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Topic: Social class structure and interactions 

World History

 Standard 2.  Understands the processes that contributed to the emergence of agricultural societies around the world
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands what archaeological evidence reveals about the social and cultural conditions of agricultural societies (e.g., the emergence of social class divisions, occupational specialization, differences in gender roles; long distance trade routes in Southwest Asia; the importance of obsidian to this trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands what archaeological evidence reveals about the social conditions of agricultural societies
     2.Understands what archaeological evidence reveals about the cultural conditions of agricultural societies
     3.Understands the emergence of social class divisions in early agricultural societies
     4.Understands the emergence of occupational specialization in early agricultural societies
     5.Understands the differences in gender roles in early agricultural societies
     6.Knows long distance trade routes in Southwest Asia
     7.Understands the importance of obsidian to long distance trade in Southwest Asia
   Benchmark 5.Understands the bases for the argument that agricultural life was an advance in human social development
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the effects of agricultural life on human social development
     2.Knows that the agricultural lifestyle is considered an advance in human social development
 Standard 3.  Understands the major characteristics of civilization and the development of civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on the social and economic framework of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., the characteristics of government and military in Egypt and Mesopotamia and the ways in which central authorities commanded labor and taxes from peasant farmers; how architectural, artistic, technological, and scientific achievements of these civilizations affected the economics of daily life)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands influences on the social framework of Mesopotamia
     2.Understands influences on the social framework of early Egypt
     3.Understands influences on the social framework of the Indus Valley
     4.Understands influences on the economic framework of Mesopotamia
     5.Understands influences on the economic framework of early Egypt
     6.Understands influences on the economic framework of the Indus Valley
     7.Understands the characteristics of government and military in Egypt and Mesopotamia and the ways in which central authorities commanded labor and taxes from peasant farmers
     8.Understands how architectural, artistic, technological, and scientific achievements of early civilizations affected the economics of daily life
   Benchmark 2.Understands how written codes and stories reflect social conditions in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., how the code of Hammurabi illustrated the ethical values, social hierarchy and attitudes, and roles of women in Mesopotamia; how the biblical account of Genesis and the Enuma Elish from Babylon reflect contrasting beliefs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how written codes and stories reflect social conditions in Mesopotamia
     2.Understands how written codes and stories reflect social conditions in early Egypt
     3.Understands how written codes and stories reflect social conditions in Indus Valley
     4.Understands how the code of Hammurabi illustrated the ethical values, social hierarchy and attitudes, and roles of women in Mesopotamia
     5.Understands how the biblical account of Genesis and the Enuma Elish from Babylon reflect contrasting beliefs
 Standard 4.  Understands how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the rise of urban and complex agrarian societies in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE (e.g., how the Minoan civilization emerged on Crete and its significant cultural achievements; the origins and possible purpose of Stonehenge and the effort made to create it)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the rise of urban societies in the 3rd and 2nd millennium BCE
     2.Understands the rise of complex agrarian societies in the 3rd and 2nd millennium BCE
     3.Understands how the Minoan civilization emerged on Crete and its significant cultural achievements
     4.Understands the origins and possible purpose of Stonehenge and the effort made to create it
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the social, cultural, and political characteristics of the Shang Dynasty (e.g., the development of royal government under the Shang Dynasty and the development of social hierarchy, religious institutions, and writing; the role that Chinese peasants played in sustaining the wealth and power of the Shang political centers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social characteristics of the Shang Dynasty
     2.Understands the cultural characteristics of the Shang Dynasty
     3.Understands the political characteristics of the Shang Dynasty
     4.Understands the development of royal government under the Shang Dynasty
     5.Understands the development of social hierarchy under the Shang Dynasty
     6.Understands the development of religious institutions under the Shang Dynasty
     7.Understands the development of writing under the Shang Dynasty
     8.Understands the role that Chinese peasants played in sustaining the wealth and power of the Shang political centers
 Standard 5.  Understands the political, social, and cultural consequences of population movements and militarization in Eurasia in the second millennium BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the rise of pastoral societies was linked to the climate and geography of the Central Asian steppes, and how kinship-based pastoral society differed from the social organization of agrarian states
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the rise of pastoral societies was linked to the climate and geography of the Central Asian steppes
     2.Understands how kinship based pastoral society differed from the social organization of agrarian states
   Benchmark 3.Understands characteristics of Mycenaean Greek society and culture (e.g., the political and social organization of the Mycenaean Greeks as revealed in archaeological and written records, how geography influenced the development of Mycenaean society, the significance of the story of the siege of Troy)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands characteristics of Mycenaean Greek society
     2.Understands characteristics of Mycenaean Greek culture
     3.Understands the political organization of the Mycenaean Greeks as revealed in archaeological and written records
     4.Understands the social organization of the Mycenaean Greeks as revealed in archaeological and written records
     5.Understands how geography influenced the development of Mycenaean society
     6.Knows the significance of the story of the siege of Troy
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands characteristics of pastoral and agrarian societies (e.g., economy, social relations, and political authority among pastoral peoples; women's social equality with men in pastoral societies as opposed to agrarian societies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands characteristics of pastoral societies
     2.Understands characteristics of agrarian societies
     3.Understands the economic structure among pastoral peoples
     4.Understands social relations among pastoral peoples
     5.Understands political authority among pastoral peoples
     6.Understands women’s social equality with men in pastoral societies as opposed to agrarian societies
   Benchmark 3.Understands characteristics of Mycenaean society (e.g., the impact of Mycenaean expansion and city-building on commerce and political life in the Eastern Mediterranean; society, trade, and government in Mycenae; comparisons of Mycenaean and Minoan societies from archaeological remains)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of Mycenaean expansion and city building on commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean
     2.Understands the impact of Mycenaean expansion and city building on political life in the Eastern Mediterranean
     3.Understands features of society in Mycenae
     4.Understands features of trade in Mycenae
     5.Understands features of government in Mycenae
     6.Understands comparisons of Mycenaean and Minoan societies from archaeological remains
 Standard 7.  Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the development of Greek city-states (e.g., common features of Greek city-states in the Aegean region; the political, social, and legal character of the polis; how geography influenced the location and development of Greek city-states)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows common features of Greek city states in the Aegean region
     2.Understands the political character of the polis
     3.Understands the social character of the polis
     4.Understands the legal character of the polis
     5.Understands how geography influenced the location and development of Greek city states
 Standard 8.  Understands how Aegean civilization emerged and how interrelations developed among peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia from 600 to 200 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the social and political characteristics of Greek city-states (e.g., significant similarities and differences between Athenian democracy and Spartan military aristocracy; hierarchical relationships in Greek societies and the civic, economic, and social tasks performed by men and women of different classes; the location and political structure of the major Greek city-states)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social characteristics of Greek city states
     2.Understands the political characteristics of Greek city states
     3.Understands significant similarities and differences between Athenian democracy and Spartan military aristocracy
     4.Understands hierarchical relationships in Greek societies and the civic, economic, and social tasks performed by men and women of different classes
     5.Understands the location of the major Greek city states
     6.Understands the political structure of the major Greek city states
 Standard 9.  Understand how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the origins and social framework of Roman society (e.g., the geographic location of different ethnic groups on the Italian peninsula in the late 6th century BCE and their influences on early Roman society and culture, how legends of the founding of Rome describe ancient Rome and reflect the beliefs and values of its citizens, what life was like for the common people living in Rome and Pompeii)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the origins of Roman society
     2.Understands the social framework of Roman society
     3.Knows the geographic location of different ethnic groups on the Italian peninsula in the late 6th century BCE
     4.Understands the influence of different ethnic groups on the Italian peninsula on early Roman society and culture
     5.Knows how legends of the founding of Rome describe ancient Rome
     6.Knows how legends of the founding of Rome reflect the beliefs and values of its citizens
     7.Understands what life was like for the common people living in Rome and Pompeii
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands fundamental social, political, and cultural characteristics of Chinese society under early imperial dynasties (e.g., the importance of the "Mandate of Heaven" to the success of the Zhou Dynasty and its development of imperial rule; the literary and artistic achievements of early imperial dynasties; the development and consequences of iron technology and the family division of labor system; comparisons between the Shang, Zhou, Quin, and Han Empires in areas they controlled and methods of government; the composition and stratification of Chinese society, and factors that gave individuals status; imperial attitudes and actions toward nomadic peoples along the borders of the kingdom)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands fundamental social characteristics of Chinese society under early imperial dynasties
     2.Understands fundamental political characteristics of Chinese society under early imperial dynasties
     3.Understands fundamental cultural characteristics of Chinese society under early imperial dynasties
     4.Understands the importance of the "Mandate of Heaven" to the success of the Zhou Dynasty and its development of imperial rule
     5.Knows the literary and artistic achievements of early imperial dynasties of China
     6.Understands the development and consequences of iron technology
     7.Understands the development and consequences of the family division of labor system in China
     8.Understands comparisons between the Shang, Zhou, Quin, and Han Empires in areas they controlled and methods of government
     9.Understands the composition and stratification of Chinese society, including factors that gave individuals status
     10.Knows imperial attitudes and actions toward nomadic peoples along the borders of the kingdom
   Benchmark 4.Understands the major religious beliefs and social framework in India during the Gangetic states and the Mauryan Empire (e.g., the major beliefs and practices of Brahmanism in India; how Buddhism spread in India, Ceylon, and Central Asia; aspects of social structure of India during the Mauryan Empire; what advice the animal stories of the Panchantantra offer to people with little power, how this advice was used by Chandragupta; how the teachings of Shvetaketu from the Chandogya Upanishad compare to the Buddhist idea of nirvana)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the major religious beliefs in India during the Gangetic states and the Mauryan Empire
     2.Understands the social framework in India during the Gangetic states and the Mauryan Empire
     3.Knows the major beliefs and practices of Brahmanism in India
     4.Understands how Buddhism spread in India, Ceylon, and Central Asia
     5.Knows aspects of social structure of India during the Mauryan Empire
     6.Knows what advice the animal stories of the Panchantantra offer to people with little power and how this advice was used by Chandragupta
     7.Understands how the teachings of Shvetaketu from the Chandogya Upanishad compare to the Buddhist idea of nirvana
 Standard 12.  Understands the Imperial crises and their aftermath in various regions from 300 to 700 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands fundamental Hindu beliefs (e.g., how the concept of dharma reflects a social value for the ideal king, husband and wife, brother and friend; the concepts of Brahma, dharma, and karma, the caste system, ritual sacrifice, and reincarnation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the concept of dharma reflects a social value for the ideal king, husband and wife, brother and friend
     2.Understands the concept of Brahma in Hinduism
     4.Understands the concept of karma in Hinduism
     5.Understands the concept of the caste system in Hinduism
     6.Understands the concept of ritual sacrifice in Hinduism
     7.Understands the concept of reincarnation in Hinduism
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the basis of social relationships in India during the Gupta era (e.g., the social and legal position of women and men, restrictions upon women and their place within the caste system, different social perspectives on the advantages and disadvantages of the caste system)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the social and legal position of women and men in India during the Gupta Empire
     2.Knows restrictions upon women and their place within the caste system in India during the Gupta Empire
     3.Knows different social perspectives on the advantages and disadvantages of the caste system
 Standard 13.  Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the social structure of the Abbasid Empire (e.g., the treatment and legal status of non-Muslims and their cultural and social contributions to society; the lives of prominent women and factors that facilitated and mitigated their rise to prominence; the role and status of royal bureaucrats, landowning nobles, peasants, urban artisans, and slaves; what Islamic conversion and adherence meant for social status)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the treatment and legal status of non Muslims in the Abbasid Empire
     2.Knows the cultural and social contributions of non Muslims to society in the Abbasid Empire
     3.Understands features of the lives of prominent women and factors that facilitated and mitigated their rise to prominence in the Abbasid Empire
     4.Knows the role and status of royal bureaucrats in the Abbasid Empire
     5.Knows the role and status of landowning nobles in the Abbasid Empire
     6.Knows the role and status of peasants in the Abbasid Empire
     7.Knows the role and status of urban artisans in the Abbasid Empire
     8.Knows the role and status of slaves in the Abbasid Empire
     9.Understands what Islamic conversion and adherence meant for social status
 Standard 15.  Understands the political, social, and cultural redefinitions in Europe from 500 to 1000 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands social class and gender roles in Medieval Europe (e.g., changes in the legal, social, and economic status of peasants in the 9th and 10th centuries; how the political fragmentation of Europe after Charlemagne affected their lives; the responsibilities of women with different social status)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social class in Medieval Europe
     2.Understands gender roles in Medieval Europe
     3.Knows changes in the legal, social, and economic status of peasants in the 9th and 10th centuries
     4.Understands how the political fragmentation of Europe after Charlemagne affected the lives of peasants
     5.Knows the responsibilities of women with different social status in Medieval Europe
 Standard 19.  Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands different elements of Japanese feudal society (e.g., Japanese government during the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods, and whether it was feudalism; the rise of the warrior class in feudal Japan and the values it prescribed; how the economic and social status of women and peasants changed in feudal Japanese society; how art and aesthetic values were cherished in the warrior culture in Japan and what this art reveals about Japanese values; how the Japanese successfully defended themselves against Mongol invasions in the 13th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features of Japanese government during the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods, and whether it was feudalism
     2.Understands the rise of the warrior class in feudal Japan and the values it prescribed
     3.Understands how the economic and social status of women changed in feudal Japanese society
     4.Understands how the economic and social status of peasants changed in feudal Japanese society
     5.Understands how art and aesthetic values were cherished in the warrior culture in Japan and what this art reveals about Japanese values
     6.Knows how the Japanese successfully defended themselves against Mongol invasions in the 13th century
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the social and economic elements of Song China (e.g., how improved agricultural production and increased trade helped the growth of cities and the merchant class in Song China; the traditional social attitudes of China toward merchants and commercial activity; significant achievements and developments of the Song Dynasty, the rigors and class restrictions of the civil service examination in Song China)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social elements of Song China
     2.Understands the economic elements of Song China
     3.Understands how improved agricultural production and increased trade helped the growth of cities and the merchant class in Song China
     4.Knows the traditional social attitudes of China toward merchants and commercial activity
     5.Knows significant achievements and developments of the Song Dynasty
     6.Understands the rigors and class restrictions of the civil service examination in Song China
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands religious, social, and political aspects of the Song Dynasty (e.g., the importance of women of gentry families in preserving and transmitting Chinese cultural values; Chinese advancements in alchemy, astronomy, and medicine; the values of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism as reflected in Song art; changes in the social and moral status of women as reflected in the practice of foot binding; the attitudes of typical Chinese gentlemen toward women, family, servants, tenants, and social inferiors; the debate during the Song Dynasty about how the government should respond to rapid social and economic change)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands religious aspects of the Song Dynasty
     2.Understands social aspects of the Song Dynasty
     3.Understands political aspects of the Song Dynasty
     4.Understands the importance of women of gentry families in preserving and transmitting Chinese cultural values
     5.Knows Chinese advancements in alchemy
     6.Knows Chinese advancements in astronomy
     7.Knows Chinese advancements in medicine
     8.Understands the values of Confucianism as reflected in Song art
     9.Understands the values of Taoism as reflected in Song art
     10.Understands the values of Buddhism as reflected in Song art
     11.Understands changes in the social and moral status of women as reflected in the practice of foot binding
     12.Knows the attitudes of typical Chinese gentlemen toward women, family, servants, tenants, and social inferiors
     13.Understands the debate during the Song Dynasty about how the government should respond to rapid social and economic change
   Benchmark 7.Understands different social classes and gender roles in Japanese society (e.g., the influence of Buddhist sects on the samurai class; the role of social class, area, time, and age in determining women's experiences)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands different social classes in Japanese society
     2.Understands different gender roles in Japanese society
     3.Understands the influence of Buddhist sects on the samurai class
     4.Understands the role of social class, area, time, and age in determining women’s experiences in Japanese society
 Standard 20.  Understands the redefinition of European society and culture from 1000 to 1300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the systems of feudalism and manorialism (e.g., the principles of feudalism, manorialism, and serfdom, and their widespread use in parts of Europe in the 11th century; how population growth and agricultural expansion affected the legal, economic, and social position of peasant men and women; how the lives of peasants and serfs differed; how their lives were affected by the manors and castles)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the principles of feudalism and their widespread use in parts of Europe in the 11th century
     2.Understands the principles of manorialism and their widespread use in parts of Europe in the 11th century
     3.Understands how population growth and agricultural expansion affected the legal, economic, and social position of peasant men and women
     4.Understands how the lives of peasants and serfs differed
     5.Understands how the lives of peasants and serfs were affected by the manors and castles
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the role of feudalism and manorialism in European society (e.g., how different feudal institutions assisted monarchies in centralizing power; how manorialism could be considered an economic system, and the rights, roles, and obligations of manorial inhabitants; the relative success of European monarchies at establishing security and political legitimacy for feudalism)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of feudalism in European society
     2.Understands the role of manorialism in European society
     3.Understands how different feudal institutions assisted monarchies in centralizing power
     4.Understands how manorialism could be considered an economic system
     5.Understands the rights, roles, and obligations of manorial inhabitants
     6.Understands the relative success of European monarchies at establishing security and political legitimacy for feudalism
   Benchmark 7.Understands the social elements of feudalism (e.g., the daily life of serfs, knights, and lords as feudalism developed late in the 1st millennium CE; how their lives and duties were interrelated, and what diverse sources illustrate about this life and this time)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands elements of the daily life of serfs as feudalism developed late in the 1st millennium CE
     2.Understands elements of the daily life of knights as feudalism developed late in the 1st millennium CE
     3.Understands elements of the daily life of lords as feudalism developed late in the 1st millennium CE
     4.Understands how the lives and duties of serfs, knights, and lords were interrelated
     5.Knows what diverse sources illustrate about daily life under feudalism in Europe
   Benchmark 8.Understands how women influenced medieval politics (e.g., the roles and duties of women in 14th century political and home life; the opportunities available to upper class women and the obstacles they faced)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the roles and duties of women in 14th century political life
     2.Understands the roles and duties of women in 14th century home life
     3.Knows the opportunities available to upper class women in Medieval Europe and the obstacles they faced
   Benchmark 10.Understands the rise of guilds as economic and social institutions and their efforts to promote economic growth, product quality, and workers' rights
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the rise of guilds as economic institutions
     2.Understands the rise of guilds as social institutions
     3.Understands the efforts of guilds to promote economic growth
     4.Understands the efforts of guilds to promote product quality
     5.Understands the efforts of guilds to promote worker’s rights
   Benchmark 11.Understands how women's experiences in Europe were determined by social class, area, time, and stage of life and how these experiences are reflected in different types of literature (e.g., Treasure of City of Ladies by Catherine of Pisan and Art of Courtly Love)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how women’s experiences in Europe were determined by social class
     2.Understands how women’s experiences in Europe were determined by region
     3.Understands how women’s experiences in Europe were determined by time and stage of life
     4.Understands how women’s experiences in Medieval Europe are reflected in different types of literature (e.g., Treasure of City of Ladies by Christine of Pisan and Art of Courtly Love)
 Standard 22.  Understands the growth of states, towns, and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa between the 11th and 15th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the role of language in shaping African society (e.g., class structure and cultural influence of Swahili-speaking towns of East Africa; relationships among modern Bantu languages and what these relationships reveal about migrations of Bantu-speaking peoples; the interaction of religion with wealth, language, and country of origin in influencing social status)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the class structure and cultural influence of Swahili speaking towns of East Africa
     2.Understands relationships among modern Bantu languages and what these relationships reveal about migrations of Bantu speaking peoples
     3.Understands the interaction of religion with wealth, language, and country of origin in influencing social status
 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Knows the dynamics of the encomienda system of colonial government and labor, and how this compares to European manorial systems
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the dynamics of the encomienda system of colonial government
     2.Knows the dynamics of the encomienda system of labor
     3.Understands how the encomienda system compares to the European manorial systems
 Standard 27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the social characteristics of European society from 1450 to 1750 (e.g., how lifestyles were different among varied social classes in early modern Europe, changes in institutions of serfdom, changes in the social status of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how lifestyles were different among varied social classes in early modern Europe
     2.Knows changes in institutions of serfdom in early modern Europe
     3.Knows changes in the social status of women in early modern Europe
 Standard 28.  Understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands features of class structure and sources of social change in China (e.g., the effects of American crops and silver on demographic, economic, and social change in China; the stratification of Chinese society under Ming rule)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features of class structure in China
     2.Understands sources of social change in China
     3.Understands the effects of American crops and silver on demographic change in China
     4.Understands the effects of American crops and silver on economic social change in China
     5.Understands the effects of American crops and silver on social change in China
     6.Understands the stratification of Chinese society under Ming rule
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on the Chinese economy and social structure (e.g., the effects of commercialization on social relations among gentry elites, urban merchants, and peasants; how the Chinese central government controlled various aspects of peoples' lives)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands influences on the Chinese economy
     2.Understands influences on the Chinese social structure under the Ming Dynasty
     3.Understands the effects of commercialization on social relations among gentry elites, urban merchants, and peasants
     4.Understands how the Chinese central government controlled various aspects of peoples’ lives
 Standard 29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows reasons for the emergence of social hierarchies based on race and gender in both the Iberian Empire and the British colonies in the Americas
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows reasons for the emergence of social hierarchies based on race in the Iberian Empire
     2.Knows reasons for the emergence of social hierarchies based on race in the British colonies in the Americas
     3.Knows reasons for the emergence of social hierarchies based on gender in the Iberian Empire
     4.Knows reasons for the emergence of social hierarchies based on gender in the British colonies in the Americas
 Standard 32.  Understands the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the French Revolution changed social conditions in France (e.g., how the revolution changed political and religious institutions, social relations, education, family life, and the legal and political position of women; how territorial changes were made in Europe between 1789 and 1815 and their consequences for diverse social groups such as clergy, nobility, peasantry, bourgeoisie, and sans-culottes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the French Revolution changed political institutions
     2.Understands how the French Revolution changed religious institutions
     3.Understands how the French Revolution changed social relations
     4.Understands how the French Revolution changed education
     5.Understands how the French Revolution changed family life
     6.Understands how the French Revolution changed the legal and political position of women
     7.Understands how territorial changes were made in Europe between 1789 and 1815
     8.Understands the consequences of territorial changes in Europe between 1789 and 1815 for diverse social groups such as clergy, nobility, peasantry, bourgeoisie, and sans culottes
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the status of women and other social classes during and following the Latin American independence movements (e.g., the political roles of Creole elites, the Catholic Church, and mestizo, mulatto, and Indian populations; social and racial divisions in most of Latin America; how independence changed the status of women in Latin America and affected mestizo, mulatto, and Indian populations; roles played by prominent women before the wars of independence in Latin America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the status of women during and following the Latin American independence movements
     2.Understands the status of various social classes during and following the Latin American independence movements
     3.Knows the political roles of Creole elites, the Catholic Church, and mestizo, mulatto, and Indian populations
     4.Understands social and racial divisions in most of Latin America
     5.Understands how independence changed the status of women in Latin America
     6.Understands how independence affected mestizo, mulatto, and Indian populations
     7.Knows roles played by prominent women before the wars of independence in Latin America
 Standard 33.  Understands the causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions from 1700 to 1850
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the impact of the industrial revolution in Europe and the Atlantic Basin (e.g., connections between population growth, industrialization, and urbanization; the quality of life in early 19-century cities; the effects of urbanization on the development of class distinctions, family life, and the daily working lives of men, women, and children; advances made in communication and transportation; effects upon the political and economic status of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands connections between population growth, industrialization, and urbanization
     2.Understands the quality of life in early 19 century cities
     3.Understands the effects of urbanization on the development of class distinctions
     4.Understands the effects of urbanization on family life
     5.Understands the effects of urbanization on the daily working lives of men, women, and children
     6.Knows advances made in communication and transportation during the industrial revolution
     7.Understands the effects of the industrial revolution upon the political and economic status of women
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the effect of the industrial revolution on social and political conditions in various regions (e.g., connections between industrialization, labor unions, and movements for political and social reform in England, Western Europe, and the United States; the pace and extent of industrialization in Great Britain and the United States in the latter half of the 19th century; Robert Owen's New Lanark System and its role in dealing with societal problems caused by the industrial revolution; changes affected by the "Great Reform" bill of 1832, and how it addressed problems of the industrial revolution)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effect of the industrial revolution on social conditions in various regions
     2.Understands the effect of the industrial revolution on political conditions in various regions
     3.Understands connections between industrialization, labor unions, and movements for political and social reform in England
     4.Understands connections between industrialization, labor unions, and movements for political and social reform in Western Europe
     5.Understands connections between industrialization, labor unions, and movements for political and social reform in the United States
     6.Knows the pace and extent of industrialization in Great Britain in the latter half of the 19th century
     7.Knows the pace and extent of industrialization in the United States in the latter half of the 19th century
     8.Understands Robert Owen’s New Lanark System and its role in dealing with societal problems caused by the industrial revolution
     9.Knows changes affected by the "Great Reform" bill of 1832, and how it addressed problems of the industrial revolution
   Benchmark 3.Understands the status of slavery and slaves throughout the 19th century (e.g., how contract labor migration and other forms of coerced labor compare with slavery as methods of organizing commercial agriculture in the Americas in the later 19th century; the degree to which emancipated slaves and their descendants achieved social equality and economic advancement in various countries of the Western Hemisphere; locations of legal slavery around the world in 1800, 1830, and 1880, and how changes in the legal status could be linked to revolution ideology and economics)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how contract labor migration and other forms of coerced labor compare with slavery as methods of organizing commercial agriculture in the Americas in the later 19th century
     2.Understands the degree to which emancipated slaves and their descendants achieved social equality and economic advancement in various countries of the Western Hemisphere
     3.Knows locations of legal slavery around the world in 1800, 1830, and 1880
     4.Understands how changes in the legal status of slaves could be linked to revolution ideology and economics
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how industrialization shaped social class and labor organizations (e.g., connections between industrialization and the rise of new types of labor organizations and mobilization; what 19th-century literature reveals about the emergence and conditions of new social classes during the industrial period; conditions for children employed by 19th-century England before and after major legislation passed in 1833, 1842, and 1847; the wide variety of organizations created by working-class peoples in England, Western Europe, and the United States in response to the conditions of industrial labor)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how industrialization shaped social class
     2.Understands how industrialization shaped labor organizations
     3.Understands connections between industrialization and the rise of new types of labor organizations and mobilization
     4.Knows what 19th century literature reveals about the emergence and conditions of new social classes during the industrial period
     5.Knows conditions for children employed by 19th century England before and after major legislation passed in 1833, 1842, and 1847
     6.Knows the wide variety of organizations created by working class peoples in England, Western Europe, and the United States in response to the conditions of industrial labor
   Benchmark 7.Understands how and why industrialization developed differently in Britain than it did on the continent
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how industrialization developed differently in Britain than it did on the continent
     2.Understands why industrialization developed differently in Britain than it did on the continent
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands changes in social and political elements of the Ottoman Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., reasons for the empire's retreat from the Balkans and Black Sea region; the lives of different members of Ottoman society such as the janissary, attendees of the Palace School, the role of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands changes in social elements of the Ottoman Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries
     2.Understands changes in political elements of the Ottoman Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries
     3.Knows reasons for the Ottoman Empire’s retreat from the Balkans and Black Sea region
     4.Understands the lives of different members of Ottoman society such as the janissary, attendees of the Palace School, the role of women
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the social structure of the Ottoman Empire in the early and middle 19th century (e.g., the effects of population growth and European commercial penetration on Ottoman society and government; the roles of janissaries and Jewish and Christian merchants and landowners changed by the middle of the 19th century; the relative presence and the location of diverse religious and ethnic groups within the Ottoman Empire in 1800, and the prevailing Ottoman policy toward religion; the success and reception of the reforms of 1856 in the Hatt-I-Humayun issued by Abdul-Mejid)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effects of population growth on Ottoman society and government
     2.Understands the effects of European commercial penetration on Ottoman society and government
     3.Understands how the roles of janissaries and Jewish and Christian merchants and landowners changed by the middle of the 19th century
     4.Knows the relative presence and the location of diverse religious and ethnic groups within the Ottoman Empire in 1800
     5.Knows the prevailing Ottoman policy toward religion
     6.Understands the success and reception of the reforms of 1856 in the Hatt I Humayun issued by Abdul Mejid
   Benchmark 2.Understands events that shaped the social structure of Russia in the 19th century (e.g., relations between the Russian peasantry and land-owning aristocracy, and the persistence of serfdom; the czarist reform movements of the 1820s and how they appealed to different social sectors; Czar Nicholas I's positions on the creation of a constitution, freedom of the press, the Decembrist uprising, the Polish rebellion, and the process of Russification)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands relations between the Russian peasantry and land owning aristocracy
     2.Understands the persistence of serfdom in Russia
     3.Understands the czarist reform movements of the 1820s and how they appealed to different social sectors
     4.Knows Czar Nicholas I’s positions on the creation of a constitution, freedom of the press, the Decembrist uprising, the Polish rebellion, and the process of Russification
   Benchmark 4.Understands causes and consequences of the Taiping Rebellion (e.g., how Christianity, rural class relations, and rural poverty contributed to the Taiping rebellion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands causes of the Taiping Rebellion
     2.Understands consequences of the Taiping Rebellion
     3.Understands how Christianity contributed to the Taiping rebellion
     4.Understands how rural class relations contributed to the Taiping rebellion
     5.Understands how rural poverty contributed to the Taiping rebellion
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the political and social changes in 19th-century Latin America (e.g., where democracy failed and succeeded in Latin American nations after independence was achieved, how geography possibly influenced nation-building in Latin America, the class system in Latin America and its racial core)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the political changes in 19th century Latin America
     2.Understands the social changes in 19th century Latin America
     3.Knows where democracy failed in Latin American nations after independence was achieved
     4.Knows where democracy succeeded in Latin American nations after independence was achieved
     5.Understands how geography possibly influenced nation building in Latin America
     6.Understands the class system in Latin America and its racial core
   Benchmark 5.Understands aspects of education in 19th-century Europe (e.g., aspects of the basic school day for male and female students in the 19th century; how significantly education, or lack thereof, affected the lives and prospects of 19th century Europeans; differences in the daily lives of children from working, middle class, and upper class families)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands aspects of the basic school day for male and female students in the 19th century
     2.Understands how significantly education, or lack thereof, affected the lives and prospects of 19th century Europeans
     3.Understands differences in the daily lives of children from working, middle class, and upper class families
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands movements and ideas that contributed to social change in 19th-century North America and Europe (e.g., the leading ideas of Karl Marx and the impact of Marxist beliefs and programs on politics, industry, and labor relations in Europe; the origins of women's suffrage in North America and Europe, leading figures on both continents, and their success until World War I)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands movements and ideas that contributed to social change in 19th century North America
     2.Understands movements and ideas that contributed to social change in 19th century Europe
     3.Knows the leading ideas of Karl Marx
     4.Understands the impact of Marxist beliefs and programs on politics, industry, and labor relations in Europe
     5.Knows the origins of women’s suffrage in North America
     6.Knows the origins of women’s suffrage in Europe
     7.Knows leading figures in the women’s suffrage movement in North America
     8.Knows leading figures in the women’s suffrage movement in Europe
     9.Understands the success of the women’s suffrage movement in North America until World War I
     10.Understands the success of the women’s suffrage movement in Europe until World War I
   Benchmark 3.Understands social change and the emergence of new social class culture in 19th-century Europe (e.g., the elements of the distinctive middle-class and working class culture that developed in industrial Europe; how the average standard of living changed in Europe in the 19th century and the factors that accounted for this change; broad-ranging benefits and disadvantages of attending school for children from peasant, middle class, craft, and urban factory-working families)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the elements of the distinctive middle class and working class culture that developed in industrial Europe
     2.Understands how the average standard of living changed in Europe in the 19th century and the factors that accounted for this change
     3.Understands broad ranging benefits of attending school for children from peasant, middle class, craft, and urban factory working families
     4.Understands broad ranging disadvantages of attending school for children from peasant, middle class, craft, and urban factory working families
   Benchmark 7.Understands cultural trends in 19th-century Europe (e.g., how leisure activity and popular culture changed throughout the 19th century, activities associated with "high culture," types of entertainment that were open to the middle and working classes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how leisure activity and popular culture changed in Europe throughout the 19th century
     2.Knows activities associated with "high culture" in 19th century Europe
     3.Knows types of entertainment that were open to the middle and working classes in 19th century Europe
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the status of education in 19th-century Europe (e.g., how expanded educational opportunities and literacy contributed to changes in European society and cultural life, what countries enacted compulsory education by the end of the 19th century, how school attendance figures were affected by the industrial age)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how expanded educational opportunities and literacy contributed to changes in 19th century European society and cultural life
     2.Knows which countries enacted compulsory education by the end of the 19th century
     3.Knows how school attendance figures were affected by the industrial age
   Benchmark 7.Understands how political and economic change influenced Latin American society in the 19th century (e.g., Latin America's growing dependence on the global market economy, as well as the effects of international trade and investment on the power of landowners and the urban middle class; the consequences of economic development, elite domination, and the abolition of slavery for peasants, indigenous populations, and immigrant laborers in Latin America; the impact of the expansion of secular education upon women's legal and political rights; the roles and perspectives of the caudillo, military official, landowner, urban bourgeoisie, or church official in post-independence Latin America; attitudes toward nationalism and cultural identity in 19th-century Latin America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how political change influenced Latin American society in the 19th century
     2.Understands how economic change influenced Latin American society in the 19th century
     3.Understands Latin America’s growing dependence on the global market economy, as well as the effects of international trade and investment on the power of landowners and the urban middle class
     4.Understands the consequences of economic development, elite domination, and the abolition of slavery for peasants, indigenous populations, and immigrant laborers in Latin America
     5.Understands the impact of the expansion of secular education upon women’s legal and political rights
     6.Understands the roles and perspectives of the caudillo, military official, landowner, urban bourgeoisie, or church official in post independence Latin America
     7.Understands attitudes toward nationalism and cultural identity in 19th century Latin America
   Benchmark 10.Understands how different movements and ideas influenced society in the 19th century (e.g., the effect of the continental revolutions on the Chartist movement in England, and how the ruling classes reacted to Chartist demands; the essential ideas outlined in Marx and Engel's Communist Manifesto and their meaning in the context of late 19th-century economic, political, and social conditions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the effect of the continental revolutions on the Chartist movement in England
     2.Understands how the ruling classes reacted to Chartist demands
     3.Knows the essential ideas outlined in Marx and Engel’s Communist Manifesto
     4.Understands the meaning of ideas in Marx and Engel’s Communist Manifesto in the context of late 19th century economic, political, and social conditions
   Benchmark 12.Understands sources that illustrate social conditions and cultural identity in 19th-century Europe (e.g., how primary sources such as diaries reflect the life experiences of middle and working class men and women in 19th-century Europe; the characteristics of popular, diverse 19th-century art styles, such as Romanticism, Realism, and Impressionism; how Europeans shaped their identity through their view of "other" peoples and cultures)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands sources that illustrate social conditions in 19th century Europe
     2.Understands sources that illustrate cultural identity in 19th century Europe
     3.Understands how primary sources such as diaries reflect the life experiences of middle and working class men and women in 19th century Europe
     4.Knows the characteristics of popular, diverse 19th century art styles, such as Romanticism, Realism, and Impressionism
     5.Understands how Europeans shaped their identity through their view of "other" peoples and cultures
 Standard 37.  Understand major global trends from 1750 to 1914
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands industrialization and its social impact in Great Britain, France, Germany, the United States, Russia, Japan, and other countries (e.g., conditions for rural families, the roles of women and children, the daily lives of working class men and women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands industrialization and its social impact in Great Britain
     2.Understands industrialization and its social impact in France
     3.Understands industrialization and its social impact in Germany
     4.Understands industrialization and its social impact in the United States
     5.Understands industrialization and its social impact in Russia
     6.Understands industrialization and its social impact in Japan
     7.Understands the impact of industrialization on conditions for rural families in different countries
     8.Understands the impact of industrialization on the roles of women and children in different countries
     9.Understands the impact of industrialization on the daily lives of working class men and women
 Standard 39.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War I
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands arguments and theories regarding the causes of World War I (e.g., the role of social and class conflict leading to World War I; how primary and secondary sources illustrate the arguments presented by leaders on the eve of the Great War; why and how political leaders in European nations felt aggressive foreign policy, and the advocation of war, would help subdue domestic discontent and disorder; the arguments for and against war used by diverse political groups and figures in European countries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands arguments regarding the causes of World War I
     2.Understands theories regarding the causes of World War I
     3.Understands the role of social conflict leading to World War I
     4.Understands the role of class conflict leading to World War I
     5.Understands how primary sources illustrate the arguments presented by leaders on the eve of the Great War
     6.Understands how secondary sources illustrate the arguments presented by leaders on the eve of the Great War
     7.Understands how and why political leaders in European nations felt aggressive foreign policy would help subdue domestic discontent and disorder
     8.Understands how and why political leaders in European nations felt the advocation of war would help subdue domestic discontent and disorder
     9.Understands the arguments for war used by diverse political groups and figures in European countries
     10.Understands the arguments against war used by diverse political groups and figures in European countries
 Standard 40.  Understands the search for peace and stability throughout the world in the 1920s and 1930s
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Understands elements of social and political change in China in the early 20th century (e.g., which populations supported the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party, and how the Japanese invasion of China in the 1930s changed viewpoints regarding these two parties; how Mao Zedong adapted Marxism to Chinese needs and how he viewed the peasantry as a revolutionary force; the goals and outcomes of the three major revolutions in China in the first half of the century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands elements of social change in China in the early 20th century
     2.Understands elements of political change in China in the early 20th century
     3.Understands which populations supported the Kuomintang
     4.Understands which populations supported the Chinese Communist Party
     5.Understands how the Japanese invasion of China in the 1930s changed viewpoints regarding the two parties
     6.Understands how Mao Zedong adapted Marxism to Chinese needs
     7.Understands how Mao Zedong viewed the peasantry as a revolutionary force
     8.Understands the goals of the three major revolutions in China in the first half of the century
     9.Knows the outcomes of the three major revolutions in China in the first half of the century
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the causes and effects of population growth and urbanization (e.g., why population growth rate is accelerating around the world, and connections between population growth and economic and social development in many countries; the global proliferation of cities and the rise of the megalopolis, as well as the impact of urbanization on family life, standards of living, class relations, and ethnic identity; why scientific, technological, and medical advances have improved living standards but have failed to eradicate hunger, poverty, and epidemic disease)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the causes of population growth and urbanization
     2.Understands the effects of population growth and urbanization
     3.Understands why population growth rate is accelerating around the world
     4.Understands connections between population growth and economic and social development in many countries
     5.Understands the global proliferation of cities and the rise of the megalopolis
     6.Understands the impact of urbanization on family life
     7.Understands the impact of urbanization on standards of living
     8.Understands the impact of urbanization on class relations
     9.Understands the impact of urbanization on ethnic identity
     10.Understands why scientific, technological, and medical advances have improved living standards but have failed to eradicate hunger, poverty, and epidemic disease
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 12.Understands gender roles across the globe (e.g., conflicts in the perception of gender roles in various religions, especially the role of women; how the legal status of women varies around the world in Muslim societies, and how the status of women from different classes has changed in the past century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows conflicts in the perception of gender roles in various religions, especially the role of women
     2.Understands how the legal status of women varies around the world in Muslim societies

Behavioral Studies

 Standard 1.  Understands that group and cultural influences contribute to human development, identity, and behavior
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands that social distinctions are a part of every culture, but they take many different forms (e.g., rigid classes based solely on parentage, gradations based on the acquisition of skill, wealth, and/or education)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that social distinctions are a part of every culture
     2.Understands that social distinction take different forms in different cultures
     3.Knows that rigid classes based solely on parentage is a form of social distinction
     4.Knows that gradations based on the acquisition of skill is a form of social distinction
     5.Knows that gradations based on the acquisition of wealth is a form of social distinction
     6.Knows that gradations based on the acquisition of education is a form of social distinction
   Benchmark 4.Understands that people often take differences (e.g., in speech, dress, behavior, physical features) to be signs of social class
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that people often take differences such as speech as a sign of social class
     2.Understands that people often take differences such as dress as a sign of social class
     3.Understands that people often take differences such as behavior as a sign of social class
     4.Understands that people often take differences such as physical features as a sign of social class
   Benchmark 5.Understands that the difficulty of moving from one social class to another varies greatly with time, place, and economic circumstances
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that it is usually difficult to move to a different social class
     2.Knows that the difficulty of moving between social classes may vary with time
     3.Knows that the difficulty of moving between social classes may vary with place
 Standard 4.  Understands conflict, cooperation, and interdependence among individuals, groups, and institutions
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how role, status, and social class may affect interactions of individuals and social groups
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how role may affect interactions of individuals and social groups
     2.Understands how status may affect interactions of individuals and social groups
     3.Understands how social class may affect interactions of individuals and social groups

United States History

 Standard 17.  Understands massive immigration after 1870 and how new social patterns, conflicts, and ideas of national unity developed amid growing cultural diversity
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands changes in social and class development in late 19th century America (e.g.,Victorianism and its impact on architecture, literature, manners and morals)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands changes in social development in late 19th century America
     2.Understands changes in class development in late 19th century America