systems are systems of long-distance communication
     14.Knows the effects of the use of satellite systems as systems of long-distance communication
   Benchmark 6.Understands differences in the methods of travel from various times in human history and the advantages and disadvantages of each (e.g., the use of animals such as horses and camels; nonmotorized vehicles such as chariots and hot air balloons; motorized vehicles such as railroads, automobiles, and airplanes; modern space advancements)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that animals such as horses and camels have been used as a method of travel
     2.Understands the advantages and disadvantages of using animals such as horses and camels as a method of travel
     3.Knows that nonmotorized vehicles such as chariots and hot air balloons have been used as a method of travel
     4.Understands the advantages and disadvantages of using nonmotorized vehicles such as chariots and hot air balloons as a method of travel
     5.Knows that motorized vehicles such as railroads, automobiles, and airplanes are used today as a method of travel
     6.Understands the advantages and disadvantages of using motorized vehicles such as railroads, automobiles, and airplanes as a method of travel
     7.Knows that modern space advancements have allowed travel in space
     8.Understands the advantages and disadvantages of space travel
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 5.Knows the different forms of transportation and their developments over time
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that there are different forms of transportation
     2.Knows that different forms of transportation have developed over time
   Benchmark 6.Understands the development in marine vessels constructed by people from ancient times until today (e.g., early dugout Phoenician ships, Native American canoes, the Portuguese caravel, the Chinese vessels used by Zheng He, the Arab dhow, the Norse long ships, currachs used in the British Isles, square riggers, aircraft carriers, submarines, bathyscaphs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that marine vessels have developed over time
     2.Understands that early dugout Phoenician ships were a type of marine vessel
     3.Understands that the Native American canoe was a type of marine vessel
     4.Understands that the Portuguese caravel was a type of marine vessel
     5.Understands that the Chinese vessels used by Zheng He were a type of marine vessel
     6.Understands that the Arab dhow was a type of marine vessel
     7.Understands that the Norse long ships were a type of marine vessel
     8.Understands that currachs used in the British Isles are a type of marine vessel
     9.Understands that a square rigger is a type of marine vessel
     10.Understands that an aircraft carrier is a type of marine vessel
     11.Understands that a submarine is a type of marine vessel
     12.Understands that a bathyscaph is a type of marine vessel
   Benchmark 7.Understands the development of extensive road systems (e.g., the Roman system of roads; the trade routes by camel caravan linking East Asia, Southwest Asia, and Africa during the ancient and early Middle Ages; the network of roads and highways of the Inca in Peru; the interstate highway system), the travel and communication difficulties encountered by people over vast expanses of territory, and the social and economic effects of these developments
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the development of extensive road systems in different time periods
     2.Understands the development of the Roman system of roads
     3.Understands the development of the trade routes by camel caravan linking East Asia, Southwest Asia, and Africa during the ancient and early Middle Ages
     4.Understands the development of the Incan network of roads and highways in Peru
     5.Understands the development of the modern interstate highway system
     6.Understands travel difficulties encountered by people over vast expanses of territory
     7.Understands communication difficulties encountered by people over vast expanses of territory
     8.Understands the social effects of the development of extensive road systems
     9.Understands the economic effects of the development of extensive road systems
   Benchmark 8.Knows the developments in rail transportation beginning in the 19th century and the effects of national systems of railroad transport on the lives of people
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that rail transportation was developed in the 19th century
     2.Knows the developments in rail transportation since its origin
     3.Understands the effects of national railroad systems on people’s lives

World History

 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 10.Knows the locations, history, and source of funding of major national and international rail lines in Africa and Eurasia constructed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and understands the benefits they provided to imperial powers and indigenous economies
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the locations of major national and international rail lines in Africa and Eurasia constructed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
     2.Knows the history of major national and international rail lines in Africa and Eurasia constructed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
     3.Knows the source of funding of major national and international rail lines in Africa and Eurasia constructed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
     4.Understands the benefits major national and international rail lines provided to imperial powers and indigenous economies
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 10.Understands the effects of modern communication on consumer tastes and demands in different parts of the world
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that consumer tastes and demands can be affected by communication
     2.Knows that modern communication networks can result in the spread of consumer taste in different parts of the world