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Topic: Influence of ideas on society 

World History

 Standard 3.  Understands the major characteristics of civilization and the development of civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the characteristics of writing forms in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley and how written records shaped political, legal, religious, and cultural life
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the characteristics of writing forms in Mesopotamia
     2.Understands the characteristics of writing forms in early Egypt
     3.Understands the characteristics of writing forms in the Indus Valley
     4.Understands how written records shaped political, legal, religious, and cultural life in Mesopotamia
     5.Understands how written records shaped political, legal, religious, and cultural life in early Egypt
     6.Understands how written records shaped political, legal, religious, and cultural life in the Indus Valley
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how written codes and stories reflect social conditions in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., how the code of Hammurabi illustrated the ethical values, social hierarchy and attitudes, and roles of women in Mesopotamia; how the biblical account of Genesis and the Enuma Elish from Babylon reflect contrasting beliefs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how written codes and stories reflect social conditions in Mesopotamia
     2.Understands how written codes and stories reflect social conditions in early Egypt
     3.Understands how written codes and stories reflect social conditions in Indus Valley
     4.Understands how the code of Hammurabi illustrated the ethical values, social hierarchy and attitudes, and roles of women in Mesopotamia
     5.Understands how the biblical account of Genesis and the Enuma Elish from Babylon reflect contrasting beliefs
 Standard 4.  Understands how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands evidence of social and cultural development of Chinese civilization in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE (e.g., evidence that the Chinese had developed urbanization, sophisticated social cooperation, and written language before 1700 BCE; the physical evidence that highlights possible cultural contact between China and other centers of civilization in antiquity)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows evidence that the Chinese had developed urbanization before 1700 BCE
     2.Knows evidence that the Chinese had developed sophisticated social cooperation before 1700 BCE
     3.Knows evidence that the Chinese had developed written language before 1700 BCE
     4.Knows the physical evidence that highlights possible cultural contact between China and other centers of civilization in antiquity
 Standard 6.  Understands major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how new ideas, products, techniques, and institutions spread from one region to another and the conditions under which people assimilated or rejected new ideas or adapted them to cultural traditions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how new ideas spread from one region to another
     2.Understands how new products spread from one region to another
     3.Understands how new techniques spread from one region to another
     4.Understands how new institutions spread from one region to another
     5.Understands the conditions under which people assimilated new ideas
     6.Understands the conditions under which people rejected new ideas
     7.Understands the conditions under which people adapted new ideas to cultural traditions
 Standard 7.  Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the implementation of laws and the spread of language influenced societies of the Mediterranean Basin and Southwest Asia (e.g., the social and cultural effects of the spread of alphabetic writing in Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean Basin, social sources of and differences in laws created by early lawmakers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the implementation of laws influenced societies of the Mediterranean Basin
     2.Understands how the implementation of laws influenced societies of Southwest Asia
     3.Understands how the spread of language influenced societies of the Mediterranean Basin
     4.Understands how the spread of language influenced societies of Southwest Asia
     5.Understands the social and cultural effects of the spread of alphabetic writing in Southwest Asia
     6.Understands the social and cultural effects of the spread of alphabetic writing in the Mediterranean Basin
     7.Understands social sources of and differences in laws created by early lawmakers
 Standard 8.  Understands how Aegean civilization emerged and how interrelations developed among peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia from 600 to 200 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the major cultural elements of Greek society (e.g., the major characteristics of Hellenic sculpture, architecture, and pottery and how they reflected or influenced social values and culture; characteristics of Classical Greek art and architecture and how they are reflected in modern art and architecture; Socrates' values and ideas as reflected in his trial; how Greek gods and goddesses represent non-human entities, and how gods, goddesses, and humans interact in Greek myths)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the major characteristics of Hellenic sculpture, architecture, and pottery
     2.Understands how Hellenic sculpture, architecture, and pottery reflected or influenced social values and culture
     3.Knows characteristics of Classical Greek art and architecture
     4.Knows how characteristics of Classical Greek art and architecture are reflected in modern art and architecture
     5.Understands Socrates’ values and ideas as reflected in his trial and as an element of Greek culture
     6.Understands how Greek gods and goddesses represent non human entities
     7.Understands how gods, goddesses, and humans interact in Greek myths
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the impact and achievements of the Hellenistic period (e.g., major lasting achievements of Hellenistic art, mathematics, science, philosophy, and political thought; the impact of Hellenism on Indian art; how architecture in West Asia after the conquests of Alexander reflected Greek and Macedonian influence)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of the Hellenistic period
     2.Understands the achievements of the Hellenistic period
     3.Knows major lasting achievements of Hellenistic art
     4.Knows major lasting achievements of Hellenistic mathematics
     5.Knows major lasting achievements of Hellenistic science
     6.Knows major lasting achievements of Hellenistic philosophy
     7.Knows major lasting achievements of Hellenistic political thought
     8.Understands the impact of Hellenism on Indian art
     9.Understands how architecture in West Asia after the conquests of Alexander reflected Greek and Macedonian influence
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the legacy of Greek thought and government (e.g., the importance of participatory government in Greek city-states for the development of Western political thought and institutions; essential ideas in Plato's Republic and the influence of this work on modern political thought; Athenian ideas and practices related to political freedom, national security, and justice; how the maturing democratic institutions in Greece resulted in greater restrictions on the rights and freedoms of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of participatory government in Greek city states for the development of Western political thought and institutions
     2.Knows essential ideas in Plato’s Republic
     3.Understands the influence of Plato’s Republic on modern political thought
     4.Knows Athenian ideas and practices related to political freedom
     5.Knows Athenian ideas and practices related to national security
     6.Knows Athenian ideas and practices related to justice
     7.Understands how the maturing democratic institutions in Greece resulted in greater restrictions on the rights and freedoms of women
 Standard 9.  Understand how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Understands the political legacy of Roman society (e.g., influences of the Roman Constitution on the modern U.S. political system)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands influences of the Roman Constitution on the modern U.S. political system
 Standard 11.  Understands major global trends from 1000 BCE to 300 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the concept and importance of "classical civilizations" (e.g., the enduring importance of ideas, institutions, and art forms that emerged in the classical periods; the significance of Greek or Hellenistic ideas and cultural styles in the history of the Mediterranean basin, Europe, Southwest Asia, and India)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the enduring importance of ideas that emerged in the classical periods
     2.Understands the enduring importance of institutions that emerged in the classical periods
     3.Understands the enduring importance of art forms that emerged in the classical periods
     4.Understands the significance of Greek or Hellenistic ideas and cultural styles in the history of the Mediterranean basin
     5.Understands the significance of Greek or Hellenistic ideas and cultural styles in the history of Europe
     6.Understands the significance of Greek or Hellenistic ideas and cultural styles in the history of Southwest Asia
     7.Understands the significance of Greek or Hellenistic ideas and cultural styles in the history of India
 Standard 13.  Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the Byzantine role in preserving and transmitting ancient Greek learning
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the Byzantine role in preserving ancient Greek learning
     2.Understands the Byzantine role in transmitting ancient Greek learning
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Understands possible motivations behind the Byzantine preservation of ancient Greek and Hellenistic scholastic works
 Standard 15.  Understands the political, social, and cultural redefinitions in Europe from 500 to 1000 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the influence of the Carolingian Empire on the development of European civilization (e.g., how Charlemagne's royal court, monasteries, and convents preserved Greco-Roman and early Christian learning and contributed to the emergence of European civilization; changing political relations between the papacy and the secular rulers of Europe; extent and causes of the Carolingian influence in Europe and reasons for its decline; how the Rules of St. Benedict shaped Medieval Europe; how secular leaders such as Charlemagne influenced political order within Europe)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how Charlemagne’s royal court, monasteries, and convents preserved Greco Roman and early Christian learning
     2.Understands how Charlemagne’s royal court, monasteries, and convents contributed to the emergence of European civilization
     3.Understands changing political relations between the papacy and the secular rulers of Europe
     4.Understands extent and causes of the Carolingian influence in Europe
     5.Understands reasons for the decline of the Carolingian state
     6.Understands how the Rules of St. Benedict shaped Medieval Europe
     7.Understands how secular leaders such as Charlemagne influenced political order within Europe
 Standard 16.  Understands the development of agricultural societies and new states in tropical Africa and Oceania
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the role of oral history in understanding West African history (e.g., the griot "keeper of tales" and other sources used to understand history)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the griot "keeper of tales" and other sources used to understand history
 Standard 17.  Understands the rise of centers of civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America in the 1st millennium CE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands Mayan achievements in astronomy, mathematics, and the development of a calendar (e.g., the place of archaeological evidence such as the "Long Count" calendar in the interpretation of Mayan history, how achievements in astronomy affected Mayan society, the value of mathematical innovations and the calendar to farmers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Mayan achievements in astronomy
     2.Understands Mayan achievements in mathematics
     3.Understands Mayan achievements in developing a calendar
     4.Understands the place of archaeological evidence such as the "Long Count" calendar in the interpretation of Mayan history
     5.Understands how achievements in astronomy affected Mayan society
     6.Understands the value of mathematical innovations to farmers
     7.Understands the value of the calendar to farmers
 Standard 19.  Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands religious, social, and political aspects of the Song Dynasty (e.g., the importance of women of gentry families in preserving and transmitting Chinese cultural values; Chinese advancements in alchemy, astronomy, and medicine; the values of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism as reflected in Song art; changes in the social and moral status of women as reflected in the practice of foot binding; the attitudes of typical Chinese gentlemen toward women, family, servants, tenants, and social inferiors; the debate during the Song Dynasty about how the government should respond to rapid social and economic change)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands religious aspects of the Song Dynasty
     2.Understands social aspects of the Song Dynasty
     3.Understands political aspects of the Song Dynasty
     4.Understands the importance of women of gentry families in preserving and transmitting Chinese cultural values
     5.Knows Chinese advancements in alchemy
     6.Knows Chinese advancements in astronomy
     7.Knows Chinese advancements in medicine
     8.Understands the values of Confucianism as reflected in Song art
     9.Understands the values of Taoism as reflected in Song art
     10.Understands the values of Buddhism as reflected in Song art
     11.Understands changes in the social and moral status of women as reflected in the practice of foot binding
     12.Knows the attitudes of typical Chinese gentlemen toward women, family, servants, tenants, and social inferiors
     13.Understands the debate during the Song Dynasty about how the government should respond to rapid social and economic change
 Standard 20.  Understands the redefinition of European society and culture from 1000 to 1300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the significance of developments in medieval English legal and constitutional practice and their importance for modern democratic thought and institutions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of developments in medieval English legal and constitutional practice
     2.Understands the importance of developments in medieval English legal and constitutional practice for modern democratic thought and institutions
   Benchmark 4.Understands the lives of different groups of people in Medieval Europe (e.g., life in Jewish communities and what Jews added to the cultural and economic development of Europe; the influence of ideals of chivalry and courtly love on feudal society; how the status of women changed in medieval European life)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands daily life in Jewish communities in medieval Europe
     2.Understands what Jews added to the cultural and economic development of medieval Europe
     3.Understands the influence of ideals of chivalry and courtly love on feudal society
     4.Understands how the status of women changed in medieval European life
   Benchmark 5.Understands the significance of the university in Medieval Europe (e.g., how universities contributed to literacy, learning, and scientific advancement; why universities were founded in certain parts of Europe; the meaning of the word "university")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how universities contributed to literacy, learning, and scientific advancement in medieval Europe
     2.Knows why universities were founded in certain parts of Europe
     3.Understands the meaning of the word "university" as related to its origins in medieval Europe
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands art, architecture, and education in medieval Christian and Spanish Muslim society (e.g., how major works of art, architecture, and literature reflect values and attitudes of medieval Christian society; poetry of Muslim Spain and Christian Europe; the origins, organization, and studies of Christian universities in Europe, and the influence of Muslim scholarship and universities; how Gothic cathedrals reflect central aspects of European society)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features of art in medieval Christian society
     2.Understands features of architecture in medieval Christian society
     3.Understands features of education in medieval Christian society
     4.Understands features of art in medieval Spanish Muslim society
     5.Understands features of architecture in medieval Spanish Muslim society
     6.Understands features of education in medieval Spanish Muslim society
     7.Understands how major works of literature reflect values and attitudes of medieval Christian society
     8.Understands how major works of architecture reflect values and attitudes of medieval Christian society
     9.Understands how major works of literature reflect values and attitudes of medieval Christian society
     10.Knows major works of poetry of Muslim Spain
     11.Knows major works of poetry of Christian Europe
     12.Understands the origins, organization, and studies of Christian universities in Europe
     13.Understands the influence of Muslim scholarship and universities in Medieval Europe
     14.Understands how Gothic cathedrals reflect central aspects of Medieval European society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the spread of philosophy to Europe (e.g., the importance of the Islamic states of Iberia and Sicily as well as the Byzantine Empire in transmitting scientific and philosophical knowledge to Western and Central Europe; how classical works such as those of Aristotle and Plato became part of medieval philosophy in Western Europe, and the attitude of the Church toward these non-Christian philosophies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of the Islamic states of Iberia and Sicily in transmitting scientific and philosophical knowledge to Western and Central Europe
     2.Understands the importance of the Byzantine Empire in transmitting scientific and philosophical knowledge to Western and Central Europe
     3.Understands how classical works such as those of Aristotle and Plato became part of medieval philosophy in Western Europe
     4.Understands the attitude of the Church toward non Christian philosophies adopted in Western Europe
 Standard 23.  Understands patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia between 1300 and 1450
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the "humanism" that emerged in Italy in the 14th and 15th centuries, and how new studies (e.g., Greco-Roman antiquity, critical text analysis) encouraged new forms of literature, philosophy, and education
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the "humanism" that emerged in Italy in the 14th and 15th centuries
     2.Understands how new studies (e.g., Greco Roman antiquity, critical text analysis) encouraged new forms of literature, philosophy, and education
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands characteristics of 15th century Italian humanism (e.g., reasons for its emergence in this time and place, which social populations it most significantly affected)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands reasons for the emergence of humanism in Italy in the 15th century
     2.Knows the social populations that 15th century Italian humanism most significantly affected
   Benchmark 10.Understands Timur the Lame's patronage of scholars, artists, and scientists at Samarkand; the extent to which the "Republic of Letters" was a widespread phenomenon; and evidence of cross-cultural communication among scholars and artists
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Timur the Lame’s patronage of scholars, artists, and scientists at Samarkand
     2.Understands the extent to which the "Republic of Letters" was a widespread phenomenon in Afro-Eurasia between 1300 and 1450
     3.Knows evidence of cross-cultural communication among scholars and artists in Afro-Eurasia between 1300 and 1450
 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the effects that knowledge of the peoples, geography, and natural environments of the Americas had on European religious and intellectual life (e.g., through such ideas as the romanticized "noble savage," systems of human classification, natural history, and cartography)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effects that knowledge of the peoples of the Americas had on European religious and intellectual life
     2.Understands the effects that knowledge of the geography of the Americas had on European religious and intellectual life
     3.Understands the effects that knowledge of the natural environments of the Americas had on European religious and intellectual life
     4.Understands the effects of the romanticized idea of the "noble savage" on European religious and intellectual life
 Standard 27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands significant contributions of the Renaissance and Reformation to European society (e.g., major achievements in literature, music, painting, sculpture, and architecture in 16th-century Europe; the life and accomplishments of select figures from the Renaissance to the Reformation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands significant contributions of the Renaissance to European society
     2.Understands significant contributions of the Reformation to European society
     3.Knows major achievements in literature in 16th century Europe
     4.Knows major achievements in music in 16th century Europe
     5.Knows major achievements in painting in 16th century Europe
     6.Knows major achievements in sculpture in 16th century Europe
     7.Knows major achievements in architecture in 16th century Europe
     8.Understands the lives and accomplishments of select figures from the Renaissance to the Reformation
   Benchmark 4.Understands the significance of the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment (e.g., the impact of astronomical discoveries from Copernicus to Newton; principal ideas of the Enlightenment, from rationalism to theories of education; the word "revolution" and what is meant by the term "Scientific Revolution"; the lives and achievements of significant figures of the Scientific Revolution; how Diderot's encyclopedia contributed to the Age of Enlightenment)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of the Scientific Revolution
     2.Understands the significance of the Age of Enlightenment
     3.Knows the impact of astronomical discoveries from Copernicus to Newton
     4.Understands principal ideas of the Enlightenment
     5.Understands ideas of rationalism of the Enlightenment
     6.Understands theories of education of the Enlightenment
     7.Understands the word "revolution" and what is meant by the term "Scientific Revolution"
     8.Understands the lives and achievements of significant figures of the Scientific Revolution
     9.Understands how Diderot’s encyclopedia contributed to the Age of Enlightenment
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands early influences on the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment (e.g., connections between the Scientific Revolution and its antecedents, such as Greek rationalism, medieval theology, Muslim science, Renaissance humanism, and new global knowledge; connections between the Enlightenment and its antecedents, such as Roman republicanism, the Renaissance, and the Scientific Revolution)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands early influences on the Scientific Revolution
     2.Understands early influences on the Enlightenment
     3.Understands connections between the Scientific Revolution and Greek rationalism
     4.Understands connections between the Scientific Revolution and medieval theology
     5.Understands connections between the Scientific Revolution and Muslim science
     6.Understands connections between the Scientific Revolution and Renaissance humanism
     7.Understands connections between the Scientific Revolution and new global knowledge
     8.Understands connections between the Enlightenment and Roman republicanism
     9.Understands connections between the Enlightenment and the Renaissance
     10.Understands connections between the Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution
   Benchmark 3.Understands significant social and cultural changes that took place during the Renaissance (e.g., advances in printing press technology, the connections between the Italian Renaissance and the development of Humanist ideals in Europe north of the Alps, positive and negative changes in the status of women during the Renaissance and Reformation, the legacy of Renaissance architecture, changes in European art and architecture between the Middle Ages and the High Renaissance)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands significant social changes that took place during the Renaissance
     2.Understands significant cultural changes that took place during the Renaissance
     3.Understands the significance of advances in printing press technology
     4.Understands the connections between the Italian Renaissance and the development of Humanist ideals in Europe north of the Alps
     5.Knows positive and negative changes in the status of women during the Renaissance and Reformation
     6.Understands the legacy of Renaissance architecture
     7.Understands changes in European art and architecture between the Middle Ages and the High Renaissance
   Benchmark 6.Understands contributions of the Scientific Revolution to European society (e.g., the importance of discoveries in mathematics, physics, biology, and chemistry to 17th-and 18th-century Europe; the significance of the principles of the scientific method advanced by Francis Bacon and Ren‚ Descartes; the trial of Galileo and arguments and evidence used to prove him "innocent" or "guilty"; the major features of the Scientific Revolution in major fields of endeavor)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of discoveries in mathematics to 17th and 18th century Europe
     2.Understands the importance of discoveries in physics to 17th and 18th century Europe
     3.Understands the importance of discoveries in biology to 17th and 18th century Europe
     4.Understands the importance of discoveries in chemistry to 17th and 18th century Europe
     5.Understands the significance of the principles of the scientific method advanced by Francis Bacon and René Descartes
     6.Understands the trial of Galileo and arguments and evidence used to prove him "innocent" or "guilty"
     7.Knows the major features of the Scientific Revolution in major fields of endeavor
   Benchmark 7.Understands the short and long-term impact of Enlightenment ideas (e.g., how Enlightenment-era thought contributed to the reform of church and state, the reform programs of absolutist monarchs of Central Europe and Russia, the influence of Enlightenment ideas on the development of modern nationalism and democratic thought and institutions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the short term impact of Enlightenment ideas
     2.Understands the long term impact of Enlightenment ideas
     3.Understands how Enlightenment era thought contributed to the reform of church and state
     4.Understands the reform programs of absolutist monarchs of Central Europe and Russia
     5.Understands the influence of Enlightenment ideas on the development of modern nationalism and democratic thought and institutions
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands influences on the spread of scientific ideas and Enlightenment thought (e.g., the importance of royal societies and other international networks in disseminating scientific ideas and methods; how academies, salons, and popular publishing spread Enlightenment thought; how the salons of aristocratic and bourgeois Parisian women influenced French political affairs, and why men eventually created their own salons; how Chinese humanist philosophy influenced the ideas of major Enlightenment writers and thinkers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of royal societies and other international networks in disseminating scientific ideas and methods
     2.Understands how academies spread Enlightenment thought
     4.Understands how salons spread Enlightenment thought
     5.Understands how popular publishing spread Enlightenment thought
     7.Knows how the salons of aristocratic and bourgeois Parisian women influenced French political affairs
     8.Understands why men eventually created their own salons
     9.Understands how Chinese humanist philosophy influenced the ideas of major Enlightenment writers and thinkers
   Benchmark 5.Understands features of the conflict between religious beliefs and scientific thought during the Scientific Revolution (e.g., the coexistence of the new scientific rationalism in 17th-and 18th-century Europe with traditional learning and rituals; Galileo's ideas about the solar system, and why he hesitated to apply scriptural passages to science-related problems; the fundamental ideas of Descartes' Discourse on Method, and the methods he used to ascertain the "truth")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the coexistence of the new scientific rationalism in 17th and 18th century Europe with traditional learning and rituals
     2.Understands Galileo’s ideas about the solar system
     3.Understands why Galileo hesitated to apply scriptural passages to science related problems
     4.Understands the fundamental ideas of Descartes’ Discourse on Method, and the methods he used to ascertain the "truth"
   Benchmark 6.Understands the role of the Enlightenment in shaping European society (e.g., the impact of Europe's growing knowledge of other regions on the development of concepts of universalism, tolerance, and world history; the connection between the Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution, and arguments supporting the notion that one was dependent upon the other)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of Europe’s growing knowledge of other regions on the development of concepts of universalism, tolerance, and world history
     2.Understands the connection between the Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution, and arguments supporting the notion that one was dependent upon the other
   Benchmark 7.Understands significant individuals and ideologies that emerged during the Renaissance and Reformation (e.g., the basic arguments in The Prince by Machiavelli; works of Renaissance writers and elements of Humanism in these works; individuals and factors that contributed to the revival of Greco-Roman art, architecture, and scholarship; differing ideas on women's roles in the Protestant household; social oppression and conflict in Europe during the Renaissance, as contrasted with humanist principles of the time)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows significant individuals that emerged during the Renaissance
     2.Knows significant individuals that emerged during the Reformation
     3.Knows significant ideologies that emerged during the Renaissance
     4.Knows significant ideologies that emerged during the Reformation
     5.Knows the basic arguments in The Prince by Machiavelli
     6.Knows works of Renaissance writers and elements of Humanism in these works
     7.Knows individuals and factors that contributed to the revival of Greco Roman art, architecture, and scholarship
     8.Knows differing ideas on women’s roles in the Protestant household
     9.Understands social oppression and conflict in Europe during the Renaissance, as contrasted with humanist principles of the time
 Standard 28.  Understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands cultural and religious influences on Mughal social and cultural conditions (e.g., the Indian, Persian, and European influences on Mughal artistic, architectural, literary, and scientific achievements; how Akbar unified diverse cultures and encouraged religious tolerance within his Mughal Empire; the synthesis of Muslim and Hindu influences in art of the Mughal Empire)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands cultural influences on Mughal social and cultural conditions
     2.Understands religious influences on Mughal social and cultural conditions
     3.Knows Indian influences on Mughal artistic, architectural, literary, and scientific achievements
     4.Knows Persian influences on Mughal artistic, architectural, literary, and scientific achievements
     5.Knows European influences on Mughal artistic, architectural, literary, and scientific achievements
     6.Understands how Akbar unified diverse cultures and encouraged religious tolerance within his Mughal Empire
     7.Understands the synthesis of Muslim and Hindu influences in art of the Mughal Empire
 Standard 32.  Understands the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the ideas and events that shaped the Revolution in France (e.g., the causes, character, and consequences of the American and French revolutions; the meaning of the revolutionary slogan in France, "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity," and the social ideals it embodied; the legacy of leading ideas of the revolution; how the wars of the revolutionary and Napoleonic periods changed Europe and Napoleon's effects on the aims and outcomes of the revolution; connections between political events in the Americas and France between 1770 and 1815)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the ideas that shaped the Revolution in France
     2.Understands the events that shaped the Revolution in France
     3.Knows the causes of the American Revolution
     4.Knows the causes of the French Revolution
     5.Understands the character of the American Revolution
     6.Understands the character of the French Revolution
     7.Understands the consequences of the American Revolution
     8.Understands the consequences of the French Revolution
     9.Understands the meaning of the revolutionary slogan in France, "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity," and the social ideals it embodied
     10.Knows the legacy of leading ideas of the revolution
     11.Understands how the wars of the revolutionary and Napoleonic periods changed Europe and Napoleon’s effects on the aims and outcomes of the revolution
     12.Understands connections between political events in the Americas and France between 1770 and 1815
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the diverse factors (e.g., the Seven Years War, Enlightenment-era thought, the American Revolution, escalating internal economic crisis) that affected social and political conditions in Old Regime France
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the diverse factors that affected social conditions in Old Regime France
     2.Understands the diverse factors that affected political conditions in Old Regime France
     3.Understands how the Seven Years War affected social and political conditions in Old Regime France
     4.Understands how Enlightenment era thought affected social and political conditions in Old Regime France
     5.Understands how the American Revolution affected social and political conditions in Old Regime France
     6.Understands how escalating internal economic crisis affected social and political conditions in Old Regime France
   Benchmark 2.Understands events and ideas that influenced the course of the French Revolution (e.g., how the revolution developed from constitutional monarchy to democratic despotism to the Napoleonic empire; the organization of the Estates-General and its merits and limitations; central ideas and origins of the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands events that influenced the course of the French Revolution
     2.Understands ideas that influenced the course of the French Revolution
     3.Understands how the revolution developed from constitutional monarchy to democratic despotism to the Napoleonic empire
     4.Knows the organization of the Estates General and its merits and limitations
     5.Knows the central ideas and origins of the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the French Revolution changed social conditions in France (e.g., how the revolution changed political and religious institutions, social relations, education, family life, and the legal and political position of women; how territorial changes were made in Europe between 1789 and 1815 and their consequences for diverse social groups such as clergy, nobility, peasantry, bourgeoisie, and sans-culottes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the French Revolution changed political institutions
     2.Understands how the French Revolution changed religious institutions
     3.Understands how the French Revolution changed social relations
     4.Understands how the French Revolution changed education
     5.Understands how the French Revolution changed family life
     6.Understands how the French Revolution changed the legal and political position of women
     7.Understands how territorial changes were made in Europe between 1789 and 1815
     8.Understands the consequences of territorial changes in Europe between 1789 and 1815 for diverse social groups such as clergy, nobility, peasantry, bourgeoisie, and sans culottes
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the political beliefs and writings that emerged during the French Revolution (e.g., characteristics and actions of radical, liberal, moderate, conservative, and reactionary thinking; the ideas in the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen" and Olympe de Gouge's "Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen"; the implications of the "Code Napoleon" for Protestant and Catholic Clergy, property owners, workers, and women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the political beliefs that emerged during the French Revolution
     2.Knows the political writings that emerged during the French Revolution
     3.Knows characteristics and actions of radical thinkers during the French Revolution
     4.Knows characteristics and actions of liberal thinkers during the French Revolution
     5.Knows characteristics and actions of moderate thinkers during the French Revolution
     6.Knows characteristics and actions of conservative thinkers during the French Revolution
     7.Knows the ideas in the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen"
     8.Knows the ideas in Olympe de Gouge’s "Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen"
     9.Understands the implications of the "Code Napoleon" for Protestant and Catholic Clergy, property owners, workers, and women
 Standard 33.  Understands the causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions from 1700 to 1850
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the effect of economic conditions and theories on the development of industrialization (e.g., the relationship between the expanding global market of the 16th to 18th century and the development of industrialization, the effect of new economic theories on industrial policies and practices)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the relationship between the expanding global market of the16th to18th century and the development of industrialization
     2.Understands the effect of new economic theories on industrial policies and practices
   Benchmark 3.Understands reasons why various countries abolished slavery (e.g., the importance of Enlightenment thought, Christian piety, democratic revolutions, slave resistance, and changes in the world economy in bringing about the abolition of the slave trade and emancipation of the slaves in the Americas; evangelical arguments against slavery, and the economic, evangelical, and "Enlightened" reasons for Britain's abolition of slavery; why Brazil was the last nation to abolish slavery and the slave trade; the consequences of the Haitian Revolution for the slave trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of Enlightenment thought in bringing about the abolition of the slave trade and emancipation of the slaves in the Americas
     2.Understands the importance of Christian piety in bringing about the abolition of the slave trade and emancipation of the slaves in the Americas
     3.Understands the importance of democratic revolutions in bringing about the abolition of the slave trade and emancipation of the slaves in the Americas
     4.Understands the importance of slave resistance in bringing about the abolition of the slave trade and emancipation of the slaves in the Americas
     5.Understands the importance of changes in the world economy in bringing about the abolition of the slave trade and emancipation of the slaves in the Americas
     6.Knows evangelical arguments against slavery,
     7.Understands the economic, evangelical, and "Enlightened" reasons for Britain’s abolition of slavery
     8.Knows why Brazil was the last nation to abolish slavery and the slave trade
     9.Understands the consequences of the Haitian Revolution for the slave trade
   Benchmark 4.Understands the realities and romanticized visions of pre-industrial England (e.g., as reflected in the paintings of Constable and Turner)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the realities of pre industrial England
     2.Understands the romanticized visions of pre industrial England (e.g., as reflected in the paintings of Constable and Turner)
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands political conditions in Russia during the reign of Catherine the Great (e.g., the effects of the French Revolution, Napoleonic invasion, and world economy on Russian absolutism; the significance of imperial reforms and popular opposition movements in the late 19th century; the extent of Russian expansion into Eastern Europe and Central Asia; how Poland was partitioned in 1772, 1793, and 1795, and the location and significance of Russian ports on the White and Black Seas and the Baltic)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effects of the French Revolution on Russian absolutism
     2.Understands the effects of the Napoleonic invasion on Russian absolutism
     3.Understands the effects of the world economy on Russian absolutism
     4.Understands the significance of imperial reforms and popular opposition movements in the late 19th century
     5.Knows the extent of Russian expansion into Eastern Europe and Central Asia
     6.Knows how Poland was partitioned in 1772, 1793, and 1795
     7.Knows the location and significance of Russian ports on the White and Black Seas and the Baltic
   Benchmark 3.Understands the impact of foreign trade and politics on Indian culture (e.g., major trade routes that linked China, India, and Europe, and the impact of this trade on Indian agriculture and industry; the decline of the Mughal empire and the rise of British political and military influence in India between 1750 and 1858; the competitive policies of the British and the French in India, and why the British East India Company was able to prevail; the goods imported to and exported from India)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of foreign trade on Indian culture
     2.Understands the impact of foreign politics on Indian culture
     3.Knows major trade routes that linked China, India, and Europe
     4.Understands the impact of trade between China, India, and Europe on Indian agriculture and industry
     5.Understands the decline of the Mughal empire and the rise of British political and military influence in India between 1750 and 1858
     6.Knows the competitive policies of the British and the French in India
     7.Knows why the British East India Company was able to prevail over the French East India Company in India
     8.Knows the goods imported to and exported from India
   Benchmark 6.Understands the origins of Japanese modernization and Japan's changing policies toward Western influences (e.g., the impact of Western ideas and the role of Confucianism and Shinto traditional values on Japan in the Meiji period, the role of the samurai in the events leading up to the Mejii Restoration)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of Japanese modernization
     2.Understands Japan’s changing policies toward Western influences
     3.Understands the impact of Western ideas on Japan in the Meiji period
     4.Understands the role of Confucianism and Shinto traditional values in Japan in the Meiji period
     5.Knows the role of the samurai in the events leading up to the Mejii Restoration
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the impact of cultural achievements on 19th-century Europe and America (e.g., movements in literature, music, and the visual arts, and ways in which they shaped or reflected social and cultural values)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of cultural achievements on 19th century Europe
     2.Understands the impact of cultural achievements on 19th century America
     3.Understands 19th century literary movements in Europe
     4.Understands 19th century literary movements in America
     5.Understands 19th century movements in music in Europe
     6.Understands 19th century movements in music in America
     7.Understands 19th century visual arts movements in Europe
     8.Understands 19th century visual arts movements in America
     9.Understands ways in which movements in literature, music, and the visual arts shaped or reflected social and cultural values in Europe
     10.Understands ways in which movements in literature, music, and the visual arts shaped or reflected social and cultural values in America
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the ideas that influenced the nationalist movements (e.g., major characteristics of 19th-century European nationalism, and connections between nationalist ideology, the French Revolution, Romanticism, and liberal reform movements; the extent to which Garibaldi reflected 19th-century Romanticism; the purpose of Bismarck's "Blood and Iron" speech, and previous attempts at unification to which he refers; the chronology of significant events in the unifications of Italy and Germany)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows major characteristics of 19th century European nationalism
     2.Understands connections between nationalist ideology, the French Revolution, Romanticism, and liberal reform movements
     3.Understands the extent to which Garibaldi reflected 19th century Romanticism
     4.Knows the purpose of Bismarck’s "Blood and Iron" speech, and previous attempts at unification to which he refers
     5.Knows the chronology of significant events in the unification of Italy
     6.Knows the chronology of significant events in the unification of Germany
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the emergence of new social thought in the 19th century (e.g., ways in which trends in philosophy and the new social sciences challenged and reshaped traditional patterns of thought, religious understanding, and understanding of social organization)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways in which trends in philosophy and the new social sciences challenged and reshaped traditional patterns of thought
     2.Understands ways in which trends in philosophy and the new social sciences challenged and reshaped religious understanding
     3.Knows ways in which trends in philosophy and the new social sciences challenged and reshaped traditional patterns of social organization
   Benchmark 7.Understands how political and economic change influenced Latin American society in the 19th century (e.g., Latin America's growing dependence on the global market economy, as well as the effects of international trade and investment on the power of landowners and the urban middle class; the consequences of economic development, elite domination, and the abolition of slavery for peasants, indigenous populations, and immigrant laborers in Latin America; the impact of the expansion of secular education upon women's legal and political rights; the roles and perspectives of the caudillo, military official, landowner, urban bourgeoisie, or church official in post-independence Latin America; attitudes toward nationalism and cultural identity in 19th-century Latin America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how political change influenced Latin American society in the 19th century
     2.Understands how economic change influenced Latin American society in the 19th century
     3.Understands Latin America’s growing dependence on the global market economy, as well as the effects of international trade and investment on the power of landowners and the urban middle class
     4.Understands the consequences of economic development, elite domination, and the abolition of slavery for peasants, indigenous populations, and immigrant laborers in Latin America
     5.Understands the impact of the expansion of secular education upon women’s legal and political rights
     6.Understands the roles and perspectives of the caudillo, military official, landowner, urban bourgeoisie, or church official in post independence Latin America
     7.Understands attitudes toward nationalism and cultural identity in 19th century Latin America
   Benchmark 10.Understands how different movements and ideas influenced society in the 19th century (e.g., the effect of the continental revolutions on the Chartist movement in England, and how the ruling classes reacted to Chartist demands; the essential ideas outlined in Marx and Engel's Communist Manifesto and their meaning in the context of late 19th-century economic, political, and social conditions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the effect of the continental revolutions on the Chartist movement in England
     2.Understands how the ruling classes reacted to Chartist demands
     3.Knows the essential ideas outlined in Marx and Engel’s Communist Manifesto
     4.Understands the meaning of ideas in Marx and Engel’s Communist Manifesto in the context of late 19th century economic, political, and social conditions
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands major developments in science and the industrial economy (e.g., the social significance of the work of scientists, including Maxwell, Darwin, and Pasteur; how new forms of generative power contributed to Europe's "second industrial revolution;" the role of the state in different countries in directing or encouraging industrialization; the social, economic, and cultural impact of the railroad)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major developments in science in the 19th century
     2.Understands major developments in the industrial economy in the 19th century
     3.Understands the social significance of the work of 19th century scientists, including Maxwell, Darwin, and Pasteur
     4.Knows how new forms of generative power contributed to Europe’s "second industrial revolution
     5.Knows the role of the state in different countries in directing or encouraging industrialization in the 19th century
     6.Understands the social, economic, and cultural impact of the railroad
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the influence of European imperial expansion on political and social facets of African and Indian society (e.g., ideas of Social Darwinism and scientific racism in 19th-century Europe and how these encouraged European imperial expansion in Africa and Asia; the major chain of events in Europe and Africa that led to the "scramble" for African territory, and the role of particular African governments or peoples in the partition of Africa by the Europeans; the impact of European expansion on legal, familial, and gender relations in Indian and African village life)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of European imperial expansion on political facets of African society
     2.Understands the influence of European imperial expansion on social facets of African society
     3.Understands the influence of European imperial expansion on political facets of Indian society
     4.Understands the influence of European imperial expansion on social facets of Indian society
     5.Understands ideas of Social Darwinism and scientific racism in 19th century Europe and how these encouraged European imperial expansion in Africa and Asia
     6.Knows the major chain of events in Europe and Africa that led to the "scramble" for African territory
     7.Understands the role of particular African governments or peoples in the partition of Africa by the Europeans
     8.Understands the impact of European expansion on legal, familial, and gender relations in Indian village life
     9.Understands the impact of European expansion on legal, familial, and gender relations in African village life
   Benchmark 11.Understands the European intellectual justifications for imperialism (e.g., the French notion of mission civilisatrice, the German concept of Kultur, and British imperialism as reflected in Rudyard Kipling's White Man's Burden)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the French notion of mission civilisatrice was used to justify imperialism
     2.Understands how the German concept of Kultur was used to justify imperialism
     3.Understands British imperialism and its intellectual justification as reflected in Rudyard Kipling’s White Man’s Burden
   Benchmark 14.Understands Western influence on Japanese society in the 19th century (e.g., the chronology of major social, economic, and technological changes derived from the West in 19th-century Japan; the political and symbolic role of the emperor of Meiji Japan and how that role compared to those of British and other Western monarchs of the time)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the chronology of major social, economic, and technological changes derived from the West in 19th century Japan
     2.Knows the political and symbolic role of the emperor of Meiji Japan
     3.Understands how the role of the emperor of Meiji Japan compared to those of British and other Western monarchs of the time
 Standard 37.  Understand major global trends from 1750 to 1914
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the importance of ideas associated with republicanism, liberalism, socialism, and constitutionalism on 19th-century political life in such states as Great Britain, France, the United States, Germany, Russia, Mexico, Argentina, the Ottoman Empire, China, or Japan (e.g., how these movements were tied to new or old-class interests)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of ideas associated with republicanism in such states as Great Britain, France, the United States, Germany, Russia, Mexico, Argentina, the Ottoman Empire, China, or Japan
     2.Understands the importance of ideas associated with liberalism on 19th century political life in such states as Great Britain, France, the United States, Germany, Russia, Mexico, Argentina, the Ottoman Empire, China, or Japan
     3.Understands the importance of ideas associated with socialism on 19th century political life in such states as Great Britain, France, the United States, Germany, Russia, Mexico, Argentina, the Ottoman Empire, China, or Japan
     4.Understands the importance of ideas associated with constitutionalism on 19th century political life in such states as Great Britain, France, the United States, Germany, Russia, Mexico, Argentina, the Ottoman Empire, China, or Japan
     5.Understands how the movements of republicanism, liberalism, socialism, and constitutionalism were tied to new or old class interests
 Standard 38.  Understands reform, revolution, and social change in the world economy of the early 20th century
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands prominent features and ideas of liberalism, social reformism, conservatism, and socialism in the early 20th century (e.g., the "welfare state" promoted by liberal ideals; the influential ideas of leading Europeans such as Stanley Baldwin, Ramsay MacDonald, Emmeline Pankhurst, Jean JaurŠs, Raymond Poincar‚ Peter Stolypin, Alfred Krupp, or Rosa Luxemborg)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands prominent features and ideas of liberalism in the early 20th century
     2.Understands prominent features and ideas of social reformism in the early 20th century
     3.Understands prominent features and ideas of conservatism in the early 20th century
     4.Understands prominent features and ideas of socialism in the early 20th century
     5.Understands the concept of the "welfare state" promoted by liberal ideals
     6.Understands the influential ideas of leading Europeans such as Stanley Baldwin, Ramsay MacDonald, Emmeline Pankhurst, Jean Jaurès, Raymond Poincaré Peter Stolypin, Alfred Krupp, or Rosa Luxemborg
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Understands events and ideas that led to China's revolutionary movements in the early 20th century (e.g., social and cultural conditions in China that led to the New Culture, or May Fourth movement; the four points of Sun Yatsen's Manifesto for the Revolutionary Alliance [Tong Meng Hui] and to whom these revolutionary goals appealed)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands events that led to China’s revolutionary movements in the early 20th century
     2.Understands ideas that led to China’s revolutionary movements in the early 20th century
     3.Knows social and cultural conditions in China that led to the New Culture, or May Fourth movement
     4.Knows the four points of Sun Yatsen’s Manifesto for the Revolutionary Alliance (Tong Meng Hui) and to whom these revolutionary goals appealed
 Standard 39.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War I
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands ways in which popular faith in science, technology, and material progress affected attitudes toward the possibility of war among European states
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands ways that popular faith in science affected attitudes toward the possibility of war among European states
     2.Understands ways that popular faith in technology affected attitudes toward the possibility of war among European states
     3.Understands ways that popular faith in material progress affected attitudes toward the possibility of war among European states
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands Lenin's ideology and policies and their impact on Russia after the Revolution of 1917 (e.g., Lenin's political ideology and how the Bolsheviks adapted Marxist ideas to conditions particular to Russia; why Lenin declined to follow Marxist economic philosophy; the platforms and promises of Kerenksy and Lenin in 1917, the impact of war upon Kerensky's program, and the importance of Lenin's promise, "land, bread, peace"; how statistics on women in the labor force and education contradict Lenin's statements concerning women's equality)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Lenin’s political ideology
     2.Understands Lenin’s policies
     3.Understands the impact of Lenin’s ideology and policies on Russia after the Revolution of 1917
     4.Understands how the Bolsheviks adapted Marxist ideas to conditions particular to Russia
     5.Understands why Lenin declined to follow Marxist economic philosophy
     6.Understands the platforms and promises of Kerenksy in 1917
     7.Understands the platforms and promises of Lenin in 1917
     8.Understands the impact of war upon Kerensky’s program
     9.Understands the importance of Lenin’s promise, "land, bread, peace"
     10.Understands how statistics on women in the labor force contradicted Lenin’s statements concerning women’s equality
     11.Understands how statistics on women in education contradicted Lenin’s statements concerning women’s equality
 Standard 40.  Understands the search for peace and stability throughout the world in the 1920s and 1930s
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands major discoveries in science and medicine in the first half of the 20th century (e.g., those made by Curie, Einstein, Freud) and how they affected the quality of life and traditional views of nature, the cosmos, and the psyche
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the major discoveries in science in the first half of the 20th century
     2.Understands the major discoveries in medicine in the first half of the 20th century
     3.Knows about discoveries made by Curie
     4.Knows about discoveries made by Einstein
     5.Knows about discoveries made by Freud
     6.Understands how major discoveries affected the quality of life
     7.Understands how major discoveries affected traditional views of nature
     8.Understands how major discoveries affected traditional views of the cosmos
     9.Understands how major discoveries affected traditional views of the psyche
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands reasons for the shifts in the political conditions in nations around the world after World War I (e.g., how social and economic conditions of colonial rule, and ideals of liberal democracy and national autonomy contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in India, Africa, and Southeast Asia; the successes and failures of democratic government in Latin America in the context of class divisions, economic dependency, and U.S. intervention; how Japan's domestic democracy may have fallen victim to its imperialist foreign policy)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how social conditions of colonial rule contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in India
     2.Understands how economic conditions of colonial rule contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in India
     3.Understands how social conditions of colonial rule contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in Africa
     4.Understands how economic conditions of colonial rule contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in Africa
     5.Understands how social conditions of colonial rule contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in Southeast Asia
     6.Understands how economic conditions of colonial rule contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in Southeast Asia
     7.Understands how ideals of liberal democracy contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in India
     8.Understands how ideals of liberal democracy contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in Africa
     9.Understands how ideals of liberal democracy contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in Southeast Asia
     10.Understands how national autonomy contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in India
     11.Understands how national autonomy contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in Africa
     12.Understands how national autonomy contributed to the rise of nationalist movements in Southeast Asia
     13.Understands the successes of democratic governments in Latin America
     14.Understands the failures of democratic governments in Latin America
     15.Understands the effects of class divisions on democratic governments in Latin America
     16.Understands the effects of economic dependency on democratic governments in Latin America
     17.Understands the effects of U.S. intervention on democratic governments in Latin America
     18.Understands how Japan’s domestic democracy may have fallen victim to its imperialist foreign policy
 Standard 42.  Understands major global trends from 1900 to the end of World War II
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how revolutionary movements in such countries as Mexico, Russia, and China either drew upon or rejected liberal, republican, and constitutional ideals of 18th and 19th century revolutions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how revolutionary movements in Mexico either drew upon or rejected liberal, republican, and constitutional ideals of 18th and 19th century revolutions
     2.Understands how revolutionary movements in Russia either drew upon or rejected liberal, republican, and constitutional ideals of 18th and 19th century revolutions

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 4.  Understands how democratic values came to be, and how they have been exemplified by people, events, and symbols
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the basic principles of American democracy; right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; responsibility for the common good; equality of opportunity and equal protection of the law; freedom of speech and religion; majority rule with protection for minority rights; and limitations on government, with power held by the people and delegated by them to those officials whom they elected to office
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness is a basic principle of American democracy
     2.Knows that responsibility for the common good is a basic principle of American democracy
     3.Knows that equal opportunity for all is a basic principle of American democracy
     4.Knows that equal protection of the law is a basic principle of American democracy
     5.Knows that freedom of speech is a basic principle of American democracy
     6.Knows that freedom of religion is a basic principle of American democracy
     7.Knows that majority rule with protection for minority rights is a basic principle of American democracy
     8.Knows that limited government is a basic principle of American democracy
     9.Knows that the American people delegate their political power to elected officials
   Benchmark 6.Understands historical figures who believed in the fundamental democratic values (e.g., justice, truth, equality, the rights of the individual, responsibility for the common good, voting rights) and the significance of these people both in their historical context and today
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that justice is a fundamental democratic value
     2.Knows that truth is a fundamental democratic value
     3.Knows that equality is a fundamental democratic value
     4.Knows that protection for individual rights is a fundamental democratic value
     5.Knows that responsibility for the common good is a fundamental democratic value
     6.Knows that the right to vote is a fundamental democratic value
     7.Understands the significance of historical figures who upheld fundamental democratic values in their historical context
     8.Understands the significance of historical figures who upheld fundamental democratic values today

Historical Understanding

 Standard 2.  Understands the historical perspective
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands that specific ideas had an impact on history
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that an idea can have an impact on history
     2.Knows an example of an idea that has had a significant impact on history
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Analyzes the influences specific ideas and beliefs had on a period of history and specifies how events might have been different in the absence of those ideas and beliefs
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows specific ideas that had an influence on a period of history
     2.Knows specific beliefs that had an influence on a period of history
     3.Speculates how a period of history might have been different in the absence of specific ideas

United States History

 Standard 4.  Understands how political, religious, and social institutions emerged in the English colonies
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the influence of Enlightenment ideas on American society (e.g., Benjamin Franklin’s experiments with electricity)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about Benjamin Franklin’s experiments with electricity
     2.Knows that Benjamin Franklin’s experiments are an example of Enlightenment ideas
     3.Knows that Benjamin Franklin’s experiment with electricity influenced American society
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands ideas that influenced religious and political aspects of colonial America (e.g., how the growth of individualism contributed to participatory government, challenged inherited ideas of hierarchy, and affected the ideal of community; whether political rights in colonial society reflected democratic ideas; how Benjamin Franklin’s thirteen virtues in his Autobiography compare to Puritan ideas and values )
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands ideas that influenced the religion of colonial America
     2.Understands ideas that influenced political aspects of colonial America
     3.Knows how the growth of individualism contributed to participatory government in colonial America
     4.Knows how the growth of individualism challenged inherited ideas of hierarchy in colonial America
     5.Knows how the growth of individualism affected the ideal of community in colonial America
     6.Knows whether political rights in colonial society reflected democratic ideas
     7.Understands how Benjamin Franklin’s thirteen virtues in his Autobiography compare to Puritan ideas and values
   Benchmark 2.Understands the concepts that contributed to the "rights of Englishmen" (e.g., as found in the Magna Carta, English Common law, the English Bill of Rights [1689])
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concepts found in the Magna Carta that contributed to the "rights of Englishmen"
     2.Understands the concepts found in English Common law that contributed to the "rights of Englishmen"
     3.Understands the concepts found in the English Bill of Rights (1689) that contributed to the "rights of Englishmen"
 Standard 6.  Understands the causes of the American Revolution, the ideas and interests involved in shaping the revolutionary movement, and reasons for the American victory
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the major ideas in the Declaration of Independence, their sources, and how they became unifying ideas of American democracy (e.g., major terms, why the document was written, what the signers risked)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the major ideas in the Declaration of Independence
     2.Understands the sources of ideas in the Declaration of Independence
     3.Understands how the ideas in the Declaration of Independence became unifying ideas of American democracy
     5.Understands why the Declaration of Independence was written
     6.Understands what the signers of the Declaration of Independence risked
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how political, ideological, and religious ideas joined economic interests to bring about the "shot heard round the world" (e.g., leaders of resistance to imperial policy; the English tax on the colonists to help pay for the Seven Years War; the interests and positions of different economic groups, such as northern merchants, southern rice and tobacco planters, yeoman farmers, and urban artisans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how political ideas helped bring about the "shot heard round the world"
     2.Understands how ideologies helped bring about the "shot heard round the world"
     3.Understands how religious ideas helped bring about the "shot heard round the world"
     4.Understands how economic interests brought about the "shot heard round the word"
     5.Knows about the leaders of resistance to imperial policy
     6.Knows about the English tax on the colonists to help pay for the Seven Years War
   Benchmark 2.Understands contradictions between the Declaration of Independence and the institution of chattel slavery
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows about the institution of chattel slavery
     3.Understands how the Declaration of Independence and the institution of chattel slavery are contradictory
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how the principles of the Declaration of Independence justified American independence
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the arguments to justify American independence
 Standard 7.  Understands the impact of the American Revolution on politics, economy, and society
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of various groups of people during and after the war (e.g., African Americans, Native Americans, Loyalists, women, young people)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of African Americans during the war
     2.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of African Americans after the war
     3.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of Native Americans during the war
     4.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of Native Americans after the war
     5.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of Loyalists during the war
     6.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of Loyalists after the war
     7.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of women during the war
     8.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of women after the war
     9.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of young people during the war
     10.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of young people after the war
 Standard 8.  Understands the institutions and practices of government created during the Revolution and how these elements were revised between 1787 and 1815 to create the foundation of the American political system based on the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the issues and ideas supported and opposed by delegates at the Constitutional Convention (e.g., enduring features of the Constitution, such as the separation of powers, and checks and balances; the Virginia Plan; the New Jersey Plan; the Connecticut Compromise; abolition)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows of ideas supported by some delegates at the Constitutional Convention
     4.Knows of ideas opposed by some delegates at the Constitutional Convention
     7.Understands the debate at the Constitutional Convention about checks and balances
     8.Understands the debate at the Constitutional Convention about the Virginia Plan
     9.Understands the debate at the Constitutional Convention about the Connecticut Compromise
     10.Understands the debate at the Constitutional Convention about abolition
 Standard 9.  Understands the United States territorial expansion between 1801 and 1861, and how it affected relations with external powers and Native Americans
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the origins of Manifest Destiny and its influence on the westward expansion of the United States (e.g., its role in the resolution of the Oregon dispute with Great Britain, how it led to the Mexican-American war)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the influence of Manifest Destiny on the westward expansion of the United States
     3.Understands the role of Manifest Destiny in the resolution of the Oregon dispute with Great Britain
     4.Understands how Manifest Destiny led to the Mexican-American War
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the social and political impact of the idea of Manifest Destiny (e.g., how it fueled the controversy over the Oregon territory, how it was reflected in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, its appeal to 19th century American industrial workers and small farmers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social impact of the idea of Manifest Destiny
     2.Understands the political impact of the idea of Manifest Destiny
     3.Understands how the idea of Manifest Destiny fueled the controversy over the Oregon territory
     4.Understands how the idea of Manifest Destiny was reflected in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
     5.Understands the appeal of Manifest Destiny to 19th century American industrial workers
     6.Understands the appeal of Manifest Destiny to 19th century American small farmers
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the religious, political, and social ideas that contributed to the 19th century belief in Manifest Destiny (e.g., the influence of U.S. trading interests in the Far East on continental expansion to the Pacific, "City Upon a Hill" and subsequent Protestant belief in building a model Christian community, millennialism and the Great Awakening, Republicanism, the urge to keep foreign enemies from gaining control of the Pacific Coast, the belief in America's duty to uplift "less civilized" peoples in the West)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the religious ideas that contributed to the 19th century belief in Manifest Destiny
     2.Understands the political ideas that contributed to the 19th century belief in Manifest Destiny
     3.Understands the social ideas that contributed to the 19th century belief in Manifest Destiny
     4.Understands how the influence of U.S. trading interests in the Far East on continental expansion to the Pacific contributed to the 19th century belief in Manifest Destiny
     5.Understands how the "City Upon a Hill" and subsequent Protestant belief in building a model Christian community contributed to the 19th century belief in Manifest Destiny
     6.Understands how millennialism contributed to the 19th century belief in Manifest Destiny
     7.Understands how the Great Awakening contributed to the 19th century belief in Manifest Destiny
     8.Understands how Republicanism contributed to the 19th century belief in Manifest Destiny
     9.Understands how the urge to keep foreign enemies from gaining control of the Pacific Coast contributed to the 19th century belief in Manifest Destiny
     10.Understands the belief in America’s duty to uplift "less civilized" peoples in the West contributed to the 19th century belief in Manifest Destiny
 Standard 11.  Understands the extension, restriction, and reorganization of political democracy after 1800
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the positions of northern antislavery advocates and southern proslavery spokesmen on a variety of issues (e.g., race, chattel slavery, the nature of the Union, states’ rights, Lincoln-Douglas debates)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the positions of northern antislavery advocates on a variety of issues
     2.Understands the positions of southern proslavery spokesmen on a variety of issues
     3.Understands the position of northern antislavery advocates on race
     4.Understands the position of northern antislavery advocates on chattel slavery
     5.Understands the position of northern antislavery advocates on the nature of the Union
     6.Understands the position of northern antislavery advocates on states’ rights
     7.Understands the position of southern proslavery spokesmen on race
     8.Understands the position of southern proslavery spokesmen on chattel slavery
     9.Understands the position of southern proslavery spokesmen on the nature of the Union
     10.Understands the position of southern proslavery spokesmen on states’ rights
 Standard 12.  Understands the sources and character of cultural, religious, and social reform movements in the antebellum period
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the major characteristics of the abolition movement in the antebellum period (e.g., different viewpoints within the abolitionist movement, arguments of those opposed to and those who supported slavery, the Underground Railroad)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the different viewpoints within the abolitionist movement
     2.Understands the arguments of those opposed to slavery
     3.Understands the arguments of those who supported slavery
     4.Knows about the Underground Railroad
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the significant religious, philosophical, and social movements of the 19th century and their impacts on American society and social reform (e.g., the impact of the Second Great Awakening on issues such as public education, temperance, women's suffrage, and abolitionism; Transcendentalism and the literary works of its central leaders; Transcendentalist ideas about the individual, society, and nature)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significant religious movements of the 19th century
     2.Understands the significant philosophical movements of the 19th century
     3.Understands the significant social movements of the 19th century
     4.Understands the impacts of significant religious movements of the 19th century on American society
     5.Understands the impacts of significant philosophical movements of the 19th century on American society
     6.Understands the impacts of significant social movements of the 19th century on American society
     7.Understands the impacts of significant religious movements of the 19th century on American social reform
     8.Understands the impacts of significant philosophical movements of the 19th century on American social reform
     9.Understands the impacts of significant social movements of the 19th century on American social reform
     10.Understands the impact of the Second Great Awakening on public education
     11.Understands the impact of the Second Great Awakening on the issue of temperance
     12.Understands the impact of the Second Great Awakening on the issue of abolitionism
     13.Understands Transcendentalism
     14.Knows about the literary works of the central leaders of Transcendentalism
     15.Understands Transcendentalist ideas about the individual
     16.Understands Transcendentalist ideas about society
     17.Understands Transcendentalist ideas about nature
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the social impact of the Second Great Awakening (e.g., how Great Awakening leaders affected ordinary people; how the belief in individual responsibility for salvation and millenialism influenced reform movements; the role of moral suasion, social control, and compromise in reform)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how Great Awakening leaders affected ordinary people
     2.Understands how the belief in individual responsibility for salvation influenced reform movements
     3.Understands how the belief in individual responsibility for millenialism influenced reform movements
     4.Understands the role of moral suasion in the Second Great Awakening
     5.Understands the role of social control in reform during the Second Great Awakening
     6.Understands the role of compromise in reform during the Second Great Awakening
   Benchmark 3.Understands the ideas of Transcendentalism (e.g., views of Transcendentalists about good and evil, authority, tradition, and reform; similarities and differences between Transcendentalists and evangelical Protestants)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the views of Transcendentalists about good and evil
     2.Understands the views of Transcendentalists about authority
     3.Understands the views of Transcendentalists about tradition
     4.Understands the views of Transcendentalists about reform
     5.Understands the similarities between Transcendentalists and evangelical Protestants
     6.Understands the differences between Transcendentalists and evangelical Protestants
   Benchmark 4.Understands the development of Utopian communities (e.g., origins, beliefs, size, how their ideas compared to Transcendentalists)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of Utopian communities
     2.Understands the beliefs of Utopian communities
     3.Understands the size of Utopian communities
     4.Understands how the ideas of Utopian communities compared to Transcendentalists
   Benchmark 6.Understands the ideas associated with women's rights during the antebellum period (e.g., the goals and ideas of the antebellum women's movement for equality compared to 20th-century feminism, how the Seneca Falls "Declaration of Sentiments" relates to the ideas of the Declaration of Independence, the connection between the evangelical movement and the idea of southern woman, and the extent to which southern women endorsed the "Declaration of Sentiments")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the goals of the antebellum women’s movement for equality compared to 20th-century feminism
     2.Understands the ideas of the antebellum women’s movement for equality compared to 20th-century feminism
     3.Understands how the Seneca Falls "Declaration of Sentiments" relates to the ideas of the Declaration of Independence
     4.Understands the connection between the evangelical movement and the idea of southern woman
     5.Understands the extent to which southern women endorsed the "Declaration of Sentiments"
 Standard 14.  Understands the course and character of the Civil War and its effects on the American people
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the influence of Abraham Lincoln's ideas on the Civil War (e.g., the Gettysburg Address, how the Emancipation Proclamation transformed the goals of the Civil War)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of the Gettysburg Address on the Civil War
     2.Understands how the Emancipation Proclamation transformed the goals of the Civil War
 Standard 17.  Understands massive immigration after 1870 and how new social patterns, conflicts, and ideas of national unity developed amid growing cultural diversity
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the scientific theories of race and their application to society and politics
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the application of scientific theories of race to society
     3.Understands the application of scientific theories of race to politics
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how scientific theories of race affected society in the late 19th century (e.g., arguments of advocates and opponents, the impact of these theories on public policy)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how arguments of advocates for scientific theories of race affected society in the late 19th century
     2.Understands how arguments of opponents for scientific theories of race affected society in the late 19th century
     3.Understands how the impact of scientific theories of race impacted public policy in the late 19th century
 Standard 19.  Understands federal Indian policy and United States foreign policy after the Civil War
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands elements that contributed to late 19th century expansionist foreign policy (e.g., geopolitics, economic interests, racial ideology, Protestant missionary zeal, nationalism, and domestic tensions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the contribution of geopolitics to late 19th century expansionist foreign policy
     2.Understands the contribution of economic interests to late 19th century expansionist foreign policy
     3.Understands the contribution of racial ideology to late 19th century expansionist foreign policy
     4.Understands the contribution of Protestant missionary zeal to late 19th century expansionist foreign policy
     5.Understands the contribution of domestic tensions to late 19th century expansionist foreign policy
     6.Understands the contribution of domestic tensions to late 19th century expansionist foreign policy
 Standard 20.  Understands how Progressives and others addressed problems of industrial capitalism, urbanization, and political corruption
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the spread of Progressive ideas and the successes of the Progressive movement (e.g., how intellectuals, religious leaders, and writers alerted the public to the problems of urban industrial society; Progressive social reforms in education, conservation, and the "Americanization" of immigrants; contributions of governors such as Hiram Johnson, Robert La Follette, and Charles Evans Hughes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about the spread of Progressive ideas
     2.Knows about the successes of the Progressive movement
     3.Understands how intellectuals alerted the public to the problems of urban industrial society
     4.Understands how religious leaders alerted the public to the problems of urban industrial society
     5.Understands how writers alerted the public to the problems of urban industrial society
     6.Knows about Progressive social reforms in education
     7.Knows about Progressive social reforms in conservation
     8.Knows about the "Americanization" of immigrants
     9.Understands the contributions of governors such as Hiram Johnson to the Progressive movement
     10.Understands the contributions of governors such as Robert La Follette to the Progressive movement
     11.Understands the contributions of governors such as Charles Evans Hughes to the Progressive movement
   Benchmark 3.Understands the New Nationalism, New Freedom, and Socialist agendas for change
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the New Nationalism agenda for change
     2.Understands the New Freedom agenda for change
     3.Understands the Socialist agenda for change
 Standard 25.  Understands the causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the development of new political thinking and forms of government in Europe between World War I and World War II (e.g., the rise of fascism, national socialism, and communism)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the development of new political thinking in Europe between World War I and World War II
     2.Understands the development of new political forms of government in Europe between World War I and World War II
     3.Understands the rise of fascism in Europe between World War I and World War II
     4.Understands the rise of national socialism in Europe between World War I and World War II
     5.Understands the rise of communism in Europe between World War I and World War II