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Topic: Literary and artistic developments 

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 7.  Understands selected attributes and historical developments of societies in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the main ideas found in folktales, stories of great heroism, fables, legends, and myths from around the world that reflect the beliefs and ways of living of various cultures in times past
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that folktales reflect the beliefs of various cultures in the past
     2.Understands that folktales reflect the ways of living of various cultures in the past
     3.Understands that stories of great heroism reflect the beliefs of various cultures in the past
     4.Understands that stories of great heroism reflect ways of living of various cultures in the past
     5.Understands that fables reflect the beliefs of various cultures in the past
     6.Understands that fables reflect ways of living of various cultures in the past
     7.Understands that legends reflect the beliefs of various cultures in the past
     8.Understands that legends reflect ways of living of various cultures in the past
     9.Understands that myths reflect the beliefs of various cultures in the past

United States History

 Standard 12.  Understands the sources and character of cultural, religious, and social reform movements in the antebellum period
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how literary and artistic movements fostered a distinct American identity among different groups and in different regions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how literary movements fostered a distinct American identity among different groups
     2.Understands how literary movements fostered a distinct American identity among different regions
     3.Understands how artistic movements fostered a distinct American identity among different groups
     4.Understands how artistic movements fostered a distinct American identity among different regions
 Standard 23.  Understands the causes of the Great Depression and how it affected American society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the impact of the Great Depression on American culture (e.g., art, literature, and music, and the government’s role in promoting artistic expression; how the works of various American artists reflected American conditions in the 1930s and influenced the New Deal)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of art in promoting artistic expression during the Great Depression
     2.Understands the role of literature in promoting artistic expression during the Great Depression
     3.Understands the role of music in promoting artistic expression during the Great Depression
     4.Understands the role of the government in promoting artistic expression during the Great Depression
     5.Understands how the works of various American artists reflect American conditions in the 1930s
     6.Understands how the works of various American artists influenced the New Deal

World History

 Standard 8.  Understands how Aegean civilization emerged and how interrelations developed among peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia from 600 to 200 BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the role of art, literature, and mythology in Greek society (e.g., major works of Greek drama and mythology and how they reveal ancient moral values and civic culture; how the arts and literature reflected cultural traditions in ancient Greece)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows major works of Greek drama and mythology
     2.Understands how Greek drama and mythology reveal ancient moral values and civic culture
     3.Understands how the arts and literature reflected cultural traditions in ancient Greece
   Benchmark 7.Understands comparisons of the creation myths of Sumer, Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and nationalized China and the similarities and differences in world view they suggest
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows creation myths of Sumer, Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and nationalized China
     2.Understands comparisons of the creation myths of Sumer, Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and nationalized China
     3.Understands similarities and differences in world view suggested by the creation myths of Sumer, Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and nationalized China
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows significant Greek writings, literature, and mythology (e.g., the prominent ideas of Greek philosophers; the significance and major works of Greek historians; significant Greek tragedies and comedies, and the values and lessons they transmitted; aspects of daily life in Greece between 600 and 200 BCE as they are represented by playwrights of the time)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows significant Greek writings
     2.Knows significant Greek literature
     3.Knows significant Greek mythology
     4.Knows the prominent ideas of Greek philosophers
     5.Understands the significance and major works of Greek historians
     6.Knows significant Greek tragedies and comedies
     7.Understands the values and lessons that Greek comedies and tragedies transmitted
     8.Understands aspects of daily life in Greece between 600 and 200 BCE as they are represented by playwrights of the time
 Standard 9.  Understand how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands fundamental social, political, and cultural characteristics of Chinese society under early imperial dynasties (e.g., the importance of the "Mandate of Heaven" to the success of the Zhou Dynasty and its development of imperial rule; the literary and artistic achievements of early imperial dynasties; the development and consequences of iron technology and the family division of labor system; comparisons between the Shang, Zhou, Quin, and Han Empires in areas they controlled and methods of government; the composition and stratification of Chinese society, and factors that gave individuals status; imperial attitudes and actions toward nomadic peoples along the borders of the kingdom)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands fundamental cultural characteristics of Chinese society under early imperial dynasties
     5.Knows the literary and artistic achievements of early imperial dynasties of China
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Understands how art and literature reflect different aspects of Indian society (e.g., how literature such as the Ramayana can reflect the status and role of women in ancient cultures, how Indian art reflects a Persian or Greek influence)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how art reflects different aspects of Indian society
     2.Understands how literature reflects different aspects of Indian society
     3.Understands how literature such as the Ramayana can reflect the status and role of women in ancient cultures
     4.Understands how Indian art reflects a Persian or Greek influence
 Standard 12.  Understands the Imperial crises and their aftermath in various regions from 300 to 700 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands significant religious and cultural features of the Gupta era (e.g., Gupta achievements in art, literature, and mathematics; the relationship among various religions in India during Gupta times)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands significant cultural features of the Gupta era
     3.Knows Gupta achievements in art
     4.Knows Gupta achievements in literature
 Standard 14.  Understands major developments in East Asia and Southeast Asia in the era of the Tang Dynasty from 600 to 900 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands basic beliefs in Japanese culture (e.g., the legends of creation of Japan and what these legends reveal about Japanese history, the basic beliefs of Shinto and how art and literature reflect Shinto's impact, courtly life and ideals in Heian)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the legends of creation of Japan
     2.Knows what Japanese creation legends reveal about Japanese history
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands features of cultural life in various regions of China (e.g., differences between the lifestyles and living conditions in rural areas and urban communities during the Tang Dynasty, and how urban centers influenced growth in the arts; the significance of Chinese popular culture from the Tang Dynasty onward; the place of poetry and painting in the lives of scholar-officials in China, the values of the Chinese elite, and attitudes of poets toward the common people)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how urban centers in Tang China influenced growth in the arts
     4.Understands the place of poetry and painting in the lives of scholar officials in Tang China
     6.Understands attitudes of poets toward the common people in Tang China
   Benchmark 4.Understands the importance of women as authors at the Japanese court of the Heian period (e.g., the courtly roles and values reflected in works by female authors, such as the Diary of Muraski Shikibu and The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the courtly roles reflected in works by female authors, such as the Diary of Muraski Shikibu and The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon
     2.Understands the values reflected in works by female authors, such as the Diary of Muraski Shikibu and The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon
 Standard 17.  Understands the rise of centers of civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America in the 1st millennium CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands what art and architecture reveal about early Mesoamerica and Andean societies (e.g., what art and architecture reflects about the character of the Zapotec state in the valley of Oaxaca; what art and artifacts indicate about the interests, occupations, and religious concerns of the Moche people; what murals infer about Mayan and Teotihuacan societies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands what art and architecture reveal about early Mesoamerica societies
     2.Understands what art and architecture reveal about early Andean societies
     3.Knows what art and architecture reflects about the character of the Zapotec state in the valley of Oaxaca
     4.Understands what art and artifacts indicate about the interests of the Moche people
     5.Understands what art and artifacts indicate about the occupations of the Moche people
     6.Understands what art and artifacts indicate about the religious concerns of the Moche people
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands ways in which the Mayan world view and cultural life were portrayed (e.g., the Mayan cosmic world view and the role of Mayan deities as revealed in art and architecture, the descriptions of social and religious life inferred in Mayan [Bonampak] glyphs and murals, what the Popul Vuh tells about the Mayan world view and creation myth and its reliability as an account of the Mayan world view)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the Mayan cosmic world view as revealed in art and architecture
     4.Understands the role of Mayan deities as revealed in art and architecture
     5.Understands the descriptions of social and religious life inferred in Mayan (Bonampak) glyphs and murals
 Standard 19.  Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands different elements of Japanese feudal society (e.g., Japanese government during the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods, and whether it was feudalism; the rise of the warrior class in feudal Japan and the values it prescribed; how the economic and social status of women and peasants changed in feudal Japanese society; how art and aesthetic values were cherished in the warrior culture in Japan and what this art reveals about Japanese values; how the Japanese successfully defended themselves against Mongol invasions in the 13th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands how art and aesthetic values were cherished in the warrior culture in Japan and what this art reveals about Japanese values
   Benchmark 3.Understands the cultural characteristics of Islamic society (e.g., the importance of scientific, literary, and artistic contributions made by the Islamic civilization between the 11th and 13th centuries; how these contributions helped communication between different Islamic peoples; the diverse, multiethnic character of the Islamic state)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the importance of literary contributions made by the Islamic civilization between the 11th and 13th centuries
     3.Understands the importance of artistic contributions made by the Islamic civilization between the 11th and 13th centuries
     4.Knows how scientific, literary, and artistic contributions of Islamic civilization helped communication between different Islamic peoples
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands religious, social, and political aspects of the Song Dynasty (e.g., the importance of women of gentry families in preserving and transmitting Chinese cultural values; Chinese advancements in alchemy, astronomy, and medicine; the values of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism as reflected in Song art; changes in the social and moral status of women as reflected in the practice of foot binding; the attitudes of typical Chinese gentlemen toward women, family, servants, tenants, and social inferiors; the debate during the Song Dynasty about how the government should respond to rapid social and economic change)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     8.Understands the values of Confucianism as reflected in Song art
     9.Understands the values of Taoism as reflected in Song art
     10.Understands the values of Buddhism as reflected in Song art
   Benchmark 8.Understands the significance of art and philosophy in Japanese and Cambodian society (e.g., philosophical values and traditions presented in Noh drama, how diverse Japanese art forms from the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods reflect Shinto and Buddhist philosophy, Indian and Southeast Asian influences on the architecture of the 12th-century temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia, what art and literature reveal about the lives of people in Japan in the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of art in Japanese society
     2.Understands the significance of philosophy in Japanese society
     3.Understands the significance of art in Cambodian society
     4.Understands the significance of philosophy in Cambodian society
     5.Knows philosophical values and traditions presented in Noh drama
     6.Understands how diverse Japanese art forms from the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods reflect Shinto and Buddhist philosophy
     7.Understands Indian and Southeast Asian influences on the architecture of the 12th century temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia
     8.Understands what art and literature reveal about the lives of people in Japan in the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods
 Standard 20.  Understands the redefinition of European society and culture from 1000 to 1300 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands art, architecture, and education in medieval Christian and Spanish Muslim society (e.g., how major works of art, architecture, and literature reflect values and attitudes of medieval Christian society; poetry of Muslim Spain and Christian Europe; the origins, organization, and studies of Christian universities in Europe, and the influence of Muslim scholarship and universities; how Gothic cathedrals reflect central aspects of European society)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features of art in medieval Christian society
     2.Understands features of architecture in medieval Christian society
     4.Understands features of art in medieval Spanish Muslim society
     5.Understands features of architecture in medieval Spanish Muslim society
     7.Understands how major works of literature reflect values and attitudes of medieval Christian society
     8.Understands how major works of architecture reflect values and attitudes of medieval Christian society
     9.Understands how major works of literature reflect values and attitudes of medieval Christian society
     10.Knows major works of poetry of Muslim Spain
     11.Knows major works of poetry of Christian Europe
     12.Understands the origins, organization, and studies of Christian universities in Europe
     13.Understands the influence of Muslim scholarship and universities in Medieval Europe
     14.Understands how Gothic cathedrals reflect central aspects of Medieval European society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 11.Understands how women's experiences in Europe were determined by social class, area, time, and stage of life and how these experiences are reflected in different types of literature (e.g., Treasure of City of Ladies by Catherine of Pisan and Art of Courtly Love)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands how women’s experiences in Medieval Europe are reflected in different types of literature (e.g., Treasure of City of Ladies by Christine of Pisan and Art of Courtly Love)
 Standard 22.  Understands the growth of states, towns, and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa between the 11th and 15th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how art and architecture reveal elements of Ile-Ife, Benin, and other African societies (e.g., the role of the ruler, political power, gender differences, foreign contact, technology)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how art and architecture reveal elements of Ile-Ife
     2.Understands how art and architecture reveal elements of Benin
     3.Understands how art and architecture reveal elements of various African societies
     4.Understands how art and architecture reveal the role of the ruler in different African societies
     5.Understands how art and architecture reveal aspects of political power in different African societies
     6.Understands how art and architecture reveal gender differences in different African societies
     7.Understands how art and architecture reveal aspects of foreign contact among different African societies
     8.Understands how art and architecture reveal elements of technologies of different African societies
 Standard 23.  Understands patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia between 1300 and 1450
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands major changes in the social, political, and cultural characteristics of European society after the 14th century (e.g., the effect of population decline on European agrarian and commercial economies; causes of and major figures in the Hundred Years War; the causes of peasant rebellions in Europe between 1300 and 1500; how the techniques of painting, sculpting, and architecture changed in this period)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     9.Understands how the techniques of painting, sculpting, and architecture changed in Europe from 1300 to1500
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the "humanism" that emerged in Italy in the 14th and 15th centuries, and how new studies (e.g., Greco-Roman antiquity, critical text analysis) encouraged new forms of literature, philosophy, and education
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how new studies (e.g., Greco Roman antiquity, critical text analysis) encouraged new forms of literature, philosophy, and education
   Benchmark 5.Understands the significance of Timur the Lame (Tamerlane) (e.g., the impact of conquests in Southwest Asia, India, and Central Asia; how Timur's rule encouraged a flourishing of cultural life in Samarkand and the role his government played in the support of arts and sciences)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how Timur’s rule encouraged a flourishing of cultural life in Samarkand
     3.Knows the role Timur’s government played in the support of arts and sciences
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands characteristics of 15th century Italian humanism (e.g., reasons for its emergence in this time and place, which social populations it most significantly affected)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands reasons for the emergence of humanism in Italy in the 15th century
     2.Knows the social populations that 15th century Italian humanism most significantly affected
 Standard 27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands significant contributions of the Renaissance and Reformation to European society (e.g., major achievements in literature, music, painting, sculpture, and architecture in 16th-century Europe; the life and accomplishments of select figures from the Renaissance to the Reformation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands significant contributions of the Renaissance to European society
     3.Knows major achievements in literature in 16th century Europe
     4.Knows major achievements in music in 16th century Europe
     5.Knows major achievements in painting in 16th century Europe
     6.Knows major achievements in sculpture in 16th century Europe
     7.Knows major achievements in architecture in 16th century Europe
     8.Understands the lives and accomplishments of select figures from the Renaissance to the Reformation
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Understands significant individuals and ideologies that emerged during the Renaissance and Reformation (e.g., the basic arguments in The Prince by Machiavelli; works of Renaissance writers and elements of Humanism in these works; individuals and factors that contributed to the revival of Greco-Roman art, architecture, and scholarship; differing ideas on women's roles in the Protestant household; social oppression and conflict in Europe during the Renaissance, as contrasted with humanist principles of the time)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Knows the basic arguments in The Prince by Machiavelli
     6.Knows works of Renaissance writers and elements of Humanism in these works
     7.Knows individuals and factors that contributed to the revival of Greco Roman art, architecture, and scholarship
 Standard 28.  Understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands political and cultural achievements of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., the significance of the capture of Constantinople for Christians and Ottomans; how the Ottoman military succeeded against various enemies; artistic, architectural, and literary achievements of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries; achievements of Sulieman the Magnificent; the extent of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires in the 14th and 15th centuries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Knows artistic achievements of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries
     7.Knows architectural achievements of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries
     8.Knows literary achievements of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands cultural and religious influences on Mughal social and cultural conditions (e.g., the Indian, Persian, and European influences on Mughal artistic, architectural, literary, and scientific achievements; how Akbar unified diverse cultures and encouraged religious tolerance within his Mughal Empire; the synthesis of Muslim and Hindu influences in art of the Mughal Empire)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows Indian influences on Mughal artistic, architectural, literary, and scientific achievements
     4.Knows Persian influences on Mughal artistic, architectural, literary, and scientific achievements
     5.Knows European influences on Mughal artistic, architectural, literary, and scientific achievements
     7.Understands the synthesis of Muslim and Hindu influences in art of the Mughal Empire
 Standard 30.  Understands transformations in Asian societies in the era of European expansion
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the role of art in conveying ideas in China and Japan (e.g., how nature is portrayed in Chinese and Japanese brush paintings)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how nature is portrayed in Chinese and Japanese brush paintings
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands features in the development of Korean and Japanese culture (e.g., why Korea was called the "Hermit Kingdom" before 1800, the role and status of women in Tokugawa Japan, the roots and development of 17th-century Japanese art forms)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the roots and development of 17th century Japanese art forms
   Benchmark 6.Understands the evolution, recurring themes, and foreign influence in Japanese art and artists (e.g., Nikko and Katsuru rikyu, Sotabu screens, brush painting, works of Shiba Kokan) and how they reflected society
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the evolution of Japanese art and artists (e.g., Nikko and Katsuru rikyu, Sotabu screens, brush painting, works of Shiba Kokan)
     2.Understands recurring themes in Japanese art
     3.Understands foreign influences on Japanese art and artists (e.g., Nikko and Katsuru rikyu, Sotabu screens, brush painting, works of Shiba Kokan)
     4.Understands Japanese art reflected society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands how art, literature, and architecture reflect features of different cultures and religions (e.g., the influence of new currents in both Confucianism and Chinese art, architecture, and literature on cultural life in Korea, Vietnam, and Japan in the 17th and 18th centuries; the role of women in the Bhati movement of the 16th century, as reflected in the poetry of Mirabai; the Islamic and Hindu influences in the poetry of Kabir)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of new currents in both Confucianism and Chinese art, architecture, and literature on cultural life in Korea, Vietnam, and Japan in the 17th and 18th centuries
     2.Understands the role of women in the Bhati movement of the 16th century, as reflected in the poetry of Mirabai
     3.Understands the Islamic and Hindu influences in the poetry of Kabir
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the impact of cultural achievements on 19th-century Europe and America (e.g., movements in literature, music, and the visual arts, and ways in which they shaped or reflected social and cultural values)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of cultural achievements on 19th century Europe
     2.Understands the impact of cultural achievements on 19th century America
     3.Understands 19th century literary movements in Europe
     4.Understands 19th century literary movements in America
     5.Understands 19th century movements in music in Europe
     6.Understands 19th century movements in music in America
     7.Understands 19th century visual arts movements in Europe
     8.Understands 19th century visual arts movements in America
     9.Understands ways in which movements in literature, music, and the visual arts shaped or reflected social and cultural values in Europe
     10.Understands ways in which movements in literature, music, and the visual arts shaped or reflected social and cultural values in America
 Standard 38.  Understands reform, revolution, and social change in the world economy of the early 20th century
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the role of the peasantry in the Mexican Revolution (e.g., the aspects of nationalism expressed in the works of the Mexican Revolution by muralists Jos, Clemente Orozco, David Siquieros, and Diego Riviera, and how these murals fostered support for the Revolution among the peasantry; the impact of the Mexican Revolution on the peasantry)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the aspects of nationalism expressed in the works of the Mexican Revolution by muralists Jos, Clemente Orozco, David Siquieros, and Diego Riviera
     2.Understands how nationalistic murals by Jos, Clemente Orozco, David Siquieros, and Diego Riviera fostered support for the Revolution among the peasantry
 Standard 40.  Understands the search for peace and stability throughout the world in the 1920s and 1930s
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the emergence of a new mass and popular culture between 1900 and 1940 (e.g., how new modes of transportation affected world commerce, international migration, and work and leisure habits; how the new media - newspapers, magazines, commercial advertising, film, and radio - contributed to the rise of mass culture around the world; the new approaches to visual art represented by the works of Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse; the types of leisure activity and sports people enjoyed; changes in clothing fashions for men and women, and how they reflected changes in social attitudes and values)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the emergence of a new mass culture between 1900 and 1940
     2.Understands the emergence of a new popular culture between 1900 and 1940
     7.Understands how the new media contributed to the rise of mass culture around the world
     8.Understands how the new newspapers contributed to the rise of mass culture around the world
     9.Understands how the new magazines contributed to the rise of mass culture around the world
     11.Understands how the new film contributed to the rise of mass culture around the world
     12.Understands how the new radio contributed to the rise of mass culture around the world
     13.Understands the new approaches to visual art represented by the works of Pablo Picasso
     14.Understands the new approaches to visual art represented by the works of Henri Matisse
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands influences on art and culture in Europe and around the world in the early 20th century (e.g., the social and cultural dimensions of mass consumption of goods; the impact and aftermath of World War I on literature, art, and intellectual life in Europe and the U.S.; the impact of innovative movements in Western art and literature on other regions of the world; the influence of African and Asian art forms in Europe)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands influences on art in Europe and around the world in the early 20th century
     2.Understands influences on culture in Europe and around the world in the early 20th century
     5.Understands the impact of World War I and its aftermath on literature
     6.Understands the impact of World War I and its aftermath on art
     7.Understands the impact of World War I and its aftermath on intellectual life in Europe
     8.Understands the impact of World War I and its aftermath on intellectual life in the U.S.
     9.Understands the impact of innovative movements in Western art and literature on other regions of the world
     10.Understands the influence of African art forms in Europe
     11.Understands the influence of Asian art forms in Europe
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands how the emergence of new art, literature, music, and scientific theories influenced society in the early 20th century (e.g., the impact of innovative movements in art, architecture, and literature, such as Cubism, Surrealism, Expressionism, Socialist Realism, and jazz; reflections of war in such movements as Dadaism, and the literary works of Remarque, Spender, Brooke, and Hemingway; the major themes of writers of the "Lost Generation" in the post-World War I era; prominent musicians and composers of the first half of the century and the cultural impact of their music around the world; how Freud's psychoanalytic method and theories of the unconscious changed views of human motives and human nature)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the emergence of new art influenced society in the early 20th century
     2.Understands how the emergence of new literature influenced society in the early 20th century
     3.Understands how the emergence of new music influenced society in the early 20th century
     5.Understands the impact of innovative movements in art
     6.Understands the impact of innovative movements in architecture
     7.Understands the impact of innovative movements in literature
     8.Understands the impact of Cubism
     9.Understands the impact of Surrealism
     10.Understands the impact of Expressionism
     11.Understands the impact of Socialist Realism
     12.Understands the impact of jazz
     13.Understands reflections of war in Dadaism
     14.Understands reflections of war in the literary works of Remarque
     15.Understands reflections of war in the literary works of Spender
     16.Understands reflections of war in the literary works of Brooke
     17.Understands reflections of war in the literary works of Hemingway
     18.Understands the themes of writers of the "Lost Generation" in the post-World War I era
     19.Knows about prominent musicians of the first half of the century
     20.Knows about prominent composers of the first half of the century
     21.Understands the cultural impact of prominent musicians and composers’ music around the world
 Standard 43.  Understands how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the impact of relations between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War (e.g., the effects of United States and Soviet competition for influence or dominance upon such countries as Egypt, Iran, the Congo, Vietnam, Chile, and Guatemala; the impact of the Cold War on art, literature, and popular culture around the world)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Understands the impact of the Cold War on art, literature, and popular culture around the world
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the influences on and impact of cultural trends in the second half of the 20th century (e.g., the impact of World War II and its aftermath on literature, art, and intellectual life in Europe and other parts of the world; the meaning and social impact of innovative movements in literature and the arts such as Existentialism, Abstract Expressionism, or Pop Art; ways in which art, literature, religion, and traditional customs have expressed or strengthened national or other communal loyalties in recent times)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influences on cultural trends in the second half of the 20th century
     2.Understands the impact of cultural trends in the second half of the 20th century
     3.Understands the impact of World War II and its aftermath on literature, art, and intellectual life in Europe and other parts of the world
     4.Understands he meaning and social impact of innovative movements in literature and the arts such as Existentialism, Abstract Expressionism, or Pop Art
     5.Understands ways in which art, literature, religion, and traditional customs have expressed or strengthened national or other communal loyalties in recent times