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Topic: Religion, belief systems, and values 

United States History

 Standard 1.  Understands the characteristics of societies in the Americas, Western Europe, and Western Africa that increasingly interacted after 1450
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the significance of beliefs held by both Native Americans and Europeans (e.g., Native American beliefs about their origins in America, ideas of land use held by Native Americans and Europeans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of a variety of beliefs held by different Native American groups during Pre-Columbian times and the age of exploration
     2.Understands the significance of a variety of beliefs held by different European groups during the age of exploration
     3.Understands Native American beliefs about their origins in the Americas
     4.Understands Native American beliefs about land use during Pre-Columbian times and the age of exploration
     5.Understands European beliefs about land use during the age of exploration
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the role of religion in Western Europe during the age of exploration (e.g., the causes and consequences of European Crusades in Iberia, connections between the Christian crusading tradition and European overseas exploration, dissent within the Catholic Church and beliefs and ideas of leading religious reformers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the causes of the European crusades in Iberia during the Age of Exploration
     2.Understands the consequences of the European crusades in Iberia during the Age of Exploration
     3.Understands connections between the Christian crusading tradition and European overseas exploration
     4.Understands aspects of dissent within the Catholic Church during the Age of Exploration
     5.Knows the beliefs and ideas of leading religious reformers during the Age of Exploration
   Benchmark 3.Understands the influence of Islam in Western Africa in the 15th and 16th centuries (e.g. interactions between Islam and local religious beliefs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands interactions between Islam and local religious beliefs in West Africa in the 15th and 16th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands how values and beliefs in Native American origin stories explain other facets of Native American culture (e.g., migration, settlement, interactions with the environment)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how values and beliefs in Native American origin stories explain aspects of Native American migration
     2.Understands how values and beliefs in Native American origin stories explain aspects of Native American settlements
     3.Understands how values and beliefs in Native American origin stories explain aspects of Native American interaction with the environment
     4.Knows a variety of Native American origin stories
     5.Knows values and beliefs that are expressed in a variety of Native American origin stories
 Standard 4.  Understands how political, religious, and social institutions emerged in the English colonies
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands Puritanism in colonial America (e.g., how Puritanism shaped New England communities, the changes in Puritanism during the 17th century, opposition to King James I, why Puritans came to America, the Puritan family structure)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how Puritanism shaped New England communities
     2.Understands the changes in Puritanism during the 17th century
     3.Knows about the opposition to King James I
     4.Knows why the Puritans came to America
     5.Understands the Puritan family structure
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the role of religion in the English colonies (e.g., the evolution of religious freedom, treatment of religious dissenters such as Anne Hutchison, the concept of the separation of church and state)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the evolution of religious freedom in the English colonies
     2.Knows about the treatment of religious dissenters in the English colonies
     3.Knows about the treatment of Anne Hutchinson in the English colonies
     4.Understands the concept of the separation of church and state
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands characteristics of religious development in colonial America (e.g., the presence of diverse religious groups and their contributions to religious freedom; the political and religious influence of the Great Awakening; the major tenets of Puritanism and its legacy in American society; the dissension of Anne Hutchison and Roger Williams, and Puritan objections to their ideas and behavior)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about the presence of diverse religious groups in colonial America
     2.Knows about the contributions of diverse religious groups to religious freedom in colonial America
     3.Understands the political influence of the Great Awakening
     4.Understands the religious influence of the Great Awakening
     5.Understands the major tenets of Puritanism
     6.Understands the legacy of Puritanism in American society
     7.Knows about the dissension of Anne Hutchinson
     8.Knows about the dissension of Roger Williams
     9.Understands Puritan objections to Anne Hutchinson’s ideas and behavior
     10.Understands Puritan objections to Roger Williams’ ideas and behavior
 Standard 6.  Understands the causes of the American Revolution, the ideas and interests involved in shaping the revolutionary movement, and reasons for the American victory
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the social, political, and religious aspects of the American Revolution (e.g., decisions leading to crisis of revolution; + efforts by Parliament and colonies to prevent revolution; ideas of different religions; economic and social differences of Loyalists, Patriots, and neutrals)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social aspects of the American Revolution
     2.Understands the political aspects of the American Revolution
     3.Understands the religious aspects of the American Revolution
     4.Knows about decisions leading to crisis of revolution
     5.Knows about positive efforts by Parliament to prevent revolution
     6.Knows about positive efforts by the colonies to prevent revolution
     7.Knows about the ideas of different religions concerning the American Revolution
     8.Understands the economic differences of Loyalists
     9.Understands the economic differences of Patriots
     10.Understands the economic differences of neutrals
     11.Understands the social differences of Loyalists
     12.Understands the social differences of Patriots
     13.Understands the social differences of neutrals
 Standard 10.  Understands how the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed American lives and led to regional tensions
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands significant religious, cultural, and social changes in the American West (e.g., the degree to which political democracy influenced social and political conditions on the frontier, cultural characteristics of diverse groups, the impact of the Second Great Awakening and religious revivals on Mormon migration to the West, the lives of women in the West)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands significant religious changes in the American West
     2.Understands significant cultural changes in the American West
     3.Understands significant social changes in the American West
     4.Understands the degree to which political democracy influenced social conditions on the frontier
     5.Understands the degree to which political democracy influenced political conditions on the frontier
     6.Understands cultural characteristics of diverse groups in the American West
     7.Understands the impact of the Second Great Awakening on Mormon migration to the West
     8.Understands the impact of religious revivals on Mormon migration to the West
     9.Understands the lives of women in the West
 Standard 12.  Understands the sources and character of cultural, religious, and social reform movements in the antebellum period
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the religious revivals that swept the nation in the early 19th century (e.g., the importance of the Second Great Awakening, the messages of Great Awakening leaders such as Charles Finney and Peter Cartwright)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of the Second Great Awakening
     2.Understands the messages of Great Awakening leaders
     3.Understands the message of Great Awakening leader Charles Finney
     4.Understands the message of Great Awakening leader Peter Cartwright
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the significant religious, philosophical, and social movements of the 19th century and their impacts on American society and social reform (e.g., the impact of the Second Great Awakening on issues such as public education, temperance, women's suffrage, and abolitionism; Transcendentalism and the literary works of its central leaders; Transcendentalist ideas about the individual, society, and nature)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significant religious movements of the 19th century
     2.Understands the significant philosophical movements of the 19th century
     3.Understands the significant social movements of the 19th century
     4.Understands the impacts of significant religious movements of the 19th century on American society
     5.Understands the impacts of significant philosophical movements of the 19th century on American society
     6.Understands the impacts of significant social movements of the 19th century on American society
     7.Understands the impacts of significant religious movements of the 19th century on American social reform
     8.Understands the impacts of significant philosophical movements of the 19th century on American social reform
     9.Understands the impacts of significant social movements of the 19th century on American social reform
     10.Understands the impact of the Second Great Awakening on public education
     11.Understands the impact of the Second Great Awakening on the issue of temperance
     12.Understands the impact of the Second Great Awakening on the issue of abolitionism
     13.Understands Transcendentalism
     14.Knows about the literary works of the central leaders of Transcendentalism
     15.Understands Transcendentalist ideas about the individual
     16.Understands Transcendentalist ideas about society
     17.Understands Transcendentalist ideas about nature
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the social impact of the Second Great Awakening (e.g., how Great Awakening leaders affected ordinary people; how the belief in individual responsibility for salvation and millenialism influenced reform movements; the role of moral suasion, social control, and compromise in reform)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how Great Awakening leaders affected ordinary people
     2.Understands how the belief in individual responsibility for salvation influenced reform movements
     3.Understands how the belief in individual responsibility for millenialism influenced reform movements
     4.Understands the role of moral suasion in the Second Great Awakening
     5.Understands the role of social control in reform during the Second Great Awakening
     6.Understands the role of compromise in reform during the Second Great Awakening
 Standard 16.  Understands how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed American society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the role of class, race, gender, and religion in western communities in the late 19th century (e.g., hardships faced by settlers, how gender and racial roles were defined, the role of religion in stabilizing communities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of class in western communities in the late 19th century
     2.Understands the role of race in western communities in the late 19th century
     3.Understands the role of gender in western communities in the late 19th century
     4.Understands the role of religion in western communities in the late 19th century
     5.understands the hardships faced by settlers in western communities in the late 19th century
     6.Understands how gender roles were defined in western communities in the late 19th century
     7.Understands how racial roles were defined in western communities in the late 19th century
     8.Understands the role of religion in stabilizing western communities in the late 19th century
 Standard 26.  Understands the economic boom and social transformation of post-World War II United States
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands social, religious, cultural, and economic changes at the onset of the Cold War era (e.g., the causes and results of new governmental spending on educational programs, the expansion of suburbanization and the impact of the "crabgrass frontier," the role of religion, the impact of the GI Bill on higher education, how the Cold War influenced the lives and roles of women, how artists and writers portrayed the effects of alienation on the individual and society after 1945)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social changes at the onset of the Cold War era
     2.Understands religious changes at the onset of the Cold War era
     3.Understands cultural changes at the onset of the Cold War era
     4.Understands economic changes at the onset of the Cold War era
     5.Understands the causes and results of new governmental spending on educational programs
     6.Understands the impact of the GI Bill on higher education
     7.Understands how the Cold War influenced the lives and roles of women
     8.Knows how artists and writers portrayed the effects of alienation on the individual and society after 1945
 Standard 29.  Understands the struggle for racial and gender equality and for the extension of civil liberties
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the Warren Court’s interpretation of freedom of religion (e.g., the importance of the separation of church and state and freedom of religion in contemporary American society, local and regional issues regarding religious freedom)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the Warren Court’s interpretation of freedom of religion
     2.Knows the importance of the separation of church and state in contemporary American society
     3.Knows the importance of freedom of religion in contemporary American society
     4.Knows local and regional issues related to religious freedom
 Standard 31.  Understands economic, social, and cultural developments in the contemporary United States
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands influences on religion in contemporary society (e.g., how changing immigration patterns affected religious diversity, issues related to religious belief)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the factors that influence religion in contemporary society
     2.Knows how changing immigration patterns affected religious diversity
     3.Knows issues related to religious belief in contemporary society
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the growth of religious issues in contemporary society (e.g., the growth of the Christian evangelical movement and its use of modern telecommunications, issues regarding the guarantee of no establishment of religion and the free exercise clauses of the First Amendment, the significance of religious groups in local communities and their approaches to social issues)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that religious issues have grown in contemporary society
     2.Knows about the growth of the Christian evangelical movement
     3.Knows how the Christian evangelical movement has used modern telecommunications
     4.Knows about issues regarding the guarantee of no establishment of religion
     5.Knows about the free exercise clauses of the first amendment
     6.Knows the significance of religious groups in local communities
     7.Knows how religious groups approach social issues
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the rise of religious groups and movements influenced political issues in contemporary American society (e.g., the position of major religious groups on such issues as abortion, gay rights, women in the clergy, and educational issues; the causes and significance of religious evangelism and its effect on American political and religious culture in the 1980s; how Supreme Court decisions since 1968 have affected the meaning and practice of religious freedom)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about the rise of religious groups and movements in contemporary American society
     2.Knows how religious groups and movements have influenced political issues
     3.Knows the position of major religious groups on abortion
     4.Knows the position of major religious groups on gay rights
     5.Knows the position of major religious groups on women in the clergy
     6.Knows the position of major religious groups on educational issues
     7.Knows the causes of religious evangelism
     8.Knows the effect of religious evangelism on American political culture in the 1980s
     9.Knows the effect of religious evangelism on American religious culture in the 1980s

Behavioral Studies

 Standard 2.  Understands various meanings of social group, general implications of group membership, and different ways that groups function
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands that a variety of factors (e.g., belief systems, learned behavior patterns) contribute to the ways in which groups respond differently to their physical and social environments and to the wants and needs of their members
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands that belief systems contribute to the ways in which groups respond differently to their physical and social environments and to the wants and needs of their members
     5.Understands that learned behavior patterns contribute to the ways in which groups respond differently to their physical and social environments and to the wants and needs of their members
 Standard 3.  Understands that interactions among learning, inheritance, and physical development affect human behavior
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands that people might ignore evidence that challenges their beliefs and more readily accept evidence that supports them
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that people might ignore evidence that challenges their beliefs
     2.Understands that people might more readily accept evidence that supports their beliefs

Civics

 Standard 13.  Understands the character of American political and social conflict and factors that tend to prevent or lower its intensity
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows sources of political conflict that have arisen in the United States historically as well as in the present (e.g., geographic and sectional interests, slavery and indentured servitude, national origins, extending the franchise, extending civil rights to all Americans, the role of religion in American public life, engaging in wars)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     8.Knows that the role of religion in American public can be a source of political conflict in the United States
     9.Knows that U.S. involvement in wars can be a source of political conflict in the United States
   Benchmark 5.Knows instances in which political conflict in the United States has been divisive and reasons for this division (e.g., the Civil War, labor unrest, civil rights struggles, opposition to the war in Vietnam)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     9.Knows that opposition to war in Vietnam was a divisive American political conflict
     10.Understands why opposition to war in Vietnam was a divisive American political conflict

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 1.  Understands family life now and in the past, and family life in various places long ago
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 6.Knows ways in which people share family beliefs and values (e.g., oral traditions, literature, songs, art, religion, community celebrations, mementos, food, language)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that people share family beliefs and values through oral tradition
     2.Knows that people share family beliefs and values through literature
     3.Knows that people share family beliefs and values through songs
     4.Knows that people share family beliefs and values through art
     5.Knows that people share family beliefs and values through religion
     6.Knows that people share family beliefs and values through community celebrations
     7.Knows that people share family beliefs and values through mementos
     8.Knows that people share family beliefs and values through food
     9.Knows that people share family beliefs and values through language
 Standard 3.  Understands the people, events, problems, and ideas that were significant in creating the history of their state
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 2.Understands geographic, economic, and religious reasons that brought the first explorers and settlers to the state or region, who they were, and where they settled
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Knows that explorers came to the state or region for religious reasons
     9.Knows that settlers came to the state or region for religious reasons
 Standard 4.  Understands how democratic values came to be, and how they have been exemplified by people, events, and symbols
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 3.Understands ways in which such fundamental values as fairness, protection of individual rights, and responsibility for the common good have been applied by different groups of people (e.g., students and personnel in the local school)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that fairness is a fundamental American value
     2.Understands that protection of individual rights is a fundamental American value
     3.Understands that responsibility for the common good is a fundamental American value
 Standard 7.  Understands selected attributes and historical developments of societies in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the main ideas found in folktales, stories of great heroism, fables, legends, and myths from around the world that reflect the beliefs and ways of living of various cultures in times past
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that folktales reflect the beliefs of various cultures in the past
     2.Understands that folktales reflect the ways of living of various cultures in the past
     3.Understands that stories of great heroism reflect the beliefs of various cultures in the past
     4.Understands that stories of great heroism reflect ways of living of various cultures in the past
     5.Understands that fables reflect the beliefs of various cultures in the past
     6.Understands that fables reflect ways of living of various cultures in the past
     7.Understands that legends reflect the beliefs of various cultures in the past
     8.Understands that legends reflect ways of living of various cultures in the past
     9.Understands that myths reflect the beliefs of various cultures in the past
     10.Understands the myths reflect ways of living of various cultures in the past

World History

 Standard 1.  Understands the biological and cultural processes that shaped the earliest human communities
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how different kinds of evidence are used to determine the cultural characteristics of early human communities (e.g., how archaeological evidence demonstrates the influences of climate, geographic location, and economic specialization on everyday life; how nonverbal evidence such as burials, carvings, and paintings can indicate the presence of religion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands how nonverbal evidence such as burials, carvings, and paintings can indicate the presence of religion
 Standard 2.  Understands the processes that contributed to the emergence of agricultural societies around the world
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands what archaeological evidence has revealed about the cultural beliefs of early agricultural societies (e.g., the emergence of complete belief systems, including female deity worship)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows types of archaeological evidence that reveal information about cultural beliefs of early agricultural societies
     2.Understands the emergence of complete belief systems in early agricultural societies
     3.Understands the role of female deity worship in early agricultural societies
 Standard 3.  Understands the major characteristics of civilization and the development of civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands environmental and cultural factors that shaped the development of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley (e.g., development of religious and ethical belief systems and how they legitimized political and social order; demands of the natural environment; how written records such as the Epic of Gilgamesh reflected and shaped the political, religious, and cultural life of Mesopotamia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands how cultural factors shaped the development of Mesopotamia
     5.Understands how cultural factors shaped the development of early Egyptian civilization
     6.Understands how cultural factors shaped the development of the Indus Valley
     7.Understands the development of religious and ethical belief systems and how they legitimized political and social order
     8.Understands how written records such as the Epic of Gilgamesh reflected and shaped the political, religious, and cultural life of Mesopotamia
 Standard 4.  Understands how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands significant characteristics of early Chinese society and religion (e.g., the influence of the natural environment on Huang He [Yellow River] civilization compared to its impact on Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley; early Chinese urban societies and how they compare to those of Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley, the nature of Shang ancestor worship and what it illustrates about concepts of life and death in Shang society)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the nature of Shang ancestor worship and what it illustrates about concepts of life and death in Shang society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the social, cultural, and political characteristics of the Shang Dynasty (e.g., the development of royal government under the Shang Dynasty and the development of social hierarchy, religious institutions, and writing; the role that Chinese peasants played in sustaining the wealth and power of the Shang political centers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands the development of religious institutions under the Shang Dynasty
 Standard 5.  Understands the political, social, and cultural consequences of population movements and militarization in Eurasia in the second millennium BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands characteristics of Aryan culture (e.g., the reasons for the migration of Indo-Aryan and Mycenaean-speaking peoples into India, the Eastern Mediterranean, and the Iranian Plateau; the belief system embraced by the Aryan people; odes from the Vedas that praise major Vedic gods and what they illustrate about Aryan values; potential conflict and tension among Aryan tribes as they began to settle down in the Indo-Gangetic plain)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the belief system embraced by the Aryan people
     3.Knows odes from the Vedas that praise major Vedic gods and what they illustrate about Aryan values
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the beliefs and accomplishments of Mesopotamian and Egyptian rulers (e.g., the religious ideas of Akenaton [Amenhotep IV] and the viewpoint that Atonism was an early form of monotheism, the accomplishments of Sargon and Akenaton [Amenhotep IV])
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows the religious ideas of Akenaton (Amenhotep IV)
     4.Understands the viewpoint that Atonism was an early form of monotheism
   Benchmark 4.Understands cultural elements of the Aryan civilization (e.g., Aryan culture in India as denoted in linguistic, literary, and archaeological materials; beliefs expressed in the Vedic hymns; the root of the word "Aryan," those people who came to be called Indo-Aryan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands beliefs expressed in the Vedic hymns as a component of Aryan culture
 Standard 7.  Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands elements of Judaism and how it compares to other religions (e.g., the differences between Jewish monotheism and the polytheism of Southwest Asia, the ethical teachings of Judaism illustrated in stories from the Hebrew Scriptures, the major events in the early history of Judaism through the Babylonian Captivity)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the various elements of Judaism
     2.Understands how Judaism compares to other religions
     3.Knows the differences between Jewish monotheism and the polytheism of Southwest Asia
     4.Knows the ethical teachings of Judaism illustrated in stories from the Hebrew Scriptures
     5.Knows the major events in the early history of Judaism through the Babylonian Captivity
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands social development and religious beliefs of Jewish civilization (e.g., the course of development of the Jewish kingdoms and the Jews' maintenance of religious and cultural traditions despite destruction of these kingdoms, the significance of the Torah in Judaism)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social development of Jewish civilization
     2.Understands religious beliefs of Jewish civilization
     3.Understands the course of development of the Jewish kingdoms
     4.Understands the Jews’ maintenance of religious and cultural traditions despite destruction of Jewish kingdoms
     5.Understands the significance of the Torah in Judaism
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands events that led to the spread of Judaism (e.g., the significance of the Babylonian captivity for the subsequent history and survival of Judaism, the significance of the Jewish diaspora for the transmission of Judaism in the Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of the Babylonian captivity for the subsequent history and survival of Judaism
     2.Knows the significance of the Jewish diaspora for the transmission of Judaism in the Mediterranean region
     3.Knows the significance of the Jewish diaspora for the transmission of Judaism in Southwest Asia
 Standard 8.  Understands how Aegean civilization emerged and how interrelations developed among peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia from 600 to 200 BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the role of art, literature, and mythology in Greek society (e.g., major works of Greek drama and mythology and how they reveal ancient moral values and civic culture; how the arts and literature reflected cultural traditions in ancient Greece)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how Greek drama and mythology reveal ancient moral values and civic culture
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows significant Greek writings, literature, and mythology (e.g., the prominent ideas of Greek philosophers; the significance and major works of Greek historians; significant Greek tragedies and comedies, and the values and lessons they transmitted; aspects of daily life in Greece between 600 and 200 BCE as they are represented by playwrights of the time)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Understands the values and lessons that Greek comedies and tragedies transmitted
   Benchmark 4.Understands Persian religious beliefs (e.g., the basic teachings of Zoroastrianism; the relationship between religion and politics in Persian society and the place of Zoroastrianism within the various levels of Persian society)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the basic teachings of Zoroastrianism
     2.Understands the relationship between religion and politics in Persian society
     3.Understands the place of Zoroastrianism within the various levels of Persian society
   Benchmark 6.Understands the characteristics of religion, gender, and philosophy in the Hellenistic era (e.g., the significance of the interaction of Greek and Jewish traditions for the emergence of Rabbinic Judaism and early Christianity; the changes in the status of women during the Hellenistic era, their new opportunities, and greater restrictions; what different Greek philosophers considered to be a "good life")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the characteristics of religion in the Hellenistic era
     4.Understands the significance of the interaction of Greek and Jewish traditions for the emergence of Rabbinic Judaism and early Christianity
     6.Knows what different Greek philosophers considered to be a "good life"
   Benchmark 7.Understands how Sumerian, Egyptian, and Greek societies saw themselves in relation to their gods and how attitudes towards women are indicated in representations of their goddesses
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how Sumerian societies saw themselves in relation to their gods
     2.Understands how Egyptian societies saw themselves in relation to their gods
     3.Understands how Greek societies saw themselves in relation to their gods
     4.Understands how attitudes towards women are indicated in Sumerian representations of their goddesses
     5.Understands how Egyptian attitudes towards women are indicated in representations of their goddesses
     6.Understands how attitudes towards women are indicated in Greek representations of their goddesses
 Standard 9.  Understand how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the origins and social framework of Roman society (e.g., the geographic location of different ethnic groups on the Italian peninsula in the late 6th century BCE and their influences on early Roman society and culture, how legends of the founding of Rome describe ancient Rome and reflect the beliefs and values of its citizens, what life was like for the common people living in Rome and Pompeii)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Knows how legends of the founding of Rome reflect the beliefs and values of its citizens
   Benchmark 3.Understands the significance of Jesus of Nazareth (e.g., the story of the life of Jesus, the messages of Jesus' prominent parables)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the story of the life of Jesus
     2.Knows the messages of Jesus’ prominent parables
   Benchmark 4.Understands events in the rise of Christianity (e.g., the life of Paul the Apostle and his contribution to the spread of Christian beliefs, how Christianity spread widely in the Roman Empire, how the New Testament illustrates early Christian beliefs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the life of Paul the Apostle and his contribution to the spread of Christian beliefs
     2.Understands how Christianity spread widely in the Roman Empire
     3.Understands how the New Testament illustrates early Christian beliefs
   Benchmark 5.Understands the fundamental elements of Chinese society under the early imperial dynasties (e.g., policies and achievements of the Qin emperor Shi Huangdi, the life of Confucius and the fundamentals of Confucianism and Daoism, what life was like for ordinary people in ancient China as illustrated in Chinese folktales)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows events in the life of Confucius
     4.Understands the fundamentals of Confucianism and Daoism
   Benchmark 7.Understands the origins of Buddhism and fundamental Buddhist beliefs (e.g., the life story of Buddha and his essential teachings; how the Buddhist teachings were a response to the Brahmanic system; the contributions of the emperor Ashoka to the expansion of Buddhism in India; how Indian epic stories reflect social values, and how the Jakata tales reveal Buddhist teachings)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of Buddhism
     2.Understands fundamental Buddhist beliefs
     3.Knows the life story of Buddha
     4.Knows Buddha’s essential teachings
     5.Understands how the Buddhist teachings were a response to the Brahmanic system
     6.Knows the contributions of the emperor Ashoka to the expansion of Buddhism in India
     7.Understands how Indian epic stories reflect social values
     8.Understands how the Jakata tales reveal Buddhist teachings
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the influence of Christian beliefs on political, social, and cultural aspects of society (e.g., how Jesus' moral teachings utilized and expanded upon the prohibitions of the Ten Commandments in the Hebrew Torah, the locations of centers of the Christian church, the impact of Christianity upon the Roman Empire, the values and stories expressed in early Christian religious art)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of Christian beliefs on political aspects of society
     2.Understands the influence of Christian beliefs on social aspects of society
     3.Understands the influence of Christian beliefs on cultural aspects of society
     4.Understands how Jesus’ moral teachings utilized and expanded upon the prohibitions of the Ten Commandments in the Hebrew Torah
     5.Knows the locations of centers of the Christian church
     6.Understands the impact of Christianity upon the Roman Empire
     7.Knows the values and stories expressed in early Christian religious art
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the spread of Christianity and how it related to other belief systems (e.g., the extent and consequences of Christian expansion in Asia, Africa, and Europe to the 4th century; the events and circumstances, including the role of the martyr, that helped this expansion; comparisons between Jewish and Christian approaches to monotheism; the influence of other faiths upon the development of Christianity and those teachings that are distinctive to Christianity)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the spread of Christianity
     2.Understands how Christianity related to other belief systems
     3.Understands the extent of Christian expansion in Asia, Africa, and Europe to the 4th century
     4.Understands the consequences of Christian expansion in Asia, Africa, and Europe to the 4th century
     5.Understands the events and circumstances, including the role of the martyr, that helped the expansion of Christianity
     6.Understands comparisons between Jewish and Christian approaches to monotheism
     7.Understands the influence of other faiths upon the development of Christianity
     8.Knows those teachings that are distinctive to Christianity
   Benchmark 4.Understands how Buddhism and Brahmanism influenced one another and Indian society (e.g., how Brahmanism responded to challenges posed by Buddhism and other reform movements; how Buddha's reforms contributed to the spread of Buddhism within and beyond India, how the Upanishad reflected Brahmanic teachings and how these compared with Buddhist teachings)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how Buddhism and Brahmanism influenced one another
     2.Understands how Buddhism and Brahmanism influenced Indian society
     3.Understands how Brahmanism responded to challenges posed by Buddhism and other reform movements
     4.Understands how Buddha’s reforms contributed to the spread of Buddhism within and beyond India
     5.Understands how the Upanishads reflected Brahmanic teachings
     6.Understands how Brahmanic teachings compared with Buddhist teachings
 Standard 11.  Understands major global trends from 1000 BCE to 300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how new religious or ethical systems contributed to cultural integration of large regions of Afro-Eurasia
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how new religious systems contributed to cultural integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
     3.Understands how ethical systems contributed to cultural integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
 Standard 12.  Understands the Imperial crises and their aftermath in various regions from 300 to 700 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands various characteristics of Christianity and Buddhism (e.g., methods used to spread the two religions to new areas and people; possible aspects of Christianity and Buddhism that appealed to people living between the 3rd and 5th centuries CE; the approximate geographical realms of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, and Confucianism until the 5th century CE)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands various characteristics of Christianity
     2.Understands various characteristics of Buddhism
     3.Knows methods used to spread Christianity to new areas and people
     4.Knows methods used to spread Buddhism to new areas and people
     5.Knows possible aspects of Christianity that appealed to people living between the 3rd and 5th centuries CE
     6.Knows possible aspects of Buddhism that appealed to people living between the 3rd and 5th centuries CE
     7.Knows the approximate geographical realms of Buddhism until the 5th century CE
     8.Knows the approximate geographical realms of Christianity until the 5th century CE
     9.Knows the approximate geographical realms of Hinduism until the 5th century CE
     10.Knows the approximate geographical realms of Confucianism until the 5th century CE
   Benchmark 3.Understands fundamental Hindu beliefs (e.g., how the concept of dharma reflects a social value for the ideal king, husband and wife, brother and friend; the concepts of Brahma, dharma, and karma, the caste system, ritual sacrifice, and reincarnation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the concept of dharma reflects a social value for the ideal king, husband and wife, brother and friend
     2.Understands the concept of Brahma in Hinduism
     4.Understands the concept of karma in Hinduism
     5.Understands the concept of the caste system in Hinduism
     6.Understands the concept of ritual sacrifice in Hinduism
     7.Understands the concept of reincarnation in Hinduism
   Benchmark 4.Understands significant religious and cultural features of the Gupta era (e.g., Gupta achievements in art, literature, and mathematics; the relationship among various religions in India during Gupta times)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands significant religious features of the Gupta era
     6.Understands the relationship among various religions in India during Gupta times
   Benchmark 5.Understands the influence of Hinduism and Buddhism in East and Southeast Asia (e.g., the role of trade in spreading these religions; the geographical limits of Hindu and Buddhist influence; the presence and influence of Hinduism and Buddhism in India, Malaysia, and Southeast Asia; how ocean currents affected cultural contact between India and Southeast Asia, and the evidence for this contact)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of Hinduism in East and Southeast Asia
     2.Understands the influence of Buddhism in East and Southeast Asia
     3.Understands the role of trade in spreading Hinduism and Buddhism
     4.Knows the geographical limits of Hindu influence
     5.Knows the geographical limits of Buddhist influence
     6.Understands the presence and influence of Hinduism in India
     7.Understands the presence and influence of Hinduism in Malaysia
     8.Understands the presence and influence of Hinduism in Southeast Asia
     9.Understands the presence and influence of Buddhism in India
     10.Understands the presence and influence of Buddhism in Malaysia
     11.Understands the presence and influence of Buddhism in Southeast Asia
     12.Understands how ocean currents affected cultural contact between India and Southeast Asia, and the evidence for this contact
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how the spread of Buddhism and Christianity influenced different regions (e.g., the spread of the two religions in the context of change and crisis in the Roman and Han empires; the importance of monasticism in the growth of Christianity and Buddhism and the participation of men and women in monastic life and missionary activity; the importance of universal salvation to the early history of these two religions; the locations of new centers of Buddhism and Christianity and the major routes used to spread the faith beyond these centers; the efforts and successes of Ashoka and Constantine to legitimize Buddhism and Christianity and spread them throughout India and Europe respectively)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the spread of Buddhism influenced different regions
     2.Understands how the spread of Christianity influenced different regions
     3.Understands the spread of Christianity and Buddhism in the context of change and crisis in the Roman and Han empires
     4.Understands the importance of monasticism in the growth of Christianity and Buddhism and the participation of men and women in monastic life and missionary activity
     5.Understands the importance of universal salvation to the early history of Christianity and Buddhism
     6.Knows the locations of new centers of Buddhism
     7.Knows the locations of new centers of Christianity
     8.Knows the major routes used to spread the Buddhist faith beyond its new centers
     9.Knows the major routes used to spread Christianity beyond its new centers
     10.Understands the efforts and successes of Ashoka and Constantine to legitimize Buddhism and spread it throughout India and Europe respectively
     11.Understands the efforts and successes of Ashoka and Constantine to legitimize Christianity and spread it throughout India and Europe respectively
   Benchmark 3.Understands political events that shaped the Gupta Empire (e.g., factors that contributed to the Gupta Empire's stability and economic prosperity, how Hinduism prevailed as the dominant faith in India, possible reasons for the alliance of the Gupta Empire with Brahmanism and the fall of the Mauryan-Buddhist power, how and why Guptan kings promoted Hinduism while simultaneously fostering Buddhist culture and integrating marginal groups into the political system)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how Hinduism prevailed as the dominant faith in India
     3.Knows possible reasons for the alliance of the Gupta Empire with Brahmanism and the fall of the Mauryan Buddhist power
     4.Understands how and why Guptan kings promoted Hinduism while simultaneously fostering Buddhist culture and integrating marginal groups into the political system
   Benchmark 4.Understands the basis of social relationships in India during the Gupta era (e.g., the social and legal position of women and men, restrictions upon women and their place within the caste system, different social perspectives on the advantages and disadvantages of the caste system)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows different social perspectives on the advantages and disadvantages of the caste system
   Benchmark 5.Understands how the spread of trade and religion influenced Southeast Asia and Polynesian areas (e.g., the impact of Indian civilization on state-building in mainland Southeast Asia and the Indonesian archipelago, the nature of monumental religious architecture as evidence for the spread of Buddhist and Hindu belief and practice in Southeast Asia, the function of Hindu and Buddhist clerics in the spread of their religions and trade to Southeast Asia and Malayo- Polynesia by the end of the 1st millennium BCE, the locations and geographic challenges of potential and actual trade routes in the Southeast Asian and Polynesian areas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how the spread of religion influenced Southeast Asia and Polynesian areas
     4.Understands the nature of monumental religious architecture as evidence for the spread of Buddhist and Hindu belief and practice in Southeast Asia
     5.Understands the function of Hindu and Buddhist clerics in the spread of their religions and trade to Southeast Asia and Malayo Polynesia by the end of the 1st millennium BCE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how the spread of different religions influenced political and social conditions in various regions (e.g., the spread of religious Daoism and Buddhism in China; possible causal relationships between the spread of Christianity and Buddhism, and the expansion of international trade; royal patronage of religion and the desires of a growing middle class for "peace" to enable commercial expansion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the spread of different religions influenced political conditions in various regions
     2.Understands how the spread of different religions influenced social conditions in various regions
     3.Understands the spread of religious Daoism and Buddhism in China
     4.Knows possible causal relationships between the spread of Christianity and Buddhism
     5.Understands the relationship of the expansion of international trade to the spread of different religions
     6.Understands royal patronage of religion and the desires of a growing middle class for "peace" to enable commercial expansion
   Benchmark 6.Understands the resurgence of Hinduism in India and its spread to South India (e.g., as reflected in the growth of temple towns and the development of South Indian temple architecture such as the temple of Maduri)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the resurgence of Hinduism in India
     2.Understands the spread of Hinduism to South India
     3.Understands how the growth of temple towns and the development of South Indian temple architecture such as the temple of Maduri reflect the resurgence and spread of Hinduism
 Standard 13.  Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the spread of Islam in Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean region (e.g., the life of Muhammad, his devotion to God, and the basic beliefs and values he preached; how Islam spread in Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean and evidence for its influence; the importance to Islam of the Hegira [Hirjah], the Ka'abah, the Qur'an, the Sunnah, the Hajj, the daily prayer [Salat], the poor due [Zakat] and Ramadan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the spread of Islam in Southwest Asia
     2.Understands the spread of Islam in the Mediterranean region
     3.Knows events in the life of Muhammad
     4.Understands aspects of Muhammad’s devotion to God and the basic beliefs and values he preached
     5.Knows evidence of the influence of Islam in Southwest Asia
     6.Knows evidence of Islam’s influence in the Mediterranean basin
     7.Understands the importance to Islam of the Hegira (Hirjah), the Ka’abah, the Qur’an, the Sunnah, the Hajj, the daily prayer (Salat), the poor due (Zakat) and Ramadan
   Benchmark 2.Understands the influence of Islamic ideas and practices on other cultures and social behavior (e.g., the origin and development of Islamic law; the influence of Islamic law and Muslim practice on family life, morals, marriage, inheritance, and slavery; the possible appeal of Islam to culturally diverse non-Muslims across Afro-Eurasia in the Abbasid era)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the origins of Islamic law
     2.Understands the development of Islamic law
     3.Understands the influence of Islamic law and Muslim practice on family life
     4.Understands the influence of Islamic law and Muslim practice on morals
     5.Understands the influence of Islamic law and Muslim practice on marriage practices
     6.Understands the influence of Islamic law and Muslim practice on inheritance practices
     7.Understands the influence of Islamic law and Muslim practice on slavery practices
     8.Understands the possible appeal of Islam to culturally diverse non Muslims across Afro Eurasia in the Abbasid era
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands challenges to Muslim civilization (e.g., the transformation of the Arab Caliphate into a Southwest Asian and Mediterranean Empire under the Umyyad Dynasty, and why the Muslim community divided into Sunni and Shi'ite factions; the significance of the Battle of Tours of 733 as interpreted by Muslim and Christian sources and changing historiographical views of the event)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the transformation of the Arab Caliphate into a Southwest Asian and Mediterranean Empire under the Umyyad Dynasty
     2.Understands why the Muslim community divided into Sunni and Shi’ite factions
     3.Understands the significance of the Battle of Tours of 733 as interpreted by Muslim sources
     4.Understands the significance of the Battle of Tours of 733 as interpreted by Christian sources
     5.Understands changing historiographical views of the Battle of Tours of 733
   Benchmark 4.Understands the social structure of the Abbasid Empire (e.g., the treatment and legal status of non-Muslims and their cultural and social contributions to society; the lives of prominent women and factors that facilitated and mitigated their rise to prominence; the role and status of royal bureaucrats, landowning nobles, peasants, urban artisans, and slaves; what Islamic conversion and adherence meant for social status)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the treatment and legal status of non Muslims in the Abbasid Empire
     2.Knows the cultural and social contributions of non Muslims to society in the Abbasid Empire
     9.Understands what Islamic conversion and adherence meant for social status
   Benchmark 6.Understands how the spread of Greek Orthodox Christianity affected different regions (e.g., the patterns of the spread of Greek Orthodox Christianity into the Balkans, Ukraine, and Russia between the 9th and 11th centuries; explanations for the preference of Greek over Latin Christianity in the Slavic world; the story of Vladimir of Kiev in the Russian Chronicle, and the nature of the church/state relationship in Kievan Russia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the patterns of the spread of Greek Orthodox Christianity into the Balkans between the 9th and 11th centuries
     2.Knows the patterns of the spread of Greek Orthodox Christianity into the Ukraine between the 9th and 11th centuries
     3.Knows the patterns of the spread of Greek Orthodox Christianity into Russia between the 9th and 11th centuries
     4.Knows explanations for the preference of Greek over Latin Christianity in the Slavic world
     5.Knows the story of Vladimir of Kiev in the Russian Chronicle
     6.Understands the nature of the church/state relationship in Kievan Russia
   Benchmark 7.Understands significant social and cultural changes in Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries (e.g., the changing position of women in the new Islam, how Muslim mosque architecture physically reflects the relationship between people, spiritual leaders, and God in Islam; the process through which Arabic became a common language in the early Islamic centuries; what branches of. scholarship developed out of the efforts of Muslim leaders and scholars to record the Qur'an and Hadith)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the changing position of women in the new Islam
     2.Understands how Muslim mosque architecture physically reflects the relationship between people, spiritual leaders, and God in Islam
     3.Understands the process through which Arabic became a common language in the early Islamic centuries
     4.Knows what branches of scholarship developed out of the efforts of Muslim leaders and scholars to record the Qur’an and Hadit
 Standard 14.  Understands major developments in East Asia and Southeast Asia in the era of the Tang Dynasty from 600 to 900 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how Buddhism was introduced from Tang China to Korea and Japan (e.g., why the Korean emperor encouraged Japan to adopt this religion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how Buddhism was introduced from Tang China to Korea
     2.Understands how Buddhism was introduced from Tang China to Japan
     3.Understands why the Korean emperor encouraged Japan to adopt the Buddhist religion
   Benchmark 4.Understands events that shaped Japanese culture (e.g., the influence of Chinese culture on Japanese society from the 7th to the 11th century; use of Chinese as the lingua franca in East Asia in the late 1st millennium; major contributions and developments of early cultures of Japan from 10,000 B.C.E. to circa 200 CE; the influence of Buddhism on Japan between the 8th and 9th centuries, how it changed Japanese society, and reasons for its restriction by the emperor in Heian)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the influence of Buddhism on Japan between the 8th and 9th centuries and how it changed Japanese society
     5.Understands reasons for the restriction of Buddhism in Japan by the emperor in Heian
 Standard 15.  Understands the political, social, and cultural redefinitions in Europe from 500 to 1000 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the influence of the monastery in European development (e.g., the importance of monasteries, convents, and missionaries from Britain and Ireland in the Christianizing of Western and Central Europe; the individual duties of monks and nuns)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of monasteries, convents, and missionaries from Britain in the Christianizing of Western and Central Europe
     2.Understands the importance of monasteries, convents, and missionaries from Ireland in the Christianizing of Western and Central Europe
     3.Knows the individual duties of monks in monasteries
     4.Knows the individual duties of nuns in convents
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the importance of monasteries and convents as centers of political power, economic productivity, and communal life
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of monasteries and convents as centers of political power
     2.Understands the importance of monasteries and convents as centers of economic productivity
     3.Understands the importance of monasteries and convents as centers of communal life
   Benchmark 4.Understands the significance of Clovis (e.g., the major conquests of Clovis, how his conversion to Christianity was influenced by his wife, Clothilde; how his conversion affected the Frankish and Saxon peoples)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how Clovis’ conversion to Christianity was influenced by his wife, Clothilde
     3.Understands how Clovis’ conversion to Christianity affected the Frankish and Saxon peoples
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands significant religious events that shaped medieval society (e.g., the successes of the Latin Catholic and Byzantine churches in introducing Christianity and Christian culture to Eastern Europe; similarities and differences in governance and worship in the Latin Catholic and Byzantine churches; how the Anglo-Saxon Boniface was an exemplar for other missionaries, and how he represented the "romanization of Europe")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the successes of the Latin Catholic and Byzantine churches in introducing Christianity and Christian culture to Eastern Europe
     2.Understands similarities and differences in governance and worship in the Latin Catholic and Byzantine churches
     3.Understands how the Anglo Saxon Boniface was an exemplar for other missionaries
     4.Understands how the Anglo-Saxon Boniface represented the "romanization of Europe"
 Standard 16.  Understands the development of agricultural societies and new states in tropical Africa and Oceania
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the origins and development of societies in Oceania (e.g., theories using linguistic, biological, and cultural evidence to explain migration patterns to the Pacific Islands and New Zealand; how complex social structures, religions, and states developed in Oceania)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     10.Understands how complex religions developed in Oceania
   Benchmark 2.Understands economic, social, and religious influences on Ghana society (e.g., what archaeological evidence indicates about the development of Jenne-jeno and Kumbi-Saleh into important early commercial cities; the agriculture, trade, standard of living, expansionary tendencies and role of religious ideas in Ghana)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands religious influences on Ghana society
     9.Understands the role of religious ideas in Ghana
 Standard 17.  Understands the rise of centers of civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America in the 1st millennium CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the significant features of Mayan civilization (e.g., locations of Mayan city-states, road systems, and sea routes in Mesoamerica and the influence of the environment on these developments; the role and status of elite women and men in Mayan society as indicated by their portrayal in Mayan monumental architecture; the importance of religion in Mayan society; the structure and purpose of Mayan pyramids; ceremonial games among the Mayans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the importance of religion in Mayan society
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands what art and architecture reveal about early Mesoamerica and Andean societies (e.g., what art and architecture reflects about the character of the Zapotec state in the valley of Oaxaca; what art and artifacts indicate about the interests, occupations, and religious concerns of the Moche people; what murals infer about Mayan and Teotihuacan societies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands what art and artifacts indicate about the religious concerns of the Moche people
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands ways in which the Mayan world view and cultural life were portrayed (e.g., the Mayan cosmic world view and the role of Mayan deities as revealed in art and architecture, the descriptions of social and religious life inferred in Mayan [Bonampak] glyphs and murals, what the Popul Vuh tells about the Mayan world view and creation myth and its reliability as an account of the Mayan world view)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands ways in which the Mayan world view was portrayed
     3.Understands the Mayan cosmic world view as revealed in art and architecture
     4.Understands the role of Mayan deities as revealed in art and architecture
     5.Understands the descriptions of social and religious life inferred in Mayan (Bonampak) glyphs and murals
     6.Understands what the Popul Vuh tells about the Mayan world view and creation myth
     7.Understands the Popul Vuh’s reliability as an account of the Mayan world view
   Benchmark 3.Understands relationships between Mesoamerican and Andean societies (e.g., the growth of urban society centered on Teotihuacan and the importance of this city as a transmitter of Mesoamerican cultural traditions to later societies; comparisons between Mayan, Moche, and Teotihuacan religions and rituals; the basic structure, economy, and ritual of Andean societies such as the Moche, Tihuanaco, and Chimu; the basic construction and variations of Mesoamerican calendars; possible methods of contact between Mesoamerican and Andean societies and the cultural diffusion seen in areas such as agriculture, societal structure, and artisan crafts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands comparisons between Mayan, Moche, and Teotihuacan religions and rituals
     5.Understands the rituals of Andean societies such as the Moche, Tihuanaco, and Chimu
   Benchmark 4.Understands urban planning in Mayan culture (e.g., patterns and significance of architectural planning and city planning in Mayan culture and the religious factors that affected these layouts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the religious factors that affected the layouts of Mayan cities
 Standard 18.  Understands major global trends from 300 to 1000 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands major changes in the religious map of Eurasia and Africa between 300 and 1000 CE (e.g., the success of Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam in making converts among peoples of differing ethnic and cultural traditions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the success of Christianity in making converts among peoples of differing ethnic and cultural traditions
     2.Understands the success of Buddhism in making converts among peoples of differing ethnic and cultural traditions
     3.Understands the success of Hinduism in making converts among peoples of differing ethnic and cultural traditions
     4.Understands the success of Islam in making converts among peoples of differing ethnic and cultural traditions
 Standard 19.  Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands different elements of Japanese feudal society (e.g., Japanese government during the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods, and whether it was feudalism; the rise of the warrior class in feudal Japan and the values it prescribed; how the economic and social status of women and peasants changed in feudal Japanese society; how art and aesthetic values were cherished in the warrior culture in Japan and what this art reveals about Japanese values; how the Japanese successfully defended themselves against Mongol invasions in the 13th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the rise of the warrior class in feudal Japan and the values it prescribed
     5.Understands how art and aesthetic values were cherished in the warrior culture in Japan and what this art reveals about Japanese values
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how Confucianism changed between the 10th and 13th centuries (e.g., the impact of major dynastic changes in China on Confucianism; the synthesis of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism created by Zhu Xi to form neo-Confucianism)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of major dynastic changes in China on Confucianism
     2.Understands the synthesis of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism created by Zhu Xi to form neo Confucianism
   Benchmark 4.Understands influences on the development of Buddhist sects in Japan (e.g., how unique forms of Buddhism [sects] developed under the influence of social, political, and religious forces; the impact of the warrior culture on the lives of common people and the development of Buddhist sects)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how unique forms of Buddhism (sects) developed under the influence of social, political, and religious forces
     2.Understands the impact of the warrior culture on the lives of common people and the development of Buddhist sects
   Benchmark 5.Understands the development of Southeast Asian states (e.g., how Champa, Angkor, and Dai Vet accumulated power and wealth; the influence of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Hinduism on these states)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the influence of Confucianism on Champa, Angkor, and Dai Vet
     5.Understands the influence of Buddhism on Champa, Angkor, and Dai Vet
     6.Understands the influence of Hinduism on Champa, Angkor, and Dai Vet
   Benchmark 6.Understands the expansion of Islam and daily life in Islamic regions (e.g., how Turkic migration from Turkestan into Southwest Asia and India helped Islam expand and forced the retreat of Byzantium and Greek Christian civilization, what life in Egypt was like for Jewish and Christian communities, what student life was like in Islamic regions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the expansion of Islam
     2.Understands daily life in Islamic regions
     3.Understands how Turkic migration from Turkestan into Southwest Asia and India helped Islam expand and forced the retreat of Byzantium and Greek Christian civilization
     4.Understands what life in Egypt was like for Jewish and Christian communities
     5.Understands what student life was like in Islamic regions
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands religious, social, and political aspects of the Song Dynasty (e.g., the importance of women of gentry families in preserving and transmitting Chinese cultural values; Chinese advancements in alchemy, astronomy, and medicine; the values of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism as reflected in Song art; changes in the social and moral status of women as reflected in the practice of foot binding; the attitudes of typical Chinese gentlemen toward women, family, servants, tenants, and social inferiors; the debate during the Song Dynasty about how the government should respond to rapid social and economic change)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands religious aspects of the Song Dynasty
     8.Understands the values of Confucianism as reflected in Song art
     9.Understands the values of Taoism as reflected in Song art
     10.Understands the values of Buddhism as reflected in Song art
   Benchmark 3.Understands how different religious movements influenced various cultures between the 11th and 13th centuries (e.g., the origins and growth of the North African Islamic reform movements; the impact of Christian campaigns of the Crusades on the societies and Muslim populations of Cairo, Damascus, and Sicily)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the origins of the North African Islamic reform movements
     2.Understands the growth of the North African Islamic reform movements
     3.Understands the impact of Christian campaigns of the Crusades on the societies and Muslim populations of Cairo, Damascus, and Sicily
   Benchmark 4.Understands the significance of Sufism (e.g., the basic beliefs of Sufism and Sufism's role in the spread of Islam, how society and Sufi ideas are described and exemplified in Islamic literature, the roles and social position of Sufi orders in rural and urban areas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the basic beliefs of Sufism
     2.Understands Sufism’s role in the spread of Islam
     3.Understands how society and Sufi ideas are described and exemplified in Islamic literature
     4.Knows the roles and social position of Sufi orders in rural and urban areas
   Benchmark 6.Understands significant religious and economic aspects of Chinese society between the 10th and 13th centuries (e.g., the impact of economic growth on Chinese society and how it affected the gentry class; how Zhu Xi's basic ideas of Neo-Confucianism affected Chinese society, government, and education)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands significant religious aspects of Chinese society between the 10th and 13th centuries
     4.Understands how Zhu Xi’s basic ideas of Neo Confucianism affected Chinese society, government, and education
   Benchmark 7.Understands different social classes and gender roles in Japanese society (e.g., the influence of Buddhist sects on the samurai class; the role of social class, area, time, and age in determining women's experiences)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the influence of Buddhist sects on the samurai class
   Benchmark 8.Understands the significance of art and philosophy in Japanese and Cambodian society (e.g., philosophical values and traditions presented in Noh drama, how diverse Japanese art forms from the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods reflect Shinto and Buddhist philosophy, Indian and Southeast Asian influences on the architecture of the 12th-century temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia, what art and literature reveal about the lives of people in Japan in the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Knows philosophical values and traditions presented in Noh drama
     6.Understands how diverse Japanese art forms from the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods reflect Shinto and Buddhist philosophy
 Standard 20.  Understands the redefinition of European society and culture from 1000 to 1300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the influence of Christianity in Medieval Europe (e.g., how successful the Christian states were in overthrowing Muslim powers in Central and Southern Iberia, the reasons for and consequences of the European Crusades against Syria and Palestine)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how successful the Christian states were in overthrowing Muslim powers in Central and Southern Iberia
     2.Understands the reasons for the European Crusades against Syria and Palestine
     3.Understands the consequences of the European Crusades against Syria and Palestine
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 7.Understands the roles and motivations of squires, saints, and soldiers in Christian Europe (e.g., aspects of training, rights, and responsibilities required of young men from noble families wishing to become squires; the role played by saints in the spread of Christianity; why Muslim and Christian soldiers may have joined the Crusades)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the roles and motivations of saints in Christian Europe
     5.Understands the role played by saints in the spread of Christianity
     6.Understands why Muslim and Christian soldiers may have joined the Crusades
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands comparisons of church-state relations and religious authority between Orthodox Christianity in the East and Latin Christianity in the West
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how church-state relations in Orthodox Christianity in the East compared to church-state relations in Latin Christianity in the West
     2.Understands how features of religious authority in Orthodox Christianity in the East compared to features of religious authority in Latin Christianity in the West
   Benchmark 9.Understands the influence of religious beliefs on various regions (e.g., the presence and motivation behind anti-Semitism in Western Europe during the Crusades; the correlations between commercial and naval domination by Latin Christian states over Muslim states in the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins and an increase in Christian political strength between the 11th and 13th centuries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the presence and motivation behind anti Semitism in Western Europe during the Crusades
     2.Understands the correlations between commercial and naval domination by Latin Christian states over Muslim states in the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins and an increase in Christian political strength between the 11th and 13th centuries
 Standard 22.  Understands the growth of states, towns, and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa between the 11th and 15th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands social and religious features of West Africa (e.g., what art reveals about the societies and rulers of Benin and Ile-Ife, the story of Solomon and Sheba and the role of Sheba in African history)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands religious features of West Africa
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the development of the empires of Mali and Songhay (e.g., the importance of Islamic expansion in the political and cultural life of Mali and Songhay; the economic, social, and religious characteristics of the two empires; the observations of Ibn Battua and Leo Africanus in Mali and Songhay; the importance of the Monarch Mansa Musa in Mali)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the religious characteristics of Mali
     8.Understands the religious characteristics of Mali
   Benchmark 2.Understands religious aspects of Ethiopian society (e.g., the expansion of the Christian Ethiopian kingdom and its search for wider connections in the Christian world, the major achievements of the Zagwe Dynasty in Ethiopia and how this dynasty affected both Coptic Christians and Muslims)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the expansion of the Christian Ethiopian kingdom and its search for wider connections in the Christian world
     3.Understands how the Zagwe Dynasty affected both Coptic Christians and Muslims
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the political, social, economic, and religious development of the West African Sudan and the East African coast between the 8th and 13th centuries (e.g., how these areas were affected by outside influences, the role of commerce in their development)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the religious development of the West African Sudan and the East African coast between the 8th and 13th centuries
   Benchmark 3.Understands the influence of religion on African culture (e.g., Islamic and Christian expansion in Africa and why Islam was successful there; the differences between Coptic and Latin Christianity and how Coptics adapted African traditions to Christianity; the Zagwe Dynasty's achievements through patronage of Christian art and architecture, and characteristics of Ethiopian art and rock churches)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands aspects of Islamic and Christian expansion in Africa and why Islam was successful there
     2.Knows the differences between Coptic and Latin Christianity
     3.Understands how Coptics adapted African traditions to Christianity
     4.Understands the Zagwe Dynasty’s achievements through patronage of Christian art and architecture
     5.Knows the characteristics of Ethiopian art and rock churches
   Benchmark 4.Understands the role of language in shaping African society (e.g., class structure and cultural influence of Swahili-speaking towns of East Africa; relationships among modern Bantu languages and what these relationships reveal about migrations of Bantu-speaking peoples; the interaction of religion with wealth, language, and country of origin in influencing social status)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the interaction of religion with wealth, language, and country of origin in influencing social status
 Standard 23.  Understands patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia between 1300 and 1450
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands causes for changes in social, political, and religious events in Europe after the 14th century (e.g., how the population decreased after the Great Plague; the effect of the crises in the Catholic Church on its organization, prestige, and power; increased wage levels and what governments did to discourage these increases)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the effect of the crises in the Catholic Church on its organization, prestige, and power
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands religious and political changes in post 14th-century Europe (e.g., the resurgence of centralized monarchies and economically powerful city-states in Western Europe in the 15th century, the elements and consequences of the "Great Western Schism")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands religious changes in post 14th century Europe
     4.Understands the elements and consequences of the "Great Western Schism"
   Benchmark 9.Understands the significance of Joan of Arc (e.g., her role in the Hundred Years War; her subsequent trial and execution; the Church's review of her trial 25 years later, and her revered image as a patron saint of France)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the Church’s review of Joan of Arc’s trial 25 years later
     4.Understands Joan of Arc’s revered image as a patron saint of France
 Standard 24.  Understands the expansion of states and civilizations in the Americas between 1000 and 1500
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the Aztec Empire arose in the 14th century (e.g., major aspects of Aztec government, society, religion and culture; the construction of Tenochtitl n, the "Foundation of Heaven")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands major aspects of Aztec religion
     5.Understands the construction of Tenochtitlán, the "Foundation of Heaven"
 Standard 25.  Understands major global trends from 1000 to 1500 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the impact of interaction between Christians and Muslims in the Mediterranean region (e.g., how their encounters, both hostile and peaceful, affected political, economic, and cultural life in Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how encounters, both hostile and peaceful, between Christians and Muslims affected political life in Europe
     2.Understands how encounters, both hostile and peaceful, between Christians and Muslims affected political life in North Africa
     3.Understands how encounters, both hostile and peaceful, between Christians and Muslims affected political life in Southwest Asia
     4.Understands how encounters, both hostile and peaceful, between Christians and Muslims affected economic life in Europe
     5.Understands how encounters, both hostile and peaceful, between Christians and Muslims affected economic life in North Africa
     6.Understands how encounters, both hostile and peaceful, between Christians and Muslims affected economic life in Southwest Asia
     8.Understands how encounters, both hostile and peaceful, between Christians and Muslims affected cultural life in North Africa
     9.Understands how encounters, both hostile and peaceful, between Christians and Muslims affected cultural life in Southwest Asia
 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands cultural interaction between various societies in the late 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., how the Church helped administer Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas; reasons for the fall of the Incan Empire to Pizarro; how the Portuguese dominated seaborne trade in the Indian Ocean basin in the 16th century; the relations between pilgrims and indigenous populations in North and South America, and the role different religious sects played in these relations; how the presence of Spanish conquerors affected the daily lives of Aztec, Maya, and Inca peoples)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the Church helped administer Spanish colonies in the Americas
     2.Understands how the Church helped administer Portuguese colonies in the Americas
     5.Understands the relations between pilgrims and indigenous populations in North and South America, and the role different religious sects played in these relations
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the effects that knowledge of the peoples, geography, and natural environments of the Americas had on European religious and intellectual life (e.g., through such ideas as the romanticized "noble savage," systems of human classification, natural history, and cartography)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effects that knowledge of the peoples of the Americas had on European religious and intellectual life
     4.Understands the effects of the romanticized idea of the "noble savage" on European religious and intellectual life
   Benchmark 7.Understands measures that restricted Muslims and Jews in the 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., the moral and religious justifications used by the Spanish for the expulsion of Jews and Muslims from Spain, and possible consequences of the Spanish conquest of Grenada in 1492; how the organization of overseas trades in the Iberian states prohibited Mudehar Muslims, converts, and Jews from settling in the Americas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows the moral and religious justifications used by the Spanish for the expulsion of Jews and Muslims from Spain
     5.Understands how the organization of overseas trades in the Iberian states prohibited Mudehar Muslims, converts, and Jews from settling in the Americas
   Benchmark 8.Understands how various cultures responded to European presence in the 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., how practitioners of free trade along the northern rim of the Indian Ocean responded to European penetration; relations between the church and native populations; Asian responses to European naval encroachments)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands relations between the church and native populations
 Standard 27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands origins of the Reformation and Catholic Reformation (e.g., why many Europeans were unhappy with the late medieval Catholic Church, and how the beliefs and ideas of leading Protestant reformers reflected this discontent; what the Catholic Reformation sought to achieve, and the effect of religious reforms and divisions on Europeans; the patterns of religious affiliation in Europe in the early 17th century and factors that led some populations to embrace the Protestant Reformation while others rejected it)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands origins of the Reformation
     2.Understands origins of the Catholic Reformation
     3.Knows why many Europeans were unhappy with the late medieval Catholic Church
     4.Understands how the beliefs and ideas of leading Protestant reformers reflected discontent among Europeans with the late medieval Catholic Church
     5.Knows what the Catholic Reformation sought to achieve
     6.Understands the effect of religious reforms and divisions on Europeans
     7.Understands the patterns of religious affiliation in Europe in the early 17th century
     8.Knows factors that led some populations to embrace the Protestant Reformation while others rejected it
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands causes and the major political, social, and economic consequences of the religious wars in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries, and the legacy of these wars in modern Europe
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands causes of the religious wars in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries
     2.Understands the major political consequences of the religious wars in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries
     3.Understands the major social consequences of the religious wars in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries
     4.Understands the major economic consequences of the religious wars in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries
     5.Understands the legacy in modern Europe of the religious wars in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries
 Standard 28.  Understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands political and religious influences on the development of the Mughal Empire (e.g., relations between Muslims and Hindus in the empire, the effectiveness of Akbar's governing methods and religious ideas in comparison to other Mughal emperors)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands religious influences on the development of the Mughal Empire
     3.Understands relations between Muslims and Hindus in the empire
     4.Understands the effectiveness of Akbar’s governing methods and religious ideas in comparison to other Mughal emperors
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands significant cultural and social features of the Ming Dynasty (e.g., the role of Neo-Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism in Ming government and society; how the Ming Dynasty brought cultural unity to China; the imperial examination system in China established under Ming rule)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the role of Neo Confucianism in Ming government and society
     4.Understands the role of Buddhism in Ming government and society
     5.Understands the role of Daoism in Ming government and society
   Benchmark 3.Understands the social, economic, and cultural features of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., how Muslim, Orthodox, Catholic, and Jewish peoples interacted in southeastern Europe under Ottoman rule, the role and legal status of women within the Ottoman Empire, sources of revenue and patterns in state spending in the Ottoman Empire)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands how Muslim, Orthodox, Catholic, and Jewish peoples interacted in southeastern Europe under Ottoman rule
   Benchmark 4.Understands cultural and religious influences on Mughal social and cultural conditions (e.g., the Indian, Persian, and European influences on Mughal artistic, architectural, literary, and scientific achievements; how Akbar unified diverse cultures and encouraged religious tolerance within his Mughal Empire; the synthesis of Muslim and Hindu influences in art of the Mughal Empire)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands religious influences on Mughal social and cultural conditions
     6.Understands how Akbar unified diverse cultures and encouraged religious tolerance within his Mughal Empire
 Standard 29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the consequences of European interaction with indigenous populations of the Americas (e.g., the moral, political, and cultural role of Catholic and Protestant Christianity in the European colonies in America; the Seven Years War and its consequences for Britain, France, Spain, and the indigenous peoples of the American colonial territories; the political relationships between American Indian nations and Holland, France, and England)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the moral role of Catholic and Protestant Christianity in the European colonies in America
     2.Understands the political role of Catholic and Protestant Christianity in the European colonies in America
     3.Understands the cultural role of Catholic and Protestant Christianity in the European colonies in America
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands possible reasons why Catholics were generally more successful than Protestants in converting non-Europeans between the 16th and 18th centuries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows possible reasons for the success of the Catholic Church in converting non Europeans between the 16th and 18th centuries
 Standard 30.  Understands transformations in Asian societies in the era of European expansion
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Knows what groups of people in India most frequently converted to Islam between the 16th and 18th centuries, and the major vehicle for conversion
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows what groups of people in India most frequently converted to Islam between the 16th and 18th centuries
     2.Knows the major vehicle for conversion to Islam in India between the 16th to 18th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the spread of different religions affected various Asian countries (e.g., how and why Islam continued to expand in India, Southeast Asia, and China)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how and why Islam continued to expand in India
     2.Understands how and why Islam continued to expand in Southeast Asia
     3.Understands how and why Islam continued to expand in India, Southeast Asia, and China
   Benchmark 5.Understands the spread of Confucianism in various Asian cultures (e.g., how the rising popularity of Confucianism among the elites in Korea and Japan contributed to changes in the roles of women; how Confucianism was influenced by government and society in China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the rising popularity of Confucianism among the elites in Korea and Japan contributed to changes in the roles of women
     2.Understands how Confucianism was influenced by government and society in China
     3.Understands how Confucianism was influenced by government and society in Japan
     4.Understands how Confucianism was influenced by government and society in Korea
     5.Understands how Confucianism was influenced by government and society in Vietnam
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the economic and cultural consequences of European involvement in other countries (e.g., the significance of Christian missionary activity in India, Vietnam, and the Philippines, and how people of other religions - Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam - responded to these efforts; Joseph Francois Dupleix's theory of "divide and rule" in South India for the French, and how this policy affected relations between the British East India Company and Indian peasants; how the French, Dutch, and British attempted to remedy unfavorable trade balances in Asia between 1500 and 1800)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the significance of Christian missionary activity in India, Vietnam, and the Philippines
     4.Understands how people of other religions - Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam - responded to Christian missionary efforts
   Benchmark 5.Understands the spread of different religions throughout the world (e.g., the varieties of Buddhism and Hindu practice and teaching that developed in Asia and their influence on social and cultural life; major world religions in the mid-18th century, their relative sizes, and their degrees of success at winning new converts; how the development of Buddhism in Japan compared to that in China)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the varieties of Buddhism and Hindu practice and teaching that developed in Asia
     2.Understands the influence of Buddhist and Hindu practices and teachings on social and cultural life in Asia
     3.Knows major world religions in the mid 18th century
     4.Knows the relative size of major world religions in the mid 18th century
     5.Knows the varying degrees of success of major world religions at winning new converts in the mid-18th century
     6.Understands how the development of Buddhism in Japan compared to that in China
 Standard 31.  Understands major global trends from 1450 to 1770
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows how Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity spread between 1450 and 1750 (e.g., the location and geographical area of influence, the rate of growth of practitioners, reasons for growth)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how Buddhism spread between 1450 and 1750
     2.Knows how Islam spread between 1450 and 1750
     3.Knows how Christianity spread between 1450 and 1750
     4.Knows the location and geographical area of influence of Buddhism between 1450 and 1750
     5.Knows the location and geographical area of influence of Islam between 1450 and 1750
     6.Knows the location and geographical area of influence of Christianity between 1450 and 1750
     7.Knows the rate of growth of practitioners of Buddhism between 1450 and 1750
     8.Knows the rate of growth of practitioners of Islam between 1450 and 1750
     9.Knows the rate of growth of practitioners of Christianity between 1450 and 1750
     10.Knows reasons for the growth of Buddhism between 1450 and 1750
     11.Knows reasons for the growth of Islam between 1450 and 1750
     12.Knows reasons for the growth of Christianity between 1450 and 1750
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how traditional Puritan and Confucian attitudes toward profit making affected commerce and trading practices in China and the early New England colonies
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how traditional Confucian attitudes toward profit making affected commerce and trading practices in China
     2.Understands how traditional Puritan attitudes toward profit making affected commerce and trading practices in the early New England colonies
 Standard 32.  Understands the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the French Revolution changed social conditions in France (e.g., how the revolution changed political and religious institutions, social relations, education, family life, and the legal and political position of women; how territorial changes were made in Europe between 1789 and 1815 and their consequences for diverse social groups such as clergy, nobility, peasantry, bourgeoisie, and sans-culottes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how the French Revolution changed religious institutions
 Standard 33.  Understands the causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions from 1700 to 1850
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands reasons why various countries abolished slavery (e.g., the importance of Enlightenment thought, Christian piety, democratic revolutions, slave resistance, and changes in the world economy in bringing about the abolition of the slave trade and emancipation of the slaves in the Americas; evangelical arguments against slavery, and the economic, evangelical, and "Enlightened" reasons for Britain's abolition of slavery; why Brazil was the last nation to abolish slavery and the slave trade; the consequences of the Haitian Revolution for the slave trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the importance of Christian piety in bringing about the abolition of the slave trade and emancipation of the slaves in the Americas
     6.Knows evangelical arguments against slavery,
     7.Understands the economic, evangelical, and "Enlightened" reasons for Britain’s abolition of slavery
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 8.Understands significant cultural and political changes in India in the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., changing linguistic and religious diversity in India between the early 18th and late 19th centuries, the significant changes in political control and boundaries in India between 1798 and 1850)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands changing religious diversity in India between the early 18th and late 19th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the social structure of the Ottoman Empire in the early and middle 19th century (e.g., the effects of population growth and European commercial penetration on Ottoman society and government; the roles of janissaries and Jewish and Christian merchants and landowners changed by the middle of the 19th century; the relative presence and the location of diverse religious and ethnic groups within the Ottoman Empire in 1800, and the prevailing Ottoman policy toward religion; the success and reception of the reforms of 1856 in the Hatt-I-Humayun issued by Abdul-Mejid)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Knows the prevailing Ottoman policy toward religion
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands economic, social, and religious influences on African society (e.g., the impact of religious and political revolutions in Sudan on state-building, Islamization, and European imperial conquest; how and why slavery and the slave trade flourished in both West and East Africa even after the end of the trans-Atlantic slave trade; the relative strengths of Islam and Christianity in Africa at the beginning of the 20th century, types of rivalries among Christian denominations, and the links between both of these and the interests of the government)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands religious influences on African society in the 19th century
     4.Understands the impact of religious and political revolutions in Sudan on state building, Islamization, and European imperial conquest
     6.Knows the relative strengths of Islam and Christianity in Africa at the beginning of the 20th century
     7.Knows types of rivalries among Christian denominations in Africa
     8.Understands the links between Islam and Christianity and the interests of the government
 Standard 37.  Understand major global trends from 1750 to 1914
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands where Christianity and Islam grew in this era, and understands the causes of 19th-century reform movements or renewal in Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands where Christianity grew between 1750 and 1914
     2.Understands where Islam grew between 1750 and 1914
     3.Understands the causes of 19th century reform movements or renewal in Buddhism
     4.Understands the causes of 19th century reform movements or renewal in Christianity
     5.Understands the causes of 19th century reform movements or renewal in Hinduism
     6.Understands the causes of 19th century reform movements or renewal in Islam
     7.Understands the causes of 19th century reform movements or renewal in Judaism
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the process of educational reform in various Muslim regions during the 19th century (e.g., the new institutions that were established, the effect of this reform on women, those areas that wholly embraced Western values, and those that rejected them)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the new educational institutions that were established in various Muslim regions in the 19th century
     2.Understands the effect of educational reforms on women in Muslim regions in the 19th century
     3.Knows those areas that wholly embraced Western educational values, and those that rejected them
 Standard 42.  Understands major global trends from 1900 to the end of World War II
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands ways in which secular ideologies (e.g., nationalism, fascism, communism, materialism) challenged or were challenged by established religions and ethical systems
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands ways in which the secular ideology of nationalism challenged or was challenged by established religions and ethical systems
     2.Understands ways in which the secular ideology of fascism challenged or was challenged by established religions and ethical systems
     3.Understands ways in which the secular ideology of communism challenged or was challenged by established religions and ethical systems
     4.Understands ways in which the secular ideology of materialism challenged or was challenged by established religions and ethical systems
 Standard 43.  Understands how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands important events in the struggle between Israelis and Palestinians since 1948 and the argument on each side for rights to the disputed land
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands important events in the struggle between Israelis and Palestinians since 1948
     2.Understands the argument on the side of the Israelis and the Palestinians for rights to the disputed land
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Understands similarities between the stance of Buddhist priests against the Diem regime in Vietnam and the Muslim stance against the Kukarn regime in Indonesia
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the stance of Buddhist priests against the Diem regime in Vietnam
     2.Understands the Muslim stance against the Kukarn regime in Indonesia
   Benchmark 9.Understands how the Balfour Declaration affected British policy toward Palestine and the political goals of the Arab League and the Zionist Movement, and how the White Paper Reports affected Jewish and Arab inhabitants of Palestine
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the Balfour Declaration affected British policy toward Palestine
     2.Understands how the Balfour Declaration affected the political goals of the Arab League and the Zionist Movement
     3.Understands how the White Paper Reports affected Jewish inhabitants of Palestine
     4.Understands how the White Paper Reports affected Arab inhabitants of Palestine
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 6.Understands cultural trends of the second half of the 20th century (e.g., the influence of television, the Internet, and other forms of electronic communication on the creation and diffusion of cultural and political information worldwide; how the world's religions have responded to challenges and uncertainties in society and the world)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands how the world’s religions have responded to challenges and uncertainties in society and the world
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the definition of "fundamentalism," and the political objectives of militant religious movements in various countries of the world, as well as the social and economic factors that contribute to the growth of these movements
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the definition of "fundamentalism"
     2.Understands the political objectives of militant religious movements in various countries of the world
     3.Understands the social and economic factors that contribute to the growth of militant religious movements
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the role of political ideology, religion, and ethnicity in shaping modern governments (e.g., the strengths of democratic institutions and civic culture in different countries and challenges to civil society in democratic states; how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America; the implications of ethnic, religious, and border conflicts on state-building in the newly independent republics of Africa; significant differences among nationalist movements in Eastern Europe that have developed in the 20th century, how resulting conflicts have been resolved, and the outcomes of these conflicts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the role of religion in shaping modern governments
     8.Understands the implications of ethnic, religious, and border conflicts on state building in the newly independent republics of Africa
   Benchmark 6.Understands the role of ethnicity, cultural identity, and religious beliefs in shaping economic and political conflicts across the globe (e.g., why terrorist movements have proliferated and the extent of their impact on politics and society in various countries; the tensions and contradictions between globalizing trends of the world economy and assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness, including the challenges to the role of religion in contemporary society; the meaning of jihad and other Islamic beliefs that are relevant to military activity, how these compare to the Geneva Accords, and how such laws and principles apply to terrorist acts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the role of religious beliefs in shaping economic and political conflicts across the globe
     6.Knows the challenges to the role of religion in contemporary society
     7.Understands the meaning of jihad and other Islamic beliefs that are relevant to military activity, how these compare to the Geneva Accords, and how such laws and principles apply to terrorist acts
   Benchmark 12.Understands gender roles across the globe (e.g., conflicts in the perception of gender roles in various religions, especially the role of women; how the legal status of women varies around the world in Muslim societies, and how the status of women from different classes has changed in the past century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows conflicts in the perception of gender roles in various religions, especially the role of women
     2.Understands how the legal status of women varies around the world in Muslim societies