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Topic: Migration and settlement patterns 

United States History

 Standard 1.  Understands the characteristics of societies in the Americas, Western Europe, and Western Africa that increasingly interacted after 1450
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the migration and settlement patterns of peoples in the Americas (e.g., the archaeological and geological evidence that explains the movement of people from Asia to the Americas, the spread of human societies and the rise of diverse cultures from hunter-gatherers to urban dwellers, use of the Bering land bridge)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the migration patterns of peoples in the Pre-Columbian Americas
     2.Understands the settlement patterns of peoples in the Pre-Columbian Americas
     3.Understands the archaeological evidence that explains the movement of people from Asia to the Americas in Pre-Columbian times
     4.Understands the geological evidence that explains the movement of people from Asia to the Americas in Pre-Columbian times
     5.Understands the spread of human societies in terms of migration and settlement patterns in the Pre-Columbian Americas
     6.Understands the rise of diverse cultures in relation to migration and settlement patterns in the Pre-Columbian Americas
     7.Understands the role of hunter-gatherer societies in terms of migration and settlement patterns in the Pre-Columbian Americas
     8.Understands the rise of urban dwelling societies in the Pre-Columbian Americas
     9.Understands the role of the Bering land bridge in the migration and settlement patterns in the Pre-Columbian Americas
 Standard 2.  Understands cultural and ecological interactions among previously unconnected people resulting from early European exploration and colonization
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands characteristics of Spanish conquest and settlement in the Americas (e.g., the social composition of early Spanish settlers in the Americas in terms of age, gender, class, and its consequences for Latin America; how Cortes and Pizarro were able to conquer the Aztec and Inca; the role of religious beliefs in perceptions the Aztec and Spanish held of one another; Spanish attempts at justification for their treatment of Native Americans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the social composition of early Spanish settlers in the Americas in terms of age, gender, class, and its consequences for Latin America
     2.Understands how Cortes and Pizarro were able to conquer the Aztec and Inca during the Spanish conquest in the Americas
     3.Understands the role of religious beliefs in perceptions the Aztec and Spanish held of one another during the Spanish conquest of the Americas
     4.Knows Spanish attempts at justification for their treatment of Native Americans during the Spanish conquest of the Americas
 Standard 3.  Understands why the Americas attracted Europeans, why they brought enslaved Africans to their colonies and how Europeans struggled for control of North America and the Caribbean
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the cultural and environmental impacts of European settlement in North America (e.g., friendly and conflictory relations between English, French, Spanish, and Dutch settlers and Native Americans; how various Native American societies changed as a result of the expanding European settlements and how they influenced European societies; the impact of the fur trade on the environment)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows of friendly relations between English, French, Spanish, and Dutch settlers and Native Americans
     2.Knows of conflictory relations between English, French, Spanish, and Dutch settlers and Native Americans
     3.Understands how various Native American societies changed as a result of expanding European settlements
     4.Understands how various Native American societies influenced European societies
     5.Understands the impact of the fur trade on the environment
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands social and economic characteristics of European colonization in the 17th and 18th centuries (e.g., changing immigration and settlement patterns of Puritans, Quakers, Germans, and Scots-Irish; the slave trade and chattel slavery in the Spanish, English, and French Caribbean, Louisiana, the Dutch West Indies, and Chesapeake)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows immigration and settlement patterns of the Puritans
     2.Knows immigration and settlement patterns of the Quakers
     3.Knows immigration and settlement patterns of the Germans
     4.Knows immigration and settlement patterns of the Scots-Irish
     5.Understands slave trade and chattel slavery in the Spanish colonies
     6.Understands slave trade and chattel slavery in the English colonies
     7.Understands slave trade and chattel slavery in the French Caribbean
     8.Understands slave trade and chattel slavery in the Dutch Indies
     9.Understands slave trade and chattel slavery in Chesapeake
 Standard 10.  Understands how the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed American lives and led to regional tensions
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 6.Understands elements of early western migration (e.g., the lure of the West and the reality of life on the frontier; motivations of various settlers; Mormon contributions to the settlement of the West; differences in the settlement of California and Oregon in the late 1840s and 1850s; routes taken by settlers of the Western U.S.; interactions between settlers and Native Americans and Mexicans in the western territories)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the lure of the West
     2.Understands the reality of life on the frontier
     3.Understands the motivations of various settlers
     4.Understands Mormon contributions to the settlement of the West
     5.Understands differences in the settlement of California and Oregon in the late 1840s and 1850s
     6.Understands routes taken by settlers of the Western U.S.
     7.Understands interactions between settlers and Native Americans in the western territories
     8.Understands interactions between settlers and Mexicans in the western territories
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands characteristics of life on the western frontier in the 19th century (e.g., cultural interactions between diverse groups in the trans-Mississippi region, how the Mormons established the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and their communities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands cultural interactions between diverse groups in the trans-Mississippi region in the 19th century
     2.Understands how the Mormons established the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
     3.Knows about Mormon communities in the 19th century
 Standard 21.  Understands the changing role of the United States in world affairs through World War I
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the home front influenced and was influenced by U.S. involvement in World War I (e.g., the impact of public opinion and government policies on constitutional interpretation and civil liberties, the events of Wilson’s second term; the role of various organizations in the mobilization effort; the "Great Migration" of African Americans to northern cities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the home front influenced U.S. involvement in World War I
     2.Understands how the home front was influenced by U.S. involvement in World War I
     3.Understands the impact of public opinion on constitutional interpretation
     4.Understands the impact of public opinion on civil liberties
     5.Understands the impact of government policies on constitutional interpretation
     6.Understands the impact of government policies on civil liberties
     7.Understands the events of Wilson’s second term
     8.Understands the role of various organizations in the mobilization effort
     9.Understands the "Great Migration" of African Americans to northern cities
 Standard 31.  Understands economic, social, and cultural developments in the contemporary United States
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands demographic shifts and the influences on recent immigration patterns (e.g., the flow from cities to suburbs, reasons for internal migrations from the "Rustbelt" to the "Sunbelt" and its impact on politics, implications of the shifting age structure of the population)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about recent demographic shifts
     2.Knows the influences on recent immigration patterns
     3.Knows about the flow of people from cities to suburbs
     4.Knows reasons for internal migrations from the "Rustbelt" to the "Sunbelt"
     5.Knows the impact on politics of migration from the "Rustbelt" to the "Sunbelt"
     6.Knows the implications of the shifting age structure of the population
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how recent immigration and migration patterns, and demographic shifts, impacted social and political issues (e.g., major issues that affect immigrants and conflicts these issues engendered; changes in the size and composition of the traditional American family; demographic and residential mobility since 1970)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how recent immigration and migration patterns impacted social issues
     2.Knows how recent immigration and migration patterns impacted political issues
     3.Knows major issues that affect immigrants
     4.Knows about conflicts that can arise because of issues that immigrants face
     5.Knows about changes to the size and composition of the typical American family

Geography

 Standard 2.  Knows the location of places, geographic features, and patterns of the environment
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the spatial dynamics of various contemporary and historical events (e.g., the spread of radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear accident, how physical features have deterred migrations and invasions, trade and transportation in the contemporary world, the diffusion of contagious diseases such as the bubonic plague in 14th-century Europe or AIDS in the present-day world)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the spatial dynamics of physical features that have deterred migrations
 Standard 3.  Understands the characteristics and uses of spatial organization of Earth's surface
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands distributions of physical and human occurrences with respect to spatial patterns, arrangements, and associations (e.g., why some areas are more densely settled than others, relationships and patterns in the kind and number of links between settlements)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the distribution of human occurrences with respect to spatial patterns
     5.Understands the distribution of human occurrences with respect to arrangements
     6.Understands the distribution of human occurrences with respect to associations
     7.Understands why some areas are more densely settled than others
     8.Understands relationships in the kind and number of links between settlements
     9.Understands patterns in the kind and number of links between settlements
   Benchmark 2.Understands patterns of land use in urban, suburban, and rural areas (e.g., land uses that are frequently nearby and others not frequently adjacent to one another, dominant land-use patterns in city centers and peripheral areas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the patterns of land use in urban areas
     2.Understands the patterns of land use in suburban areas
     3.Understands the patterns of land use in rural areas
     4.Knows land uses that are frequently near each other
     5.Knows land uses that are generally not near each other
     6.Knows the dominant land-use patterns in city centers
     7.Knows the dominant land-use patterns in peripheral areas
   Benchmark 4.Understands the patterns and processes of migration and diffusion (e.g., the spread of language, religion, and customs from one culture to another; spread of a contagious disease through a population; global migration patterns of plants and animals)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the patterns migration
     2.Understands the processes involved in migration
     9.Understands the global migration patterns of plants
     10.Understands the global migration patterns animals
 Standard 4.  Understands the physical and human characteristics of place
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands why places have specific physical and human characteristics in different parts of the world (e.g., the effects of climatic and tectonic processes, settlement and migration patterns, site and situation components)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Understands the effect of settlement patterns on physical characteristics in different parts of the world
     8.Understands the effect of settlement patterns on human characteristics in different parts of the world
     9.Understands the effect of migration patterns on physical characteristics in different parts of the world
     10.Understands the effect of migration patterns on human characteristics in different parts of the world
 Standard 9.  Understands the nature, distribution and migration of human populations on Earth's surface
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the spatial distribution of population (e.g., that population density is higher east of the Mississippi River than west of it, population density is higher on the East Coast and West Coast than in the mountains and deserts of the western part of the country, few people live where it is very dry or very cold)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that population density is higher east of the Mississippi River than west of it
     2.Knows that population density is higher on the East and West Coasts than in the mountains and deserts of the western part of the country
     3.Knows that few people live where it is very dry
     4.Knows that few people live where it is very cold
   Benchmark 3.Understands voluntary and involuntary migration
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands voluntary migration
     2.Understands involuntary migration
   Benchmark 4.Knows the causes and effects of human migration (e.g., European colonists and African slaves to America, movement of people from drought areas in Africa, movement of people from East Asia to North America, effects of physical geography on national and international migration, cultural factors)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the causes of human migration
     2.Knows the effects of human migration
     3.Understands the relationship of European colonists and African slaves in America
     4.Understands the movement of people from drought areas in Africa
     5.Understands the movement of people from East Asia to North America
     6.Understands how physical geography affects national migration
     7.Understands how physical geography affects international migration
     8.Understands how cultural factors affect human migration
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the factors that influence patterns of rural-urban migration (e.g., urban commuting, effects of technology on transportation, communication and people's mobility, barriers that impede the flow of people, goods, and ideas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that urban commuting influences patterns of rural-urban migration
     2.Knows that transportation technology influences patterns of rural-urban migration
     3.Knows that communication influences patterns of rural-urban migration
     4.Knows that people’s mobility influences patterns of rural-urban migration
     5.Knows that barriers impeding the flow of people influence patterns of rural-urban migration
     6.Knows that barriers impeding the flow of goods influence patterns of rural-urban migration
     7.Knows that barriers impeding the flow of ideas influence patterns of rural-urban migration
   Benchmark 3.Knows the ways in which human movement and migration influence the character of a place (e.g., New Delhi before and after the partition of the Indian subcontinent in the 1940s and the massive realignment of the Hindu and Muslim populations; Boston before and after the large-scale influx of Irish immigrants in the mid-nineteenth century; the impact of Indians settling in South Africa, Algerians settling in France, Vietnamese settling in the United States)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways in which human movement influences the character of a place
     2.Knows ways in which human migration influences the character of a place
     3.Understands the character of New Delhi before and after the partition of the Indian subcontinent in the 1940s and the massive realignment of the Hindu and Muslim populations
     4.Understands the character of Boston before and after the large-scale influx of Irish immigrants in the mid-nineteenth century
     5.Understands the impact of Indians settling in South Africa
     6.Understands the impact of Algerians settling in France
     7.Understands the impact of Vietnamese settling in the United States
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Knows how international migrations are shaped by push and pull factors (e.g., political conditions, economic incentives, religious values, family ties)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows push factors that shape international migration
     2.Knows pull factors that shape international migration
     3.Knows that international migration is shaped by political conditions
     4.Knows that international migration is shaped by economic incentives
     5.Knows that international migration is shaped by religious values
     6.Knows that international migration is shaped by family ties
   Benchmark 4.Understands the impact of human migration on physical and human systems (e.g., the impact of European settlers on the High Plains of North America in the nineteenth century, impact of rural-to-urban migration on suburban development and the resulting lack of adequate housing and stress on infrastructure, effects of population gains or losses on socioeconomic conditions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of human migration human systems
     2.Understands the impact of human migration on physical systems
     3.Understands the impact of European settlers on the High Plains of North America in the nineteenth century
     4.Understands the impact of rural-to-urban migration on suburban development
     5.Understands the lack of adequate housing as a result of rural-to-urban migration
     6.Understands the stress on infrastructure as a result of rural-to-urban migration
     7.Understands the effects of population gains on socioeconomic conditions
     8.Understands the effects of population losses on socioeconomic conditions
 Standard 10.  Understands the nature and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the distinctive cultural landscapes associated with migrant populations (e.g., Chinatowns in the Western world, European enclaves in Japan and China in the 19th century, Little Italy sections of American cities from the beginning of the 19th century to the present)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the distinctive cultural landscapes associated with Chinatowns in the Western world
     2.Knows the distinctive cultural landscapes associated with European enclaves in Japan and China in the 19th century
     3.Knows the distinctive cultural landscapes associated with Little Italy sections of American cities from the beginning of the 19th century to the present
 Standard 11.  Understands the patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the relationships between various settlement patterns, their associated economic activities, and the relative land values (e.g., land values and prominent urban features, the zoned uses of land and the value of that land, economic factors and location of particular types of industries and businesses)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the relationship between land value and prominent urban features
     2.Understands the relationship between zoned land use land and the value of that land
     3.Understands how economic factors relate to the location of particular types of industries and businesses
     4.Knows there is a relationship between settlement patterns, economic activity, and land value
 Standard 12.  Understands the patterns of human settlement and their causes
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Understands why people choose to settle in different places (e.g., job opportunities, available land, climate)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that people choose to settle in different places because of job opportunities
     2.Understands that people choose to settle in different places because of available land
     3.Understands that people choose to settle in different places because of the climate
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows areas of dense human settlement and why they are densely populated (e.g., fertile soil, good transportation, and availability of water in the Ganges River Valley; availability of coal, iron, and other natural resources and river transportation in the Ruhr)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows areas of dense human settlement
     2.Knows why some areas are more densely populated than others
     3.Knows that the Ganges River Valley is an area of dense human settlement
     4.Knows that the fertile soil of the Ganges River Valley is one reason why it is so densely populated
     5.Knows that the good transportation of the Ganges River Valley is one reason why it is so densely populated
     6.Knows that the availability of water of the Ganges River Valley is one reason why it is so densely populated
     7.Knows that the Ruhr is an area of dense human settlement
     8.Knows that the availability of coal in the Ruhr is one reason why it is so densely populated
     9.Knows that the availability natural resources in the Ruhr is one reason why it is so densely populated
     10.Knows that the availability of iron in the Ruhr is one reason why it is so densely populated
     11.Knows that river transportation is one reason why the Ruhr is so densely populated
   Benchmark 3.Knows the settlement patterns that characterize the development of a community or state (e.g., from the movement of people into an area previously unoccupied to the competition among villages for economic dominance and growth; from a small number of dispersed settlers with few services to the modern pattern of suburbanization and decentralization)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the settlement patterns that characterize the development of a community
     2.Knows the settlement patterns that characterize the development of a state
     3.Understands the movement of people into an area previously unoccupied to the competition among villages for economic dominance and growth
     4.Understands movement from a small number of dispersed settlers with few services to the modern pattern of suburbanization and decentralization
   Benchmark 4.Knows reasons for the growth and decline of settlements (e.g., boomtowns to ghost towns in mining areas, the rise or decline of towns linked or not linked by highways or railroads, the history of company or single-industry towns in periods of prosperity or recession)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows reasons for the growth of settlements
     2.Knows reasons for the decline of settlements
     3.Understands the movement from boomtowns to ghost towns in mining areas
     4.Understands the rise of towns linked by highways
     5.Understands the rise of towns linked by railroads
     6.Understands the decline of towns not linked by highways
     7.Understands the decline of towns not linked by railroads
     8.Understands the history of single-industry or company towns in periods of prosperity
     9.Understands the history of single-industry or company towns in periods of recession
   Benchmark 6.Knows similarities and differences among the world's culture hearths (culture groups' places of origin), why humans settled in those places and why these settlements persist today (e.g., as centers of innovation and cultural, social, economic, and political development that attract people from other places)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands why humans settled in the world’s culture hearths
     4.Understands why culture hearths persist today
     5.Understands that a culture hearth may be a center of innovation that attracts people from other places
     6.Understands that a culture hearth may be a center of cultural development that attracts people from other places
     7.Understands that a culture hearth may be a center of social development that attracts people from other places
     8.Understands that a culture hearth may be a center of economic development that attracts people from other places
     9.Understands that a culture hearth may be a center of political development that attracts people from other places
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the similarities and differences in various settlement patterns of the world (e.g., agricultural settlement types such as plantations, subsistence farming, truck-farming communities; urban settlement types such as port cities, governmental centers, single-industry cities, planned cities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the similarities in various settlement patterns of the world
     2.Knows the differences in various settlement patterns of the world
     3.Knows how agricultural settlement types are similar in different parts of the world
     4.Knows how agricultural settlement types are different in different parts of the world
     5.Knows that plantations represent one type of agricultural settlement pattern
     6.Knows that subsistence farming represents one type of agricultural settlement pattern
     7.Knows that truck-farming communities represent one type of agricultural settlement pattern
     8.Knows how urban settlement types are similar in different parts of the world
     9.Knows how urban settlement types are different in different parts of the world
     10.Knows that port cities represent one type of urban settlement pattern
     11.Knows that governmental centers represent one type of urban settlement pattern
     12.Knows that single-industry cities represent one type of urban settlement pattern
     13.Knows that planned cities represent one type of urban settlement pattern
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Knows the consequences of factors such as population changes or the arrival/departure of a major industry or business on the settlement patterns of an area (e.g., stress on infrastructure, problems of public safety and fire protection, crisis in delivering school and medical services)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the consequences population changes on the settlement patterns of an area
     2.Knows the consequences of the arrival/departure of a major industry or business on the settlement patterns of an area
     3.Understands stress on infrastructure as a consequence of population changes
     4.Understands stress on infrastructure as a consequence of the arrival/departure of a major industry or business
     5.Understands problems of public safety and fire protection as a consequence of population changes
     6.Understands problems of public safety and fire protection as a consequence of the arrival/departure of a major industry or business
     7.Understands the crisis in delivering school services as a consequence of population changes
     8.Understands the crisis in delivering school services as a consequence of the arrival/departure of a major industry or business
     9.Understands the crisis in delivering medical services as a consequence of population changes
     10.Understands the crisis in delivering medical services as a consequence of the arrival/departure of a major industry or business
 Standard 16.  Understands the changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution and importance of resources
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Knows how settlement patterns are influenced by the discovery and use of resources (e.g., Colorado mining towns as centers of settlement in the late 19th century, the growth of industry and cities along the fall line of the Appalachians starting in the 18th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how settlement patterns are influenced by the discovery of resources
     2.Knows how settlement patterns are influenced by the use of resources
     3.Knows that Colorado mining towns were centers of settlement in the late 19th century
     4.Understands the growth of industry along the fall line of the Appalachians starting in the 18th century
     5.Understands the growth of cities along the fall line of the Appalachians starting in the 18th century
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the relationships between resources and exploration, colonization, and settlement of different regions of the world (e.g., the development of mercantilism and imperialism and the consequent settlement of Latin America and other regions of the world by the Spanish and Portuguese; the abundance of fur, fish, timber, and gold in Siberia, Alaska, and California and the settlement of these areas by the Russians)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the relationship between resources and settlement in different regions of the world
     4.Understands the development of mercantilism and imperialism and the consequent settlement of Latin America and other regions of the world by the Spanish and Portuguese
     5.Understands the abundance of fur, fish, timber, and gold in Siberia, Alaska, and California and the settlement of these areas by the Russians
 Standard 17.  Understands how geography is used to interpret the past
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the ways in which changes in people's perceptions of environments have influenced human migration and settlement over time (e.g., the history of oil discovery and its effect on migration in different United States regions such as Pennsylvania, Louisiana, or Texas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the ways in which changes in people’s perceptions of environments have influenced human migration over time
     2.Knows the ways in which changes in people’s perceptions of environments have influenced human settlement over time
     3.Knows the history of oil discovery and its effect on migration in different regions in the United States
     4.Knows how the discovery of oil affected migration in Pennsylvania
     5.Knows how the discovery of oil affected migration in Louisiana
     6.Knows how the discovery of oil affected migration in Texas
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the processes of spatial change have affected history (e.g., the diffusion of a phenomenon through regions of contact, such as the spread of bubonic plague, or the diffusion of tobacco smoking from North America to Europe, Africa, and Asia; the development of the national transportation systems in the U.S.; effects of migration streams and counterstreams)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands migration streams as they relate to the process of spatial change
     5.Understands migration counterstreams as they relate to the process of spatial change

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 3.  Understands the people, events, problems, and ideas that were significant in creating the history of their state
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the reasons different groups came to the state or region
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows that different groups migrated to the state or region
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 4.Knows about the first inhabitants who lived in the state or region, each successive group of arrivals and their countries (or origin), and significant changes that developed as a result of each group's arrival
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about the first inhabitants of the state or region
     2.Knows about successive inhabitants of the state or region
     3.Knows the countries of origin of successive inhabitants of the state or region
     4.Knows about significant changes in the state or region that resulted from the arrival of new inhabitants
 Standard 5.  Understands the causes and nature of movements of large groups of people into and within the United States, now and long ago
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Understands what life was like for children and families "on the trail" when they moved from one part of the U.S. to another
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands what life was like for children "on the trail" when their families moved from one part of the United States to another
     2.Understands what life was like for the parents of families "on the trail" who moved from one part of the United States to another
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the various movements (westward, northward, and eastward) of large groups of people in the history of the U.S.
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that large groups of people have moved westward at various times in the history of the United States
     2.Knows that large groups of people have moved northward at various times in the history of the United States
     3.Knows that large groups of people have moved eastward at various times in the history of the United States
   Benchmark 2.Knows about the forced relocation of Native Americans and how their lives, rights, and territories were affected by European colonization and expansion of the U.S. (e.g., Spanish colonization of the Southwest, Tecumseh’s resistance to Indian removal, the Cherokee Trail of Tears, Black Hawk’s War, the movement of the Nez Perce)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that many Native Americans were forcibly relocated by the federal government
     2.Knows that the lives, rights, and territories of Native Americans were affected by European colonization
     3.Knows that the lives, rights, and territories of Native Americans were affected by the expansion of the United States
     4.Knows that the Spanish colonization of the Southwest affected the lives, rights, and territories of Native Americans
     5.Knows that Tecumseh was a Native American chief who attempted to organize Native American resistance to Indian removal
     6.Knows that Black Hawk’s War was fought by Native Americans to resist forced removal by the federal government
     7.Knows that the Nez Perce were forcibly relocated by the federal government
   Benchmark 3.Understands the experience of immigrant groups (e.g., where they came from, why they left, travel experiences, ports of entry and immigration screening, the opportunities and obstacles they encountered when they arrived; changes that occurred when they moved to the United States)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the origins of various groups who immigrated to the United States
     2.Knows why various immigrant groups left their countries of origin
     4.Knows the ports of entry for immigrant groups
     5.Understands the process of immigration screening
     6.Understands the opportunities immigrant groups encountered when they arrived in the United States
     7.Understands the obstacles immigrant groups encountered when they arrived in the United States
   Benchmark 4.Knows the reasons why various groups (e.g., freed African Americans, Mexican and Puerto Rican migrant workers, Dust Bowl farm families) migrated to different parts of the U.S.
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows why freed African Americans migrated to certain parts of the United States
     2.Knows why Mexican migrant workers migrated to certain parts of the United States
     3.Knows why Puerto Rican migrant workers migrated to certain parts of the United States
     4.Knows why Dust Bowl farm families migrated to certain parts of the United States
   Benchmark 5.Understands the experiences of those who moved from farm to city during the periods when cities grew
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that many people moved from away from farms to cities during the period when cities grew
 Standard 7.  Understands selected attributes and historical developments of societies in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 4.Knows the journeys of Marco Polo and Christopher Columbus, the routes they took, and what happened as a result of their travels
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the journeys taken by Marco Polo
     2.Knows the journeys taken by Christopher Columbus
     3.Knows the routes taken by Marco Polo on his journeys
     4.Knows the routes taken by Christopher Columbus on his journeys
     5.Knows the outcomes of Marco Polo’s journeys
     6.Knows the outcomes of Christopher Columbus’ journeys
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 6.Knows about the migrations of large groups in the past and recently (e.g., Native American ancestors across the Bering land bridge; the Bantu migrations in Africa; the movement of Europeans and Africans to the Western Hemisphere; the exodus of Vietnamese boat people, Haitians, and Cubans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about the migration of Native American ancestors across the Bering land bridge
     2.Knows about the Bantu migrations in Africa
     3.Knows about the movement of Europeans to the Western Hemisphere
     4.Knows about the movement of Africans to the Western Hemisphere
     5.Knows about the exodus of Vietnamese boat people
     6.Knows about the exodus of Haitians
     7.Knows about the exodus of Cubans

World History

 Standard 1.  Understands the biological and cultural processes that shaped the earliest human communities
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the social and cultural characteristics of hunter-gatherer communities in various continental regions (e.g., similarities and differences between hunter-gatherer communities in Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas and their responses to local environments; characteristics of Cro-Magnon communities of western Eurasia; location and composition of archaeological discoveries and what understanding these bring to Neanderthal culture and community life)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social characteristics of hunter-gatherer communities in various continental regions
     2.Understands the cultural characteristics of hunter-gatherer communities in various continental regions
     3.Understands the social and cultural similarities and differences between hunter-gatherer communities in Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas and their responses to local environments
     4.Knows the social and cultural characteristics of Cro Magnon communities of western Eurasia
     5.Knows the location and composition of archaeological discoveries and what understanding these bring to Neanderthal culture and community life
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the role of the environment in the development of different human communities (e.g., current and past theories regarding the emergence of Homo sapiens sapiens and the processes by which human groups populated the major world regions; how environmental conditions in the last Ice Age possibly affected changes in the economy, culture, and organization of human communities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows current and past theories regarding the processes by which human groups populated the major world regions
 Standard 2.  Understands the processes that contributed to the emergence of agricultural societies around the world
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the role of agriculture in early settled communities (e.g., how archaeological evidence explains the technology, social organization, and cultural life of settled farming communities in Southwest Asia; differences between wild and domestic plants and animals; how patterns of settlement were influenced by agricultural practices)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands how patterns of settlement were influenced by agricultural practices
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands influences on the spread of agricultural communities (e.g., how local needs and conditions affected food plant domestication and world-wide patterns of settlement)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how local needs and conditions affected world wide patterns of settlement
 Standard 5.  Understands the political, social, and cultural consequences of population movements and militarization in Eurasia in the second millennium BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the rise of pastoral societies was linked to the climate and geography of the Central Asian steppes, and how kinship-based pastoral society differed from the social organization of agrarian states
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the rise of pastoral societies was linked to the climate and geography of the Central Asian steppes
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the development of Indo-European language (e.g., the probable geographic homeland of speakers of early Indo-European languages and the spread of the language to other parts of Eurasia, languages which developed from the Indo-European root language)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the probable geographic homeland of speakers of early Indo-European languages
     2.Understands the spread of Indo-European language to other parts of Eurasia
     3.Knows languages which developed from the Indo-European root language
   Benchmark 5.Understands characteristics of Aryan culture (e.g., the reasons for the migration of Indo-Aryan and Mycenaean-speaking peoples into India, the Eastern Mediterranean, and the Iranian Plateau; the belief system embraced by the Aryan people; odes from the Vedas that praise major Vedic gods and what they illustrate about Aryan values; potential conflict and tension among Aryan tribes as they began to settle down in the Indo-Gangetic plain)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the reasons for the migration of Indo Aryan and Mycenaean speaking peoples into India, the Eastern Mediterranean, and the Iranian Plateau
     4.Understands potential conflict and tension among Aryan tribes as they began to settle down in the Indo-Gangetic plain
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Knows the migration routes of Indo-European language speakers and the approximate dates of their arrivals in new locations during the second millenium BCE
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the migration routes of Indo European language speakers
     2.Knows the approximate dates of Indo-European language speakers’ arrivals in new locations during the 2nd millennium BCE
 Standard 15.  Understands the political, social, and cultural redefinitions in Europe from 500 to 1000 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the significance of Norse migrations and invasions (e.g., how Norse explorations stimulated the emergence of independent lords and the knightly class; locations of Norse settlements, including routes to North America, Russia, Western Europe, and the Black Sea)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of Norse migrations
     2.Understands the significance of Norse invasions
     4.Knows various locations of Norse settlements
     5.Knows Norse routes to North America
     6.Knows Norse routes to Russia
     7.Knows Norse routes to the Black Sea
     8.Knows Norse routes to Western Europe
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the role of Norse peoples in the development of Europe (e.g., Nordic contributions to long-distance trade and exploration, the failure of Norse settlements in Newfoundland and Greenland)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows Nordic contributions to long distance trade and exploration
     2.Understands the failure of Norse settlements in Newfoundland and Greenland
 Standard 16.  Understands the development of agricultural societies and new states in tropical Africa and Oceania
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the routes by which migrants settled the Pacific Islands and New Zealand and the navigational techniques they used on long distance voyages
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the routes by which migrants settled the Pacific Islands and New Zealand
     2.Knows the navigational techniques migrants to the Pacific Islands and New Zealand used on long distance voyages
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the origins and development of societies in Oceania (e.g., theories using linguistic, biological, and cultural evidence to explain migration patterns to the Pacific Islands and New Zealand; how complex social structures, religions, and states developed in Oceania)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of societies in Oceania
     2.Understands the development of societies in Oceania
     3.Knows theories using linguistic evidence to explain migration patterns to the Pacific Islands
     4.Knows theories using linguistic evidence to explain migration patterns to New Zealand
     5.Knows theories using biological evidence to explain migration patterns to the Pacific Islands
     6.Knows theories using biological evidence to explain migration patterns to New Zealand
     7.Knows theories using cultural evidence to explain migration patterns to the Pacific Islands
     8.Knows theories using cultural evidence to explain migration patterns to New Zealand
   Benchmark 3.Understands settlement patterns in different regions of Africa (e.g., causes and consequences of the settling of East, Central, and Southern Africa by Bantu-speaking farmers and cattle herders until 1000 CE)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows causes of the settling of East Africa by Bantu speaking farmers and cattle herders until 1000 CE
     2.Knows causes of the settling of Central Africa by Bantu speaking farmers and cattle herders until 1000 CE
     3.Knows causes of the settling of Southern Africa by Bantu speaking farmers and cattle herders until 1000 CE
     4.Knows the consequences of the settling of East Africa by Bantu speaking farmers and cattle herders until 1000 CE
     5.Knows the consequences of the settling of Central Africa by Bantu speaking farmers and cattle herders until 1000 CE
     6.Knows the consequences of the settling of Southern Africa by Bantu speaking farmers and cattle herders until 1000 CE
 Standard 18.  Understands major global trends from 300 to 1000 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the factors that contributed to the weakening of empires in world history from 300 to 1000 CE (e.g., the migratory and military movements of pastoral nomadic peoples from Central Asia and the Arabian Peninsula and the consequences of these movements for empires and agrarian civilizations of Eurasia and Africa)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the migratory and military movements of pastoral nomadic peoples from Central Asia and the Arabian Peninsula
     2.Understands the consequences of the movements of pastoral nomadic peoples from Central Asia and the Arabian Peninsula for empires of Eurasia and Africa
     3.Understands the consequences of the movements of pastoral nomadic peoples from Central Asia and the Arabian Peninsula for agrarian civilizations of Eurasia and Africa
   Benchmark 2.Understands the growth of economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE (e.g., the importance of Muslim civilization in mediating long-distance commercial, cultural, intellectual, and food crop exchange across Eurasia and parts of Africa; migrations of farming peoples to new regions of Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, China, Oceania, and Mesoamerica; connections between new settlements and the development of towns, trade, and greater cultural complexity in these regions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Knows how migrations of farming peoples to new regions of Europe affected economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     5.Knows how migrations of farming peoples to new regions of Sub-Saharan Africa affected economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     6.Knows how migrations of farming peoples to new regions of China affected economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     7.Knows how migrations of farming peoples to new regions of Oceania affected economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     8.Knows how migrations of farming peoples to new regions of Mesoamerica affected economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     9.Understands connections between new settlements and the development of towns, trade, and greater cultural complexity in these regions
 Standard 19.  Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the expansion of Islam and daily life in Islamic regions (e.g., how Turkic migration from Turkestan into Southwest Asia and India helped Islam expand and forced the retreat of Byzantium and Greek Christian civilization, what life in Egypt was like for Jewish and Christian communities, what student life was like in Islamic regions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the expansion of Islam
     3.Understands how Turkic migration from Turkestan into Southwest Asia and India helped Islam expand and forced the retreat of Byzantium and Greek Christian civilization
 Standard 20.  Understands the redefinition of European society and culture from 1000 to 1300 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the consequences of German expansion into Poland and the Baltic region
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows the consequences of German expansion into the Baltic region
 Standard 25.  Understands major global trends from 1000 to 1500 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how major migratory and military movements of pastoral peoples of Asia and Africa affected agrarian states and societies of Eurasia and Africa
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how major migratory movements of pastoral peoples of Asia and Africa affected agrarian states and societies of Eurasia and Africa
     2.Understands how major military movements of pastoral peoples of Asia and Africa affected agrarian states and societies of Eurasia and Africa
 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the significance and cultural impact of migrations of the Muslims and Jews after their expulsion from Spain
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance and cultural impact of migrations of the Muslims after their expulsion from Spain
     2.Understands the significance and cultural impact of migrations of the Jews after their expulsion from Spain
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Understands Chinese policies toward foreign trade and immigration to other countries (e.g., why China resisted political contact and trade with Europeans, and how the opium trade contributed to European penetration of Chinese markets; motivations behind the Chinese trading policy and China's desire to keep out foreigners; motivations behind Chinese immigration to the U.S. and Southeast Asia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands Chinese policies toward immigration to other countries (1750-1870 CE)
     6.Knows motivations behind Chinese immigration to the U.S. and Southeast Asia
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the economic and social consequences of rapid population growth in China between the 17th and 19th centuries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the economic consequences of rapid population growth in China between the 17th and 19th centuries
     2.Understands the social consequences of rapid population growth in China between the 17th and 19th centuries
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understand causes of large-scale population movements from rural areas to cities in continental Europe and how these movements affected the domestic and working lives of men and women
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands causes of large scale population movements from rural areas to cities in continental Europe
     2.Understands how large-scale population movements from rural areas to cities in continental Europe affected the domestic and working lives of men and women
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands trends in immigration within and out of Europe in the 19th century
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands trends in immigration within Europe in the 19th century
     2.Understands trends in immigration out of Europe in the 19th century
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the experiences and motivations of European migrants and immigrants in the 19th century (e.g., why migrants left Europe in large numbers in the 19th century and regions of the world where they settled; the consequences of encounters between European migrants and indigenous peoples in such regions as the United States, Canada, South Africa, Australia, and Siberia; the general appeal of Canada to European immigrants in the second half of the 19th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the experiences of European migrants and immigrants in the 19th century
     2.Understands the motivations of European migrants and immigrants in the 19th century
     3.Knows why migrants left Europe in large numbers in the 19th century and regions of the world where they settled
     4.Understands the consequences of encounters between European migrants and indigenous peoples in such regions as the United States, Canada, South Africa, Australia, and Siberia
     5.Understands the general appeal of Canada to European immigrants in the second half of the 19th century
   Benchmark 7.Understands trends in the population of Europe for the last three and a half centuries, and at what time Europe had the greatest number of inhabitants
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands trends in the population of Europe for the last three and a half centuries
     2.Knows at what time Europe had the greatest number of inhabitants
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands influences on European migration, immigration, and emigration patterns throughout the world between 1846 and 1932 (e.g., the geographical, political, economic, and epidemiological factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions; possible connections of the rise of the Zulu Empire in South Africa to European settlements in the Cape Region; relations between migrating European and African peoples that laid the foundation for the apartheid system in the 20th century; how technology such as the steamship and the railroad facilitated emigration)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the geographical factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions
     2.Understands the political factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions
     3.Understands the economic factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions
     4.Understands the epidemiological factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions
     5.Understands possible connections of the rise of the Zulu Empire in South Africa to European settlements in the Cape Region
     6.Understands relations between migrating European and African peoples that laid the foundation for the apartheid system in the 20th century
     7.Knows how technology such as the steamship and the railroad facilitated emigration
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands influences on and consequences of European immigration and settlement (e.g., how European settlements affected the politics and economy of the local regions, as well as resources, labor, the flow of goods, and markets; the diverse motivations behind resettlement for specific groups of immigrants; the impact of new immigrants upon the environment and indigenous populations of Australia; how substantial European immigration in the 19th century had economic consequences for cities in the United States)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands influences on European immigration and settlement
     2.Understands the consequences of European immigration and settlement
     3.Understands how European settlements affected the politics and economy of the local regions, as well as resources, labor, the flow of goods, and markets
     4.Knows the diverse motivations behind resettlement for specific groups of immigrants
     5.Understands the impact of new immigrants upon the environment and indigenous populations of Australia
     6.Understands how substantial European immigration in the 19th century had economic consequences for cities in the United States
   Benchmark 8.Understands the debate on the westward movement in North America in the 19th century: whether this movement was unique, or simply part of a larger pattern of European overseas settlement, and what consequences the expansion had for indigenous peoples
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the debate on whether the westward movement in North America in the 19th century was unique
     2.Understands the debate on whether westward movement in North American in the 19th century was simply part of a larger pattern of European overseas settlement
     3.Understands the debate on what consequences westward expansion had for indigenous peoples
 Standard 37.  Understand major global trends from 1750 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands major shifts in world population and urbanization in this era and how factors such as industrialization, migration, changing diets, and scientific and medical advances affected worldwide demographic trends (e.g., the changes large cities around the world went through during this period, such as Guangzhou [Canton], Cairo, Tokyo, Buenos Aires, Bombay, San Francisco, and London)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands how migration affected worldwide demographic trends
   Benchmark 2.Understands the experiences of immigrants to North and South America in the 19th century
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the experiences of immigrants to North America in the 19th century
     2.Understands the experiences of immigrants to South America in the 19th century
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands major patterns of long-distance migration of Europeans, Africans, and Asians, as well as causes and consequences of these movements (e.g., migrations from Asia and Africa between 1750 and 1900)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major patterns of long distance migration of Europeans
     2.Understands major patterns of long distance migration of Africans
     3.Understands major patterns of long distance migration of Asians
     4.Understands causes and consequences of long-distance migration of Europeans
     5.Understands causes and consequences of long-distance migration of Africans
     6.Understands causes and consequences of long-distance migration of Asians
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the impact of increasing economic interdependence in different regions of the world (e.g., how global communications and changing international labor demands have shaped new patterns of world migration since World War II, the effects of the European Economic Community and its growth on economic productivity and political integration in Europe, the emergence of the Pacific Rim economy and economic growth in South Korea and Singapore in recent decades, the effects of new transport and communications technology on patterns of world trade and finance)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how global communications have shaped new patterns of world migration since World War II
     2.Understands how changing international labor demands have shaped new patterns of world migration since World War II
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 8.Understands the role and difficulties of the present day migrant worker (e.g., the Southeast Asian domestic in the Persian Gulf, the American oil executive in Saudi Arabia, the Moroccan factory worker in France)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of the present day migrant worker
     2.Understands the difficulties of the present day migrant worker
     3.Understands the role and difficulties of the Southeast Asian domestic in the Persian Gulf
     4.Understands the role and difficulties of the American oil executive in Saudi Arabia
     5.Understands the role and difficulties of the Moroccan factory worker in France
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands rates of economic development and the emergence of different economic systems around the globe (e.g., systems of economic management in communist and capitalist countries, as well as the global impact of multinational corporations; the impact of black markets, speculation, and trade in illegal products on national and global markets; patterns of inward, outward, and internal migration in the Middle East and North Africa, types of jobs involved, and the impact of the patterns upon national economies; the rapid economic development of East Asian countries in the late 20th century, and the relatively slow development of Sub-Saharan African countries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands patterns of inward, outward, and internal migration in the Middle East and North Africa, types of jobs involved, and the impact of the patterns upon national economies
 Standard 45.  Understands major global trends since World War II
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the causes, consequences, and major patterns of international migration in the late 20th century compared to world population movements of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the causes of international migration in the late 20th century compared to world population movements of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th
     2.Understands the consequences of international migration in the late 20th century compared to world population movements of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th
     3.Understands the major patterns of international migration in the late 20th century compared to world population movements of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th