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Topic: Leaders and leadership styles 

United States History

 Standard 8.  Understands the institutions and practices of government created during the Revolution and how these elements were revised between 1787 and 1815 to create the foundation of the American political system based on the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the differences in leaders (e.g., George Washington, Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson) and the social and economic composition of each political party in the 1790s
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the differences in political leaders in the 1790’s
     2.Understands the differences in the social composition political parties in the 1790’s
     3.Understands the differences in the economic composition of political parties in the 1790’s
     4.Knows about Alexander Hamilton
     5.Knows about Thomas Jefferson
     6.Understands differences between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson
 Standard 24.  Understands how the New Deal addressed the Great Depression, transformed American federalism, and initiated the welfare state
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the background and leadership styles of depression-era presidents (e.g., Herbert Hoover, Franklin D. Roosevelt)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the background of depression-era presidents
     2.Understands the leadership styles of depression-era presidents
     3.Understands the background of Herbert Hoover
     4.Understands the background of Franklin D. Roosevelt
     5.Understands the leadership style of Herbert Hoover
     6.Understands the leadership style of Franklin D. Roosevelt
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the personal and political reasons for Herbert Hoover's and Franklin D. Roosevelt's responses to the depression
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the personal reasons for Herbert Hoover’s response to the depression
     2.Understands the political reasons for Herbert Hoover’s response to the depression
     3.Understands the personal reasons for Franklin D. Roosevelt’s response to the depression
     4.Understands the political reasons for Franklin D. Roosevelt’s response to the depression
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the significance and ideology of FDR and the New Deal (e.g., whether the New Deal was able to solve the problems of depression, who the New Deal helped the most and the least; how the New Deal changed the relationship between state and federal government)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of FDR
     2.Understands the significance of the New Deal ideology
     3.Understands the ideology of FDR
     4.Understands the ideology of the New Deal
     5.Understands whether the New Deal was able to solve the problems of the depression
     6.Understands who the New Deal helped the most
     7.Understands who the New Deal helped the least
     8.Understands how the New Deal changed the relationship between state and federal government
 Standard 27.  Understands how the Cold War and conflicts in Korea and Vietnam influenced domestic and international politics
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the differences between the foreign policies of Kennedy and Johnson (e.g., changes in U.S. foreign policy toward the Soviet Union and the reasons for these changes, changing foreign policy toward Latin America, the Kennedy administration’s Cuban policy)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the foreign policies of President Kennedy
     2.Understands the foreign policies of President Johnson
     3.Understands changes in U.S. foreign policy toward the Soviet Union and the reasons for these changes
     4.Understands changing foreign policy toward Latin America
     5.Understands the Kennedy administration’s Cuban policy
   Benchmark 3.Understands political and social characteristics of the Vietnam War (e.g., the Vietnam policy of the Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon administrations and shifts of public opinion about the war; the role of the Nixon administration in the Paris Peace Accord of 1973; early U.S. involvement in Vietnam following World War II and policies of the Truman and Eisenhower administrations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the Vietnam policy of the Kennedy administration
     2.Understands the Vietnam policy of the Johnson administration
     3.Understands the Vietnam policy of the Nixon administration
     4.Knows about shifts in public opinion regarding the Vietnam War
     5.Knows the role of the Nixon administration in the Paris Peace Accord of 1973
     6.Knows about early U.S. involvement in Vietnam following World War II and policies of the Truman and Eisenhower administrations
   Benchmark 4.Understands the Truman and Eisenhower doctrines of foreign policy in terms of the international tensions that prompted each
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the international tensions that prompted the Truman doctrine of foreign policy
     2.Understands the international tensions that prompted the Eisenhower doctrine of foreign policy
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands U.S. foreign policy from the Truman administration to the Johnson administration (e.g., American policies toward independence movements in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East; U.S. policy regarding the British mandate over Palestine and the establishment of the state of Israel; Kennedy’s response to the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile crises; how the Korean War affected the premises of U.S. foreign policy; the Kennedy-Johnson response to anti-colonial movements in Africa)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands U.S. foreign policy in the Truman administration
     2.Understands U.S. foreign policy in the Eisenhower administration
     3.Understands U.S. foreign policy in the Kennedy administration
     4.Understands U.S. foreign policy in the Johnson administration
     5.Knows about American policies toward independence movements in Africa
     6.Knows about American policies toward independence movements in Asia
     7.Knows about American policies toward independence movements in Latin America
     8.Knows about American policies toward independence movements in the Middle East
     9.Understands U.S. policy regarding the British mandate over Palestine and the establishment of the state of Israel
     10.Understands Kennedy’s response to the Bay of Pigs crisis
     11.Understands Kennedy’s response the Cuban Missile Crisis
     12.Knows how the Korean War affected the premises of U.S. foreign policy
     13.Knows about the Kennedy-Johnson response to anti-colonial movements in Africa
 Standard 28.  Understands domestic policies in the post-World War II period
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the impact of the Kennedy and Johnson administrations on domestic affairs (e.g., the domestic policies of the "New Frontier," legislation and programs enacted during Johnson’s presidency, how Jacqueline Kennedy developed the Camelot images to depict her husband’s presidency)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of the Kennedy administration on domestic affairs
     2.Understands the impact of the Johnson administration on domestic affairs
     3.Knows about the domestic policies of the "New Frontier"
     4.Knows about legislation and programs enacted during Johnson’s presidency
     5.Knows how Jacqueline Kennedy developed the Camelot images to depict her husband’s presidency
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the domestic policies of Presidents Truman and Eisenhower (e.g., Eisenhower's "Modern Republicanism," Truman's Fair Deal program for securing fair employment practices, desegregation, civil rights, and race relations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the domestic policies of President Truman
     2.Understands the domestic policies of President Eisenhower
     3.Understands Eisenhower’s "Modern Republicanism"
     4.Understands Truman’s Fair Deal program for securing fair employment practices, desegregation, civil rights, and race relations
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands characteristics of the Kennedy presidency (e.g., the role of the media in the election of 1960; Kennedy’s commitment to liberalism and his ideas about citizenship, rights, and responsibilities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of the media in the election of 1960
     2.Understands President Kennedy’s commitment to liberalism
     3.Understands President Kennedy’s ideas about citizenship, rights, and responsibilities
   Benchmark 4.Understands characteristics of the Johnson presidency (e.g., how Johnson’s presidential leadership contrasted with and was affected by the Kennedy legacy)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the leadership of President Johnson
     2.Understands the leadership of President Kennedy
 Standard 30.  Understands developments in foreign policy and domestic politics between the Nixon and Clinton presidencies
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands elements of both the Reagan and Bush presidencies (e.g., the impact of the "Reagan Revolution" on federalism and public perceptions of the role of government, reasons for Reagan’s popularity, how each administration dealt with major domestic problems)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows elements of the Reagan presidency
     2.Knows elements of the Bush presidency
     3.Knows the impact of the "Reagan Revolution" on federalism
     4.Knows the impact of the "Reagan Revolution" on public perceptions of the role of government
     5.Knows reasons for Reagan’s popularity
     6.Knows how the Reagan administration dealt with major domestic problems
     7.Knows how the Bush administration dealt with major domestic problems
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the domestic problems facing Presidents G.Bush and Reagan and the programs their administrations presented to deal with these issues (e.g., supply-side economic strategies, Reagan’s environmental program and the views of its supporters and opponents, how the Bush administration dealt with the recession, the effectiveness of the Republican administration in dealing with the Democratic congress)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the domestic problems faced by President Reagan and the programs presented to address these issues
     2.Knows the domestic problems faced by President Bush and the programs presented to address these issues
     3.Knows about supply-side economic strategies
     4.Knows about Reagan’s environmental program
     5.Knows the views of supporters and opponents of Reagan’s environmental program
     6.Knows how the Bush administration dealt with the recession
     7.Knows how effective the Republican administration was in dealing with the Democratic congress
   Benchmark 4.Understands key domestic issues of the post-Nixon years (e.g., President Ford's pardon of Richard Nixon; the successes and failures of the Carter administration)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about domestic issues following Nixon’s presidency
     2.Knows about President Ford’s pardon of Richard Nixon
     3.Knows about the successes and failures of the Carter administration
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the Nixon, Ford, and Carter administrations dealt with major domestic issues (e.g., policies for dealing with problems of recession and inflation; the Nixon administration’s "southern strategy;" Carter’s program for dealing with the energy crisis)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how the Nixon administration dealt with major domestic issues
     2.Knows how the Ford administration dealt with major domestic issues
     3.Knows how the Carter administration dealt with major domestic issues
     4.Knows the Nixon administration’s policies for dealing with problems of recession and inflation
     5.Knows the Ford administration’s policies for dealing with problems of recession and inflation
     6.Knows the Carter administration’s policies for dealing with problems of recession and inflation
     7.Knows about the Nixon administration’s “southern strategy”
     8.Knows about Carter’s program for dealing with the energy crisis