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Topic: International diplomacy and relations 

Civics

 Standard 22.  Understands how the world is organized politically into nation-states, how nation-states interact with one another, and issues surrounding U.S. foreign policy
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 3.Knows the major ways nations interact with each other such as trade, diplomacy, cultural contacts, treaties or agreements, and use of military force
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that nations interact with each other through trade
     2.Knows that nations interact with each other through diplomacy
     3.Knows that nations interact with each other through cultural contacts
     4.Knows that nations interact with each other through treaties or agreements
     5.Knows that nations interact with one another through the use of military force
   Benchmark 4.Understands why it is important for nations to try to resolve problems peacefully (e.g., people's standard of living will improve due to increased trade, people's health will improve due to the exchange of medical and scientific knowledge)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that it is important for nations to try to resolve problems peacefully because people’s standard of living will improve due to increased trade
     2.Understands that it is important for nations to try to resolve problems peacefully because people’s health will improve due to the exchange of medical and scientific knowledge
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the most important means used by nation-states to interact with one another (e.g., trade, diplomacy, treaties and agreements, humanitarian aid, economic incentives and sanctions, military force and the threat of force)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that nation-states interact with one another through trade
     2.Knows that nation-states interact with one another through diplomacy
     3.Knows that nation-states interact with one another through treaties and agreements
     4.Knows that nation-states interact with one another through humanitarian aid
     5.Knows that nation-states interact with one another through economic incentives and sanctions
     6.Knows that nation-states interact with one another through military force and the threat of force
   Benchmark 3.Knows reasons for the breakdown of order among nation-states (e.g., conflicts about national interests, ethnicity, and religion; competition for resources and territory; absence of effective means to enforce international law), and understands the consequences of the breakdown of order among nation-states
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows reasons for the breakdown of order among nation-states
     2.Knows that conflict about national interests is a reason for the breakdown of order among nation-states
     3.Knows that conflict about ethnicity is a reason for the breakdown of order among nation-states
     4.Knows that conflict about religion is a reason for the breakdown of order among nation-states
     5.Knows that competition for resources and territory is a reason for the breakdown of order among nation-states
     6.Knows that the absence of an effective means to enforce international law is a reason for the breakdown of order among nation-states
     7.Understands the consequences of the breakdown of order among nation-states
   Benchmark 4.Knows the most important powers the United States Constitution gives to the Congress, president, and federal judiciary in foreign affairs (e.g., Congress can declare war, raise and support armies, provide a navy [Article I, Section 8] and the Senate can approve treaties; the president is Commander in Chief and can make treaties and appoint ambassadors [Article II]; the federal judiciary can decide cases affecting treaties and ambassadors, and those involving treason [Article III])
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the most important powers that the United States Constitution grants to Congress in foreign affairs
     2.Knows the most important powers the United States Constitution gives to the president in foreign affairs
     3.Knows the most important powers the United States Constitution gives to the federal judiciary in foreign affairs
     4.Knows that the United States Constitution gives Congress the power to declare war [Article I, Section 8]
     5.Knows that the United States Constitution gives Congress the power to raise and support armies [Article I, Section 8]
     6.Knows that the United States Constitution gives Congress the power to provide a navy [Article I, Section 8]
     7.Knows that the United States Constitution gives the Senate the power to approve treaties
     8.Knows that the United States Congress makes the president the Commander in Chief [Article II]
     9.Knows that the United States Constitution gives the president the power to make treaties and appoint ambassadors [Article II]
     10.Knows that the United States Constitution gives the federal judiciary the power to decide cases affecting treaties and ambassadors [Article II]
     11.Knows that the United States Constitution gives the federal judiciary the power to decide cases involving treason [Article III]
   Benchmark 6.Knows examples of important current foreign policy issues and the means the United States is using to deal with them
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows examples of current foreign policy issues
     2.Knows means the U.S. is using to deal with current foreign policy issues
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the significance of principal foreign policies and events in the United States' relations with the world (e.g., Monroe Doctrine, World Wars I and II, formation of the United Nations, Marshall Plan, NATO, Korean and Vietnam Wars, end of the Cold War)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of the Monroe Doctrine in the United States’ relations with the world
     2.Understands the significance of World Wars I and II in the United States’ relations with the world
     3.Understands the significance of the formation of the United Nations in the United States’ relations with the world
     4.Understands the significance of the Marshall Plan in the United States’ relations with the world
     5.Understands the significance of NATO in the United States’ relations with the world
     6.Understands the significance of the Korean and Vietnam Wars in the United States’ relations with the world
     7.Understands the significance of the end of the Cold War in the United States’ relations with the world
   Benchmark 12.Knows some important bilateral and multilateral agreements to which the United States is signatory (e.g., NAFTA, Helsinki Accord, Antarctic Treaty, Most Favored Nation Agreements)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows some important bilateral agreements to which the United States is signatory
     2.Knows some multilateral agreements to which the United States is signatory
     3.Knows that NAFTA is a multilateral agreement
     4.Knows that the Helsinki Accord is a multilateral agreement
     6.Knows that the Antarctic Treaty is a multilateral agreement

Geography

 Standard 10.  Understands the nature and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how evolving political and economic alliances may affect the traditional cohesiveness of world culture regions (e.g., post-reunification Germany and its economic effect on the European Union, NAFTA's effect on trade relations among the United States, Canada, and Mexico)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how evolving political alliances may affect the traditional cohesiveness of world culture regions
     2.Understands how evolving political alliances may affect the traditional cohesiveness of world culture regions
     3.Understands the economic effect of post-reunification Germany on the European Union
     4.Understands NAFTA’s effect on trade relations among the United States, Canada, and Mexico
 Standard 13.  Understands the forces of cooperation and conflict that shape the divisions of Earth's surface
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 2.Knows examples of world conflict or cooperation (e.g., countries in trade pacts, areas of the world with refugee problems)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows examples of world conflict
     2.Knows examples of world cooperation
     3.Knows countries in trade pacts
     4.Knows areas of the world with refugee problems
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the social, political, and economic divisions on Earth's surface at the local, state, national, and international levels (e.g., transnational corporations, political alliances, economic groupings, world religions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     13.Understands transnational corporations as an economic division on the Earth’s surface
     14.Understands political alliances as a political division on the Earth’s surface

United States History

 Standard 6.  Understands the causes of the American Revolution, the ideas and interests involved in shaping the revolutionary movement, and reasons for the American victory
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the United States’ relationships with European countries and the contributions of each European power to the outcome of the Revolution (e.g., relations with France, Holland and Spain; consequences of the Treaty of Paris; Ben Franklin’s negotiations with the French)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the United States’ relationship with European countries during the American Revolution
     2.Understands the contributions of each European power to the outcome of the American Revolution
     3.Understands the United States’ relationship with France during the American Revolution
     4.Understands the United States’ relationship with Holland during the American Revolution
     5.Understands the United States’ relationship with Spain during the American Revolution
     6.Understands the consequences of the Treaty of Paris for the outcome of the Revolution
     7.Knows about Ben Franklin’s negotiations with the French during the American Revolution
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the impact of European countries and individual Europeans on the American victory (e.g., + interest, goals, and actions of France, Holland, and Spain; contributions of European individuals)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of European countries on the American victory
     2.Understands the contributions of individual Europeans on the American victory
     3.Understands how the positive interest of European countries impacted the American victory
     4.Understands how the actions of France impacted the American victory
     5.Understands how the actions of Holland impacted the American victory
     6.Understands how the actions of Spain impacted the American victory
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands contributions of European nations during the American Revolution and how their involvement influenced the outcome and aftermath (e.g., the assistance of France and Spain in the war, how self-interests of France and Spain differed from those of the United States after the war, the effect of American diplomatic initiatives and the contributions of the European military leaders on the outcome of the war)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands contributions of European nations during the American Revolution
     2.Understands how European involvement influenced the outcome of the Revolutionary War
     3.Understands how European involvement influenced the aftermath of the Revolutionary War
     4.Knows about the assistance of France in the Revolutionary War
     5.Knows about the assistance of Spain in the Revolutionary War
     6.Understands how the self-interests of France differed from those of the United States after the Revolutionary War
     7.Understands how the self-interests of Spain differed from those of the United States after the Revolutionary War
     8.Understands the effect of American diplomatic initiatives on the outcome of the Revolutionary War
     9.Understands the effect of contributions of the European military leaders on the outcome of the Revolutionary War
 Standard 9.  Understands the United States territorial expansion between 1801 and 1861, and how it affected relations with external powers and Native Americans
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Knows the foreign territorial claims in the Western Hemisphere in 1800 and the impact on American foreign policy (e.g., the origins and provisions of the Monroe Doctrine; the claims of Spain, France, Britain, and Russia; nations that declared their independence in 1823; how President Monroe dealt with European attempts to reestablish control)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about foreign territorial claims in the Western Hemisphere in 1800
     2.Understands the impact of foreign territorial claims in the Western Hemisphere on American foreign policy (1800)
     3.Understands the origins of the Monroe Doctrine
     4.Understands the provisions of the Monroe Doctrine
     5.Knows about the territorial claims of Spain in the Western Hemisphere in 1800
     6.Knows about the territorial claims of France in the Western Hemisphere in 1800
     7.Knows about the territorial claims of Britain in the Western Hemisphere in 1800
     8.Knows about the territorial claims of Russia in the Western Hemisphere in 1800
     9.Knows about the nations that declared their independence in 1823
     10.Understands how President Monroe dealt with European attempts to reestablish control in the Western Hemisphere
 Standard 19.  Understands federal Indian policy and United States foreign policy after the Civil War
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the causes and consequences of the Spanish-American War (e.g., economic and geographic factors, U.S. justifications, impact of the press on the public opinion, the role of the U.S. in Cuba after the war, the war’s effects on U.S. involvement in international relations, constitutional issues raised by the acquisition of new territories)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the causes of the Spanish-American War
     2.Understands the consequences of the Spanish-American War
     3.Understands the economic factors of the Spanish-American War
     4.Understands the geographic factors of the Spanish-American War
     5.Understands the U.S. justification for the Spanish-American War
     6.Understands the impact of the press on public opinion of the Spanish-American War
     7.Understands the role of the U.S. in Cuba after the Spanish-American War
     8.Understands the Spanish-American War’s effects on U.S. involvement in international relations
     9.Understands the constitutional issues raised by the acquisition of new territories
 Standard 21.  Understands the changing role of the United States in world affairs through World War I
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands different types of U.S. diplomacy in the early 20th century and how they were applied (e.g., Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policies, U.S. relations with Japan and the "Gentleman’s Agreement," American diplomatic initiatives in East Asia, differences between Taft’s dollar diplomacy and Roosevelt’s big stick diplomacy)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands different types of U.S. diplomacy in the early 20th century
     2.Understands how different types of U.S. diplomacy in the early 20th century were applied
     3.Understands Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policies
     4.Understands U.S. relations with Japan in the early 20th century
     5.Knows about the "Gentleman’s Agreement"
     6.Understands the diplomatic initiatives in East Asia in the early 20th century
     7.Understands differences between Taft’s dollar diplomacy and Roosevelt’s big stick diplomacy
 Standard 25.  Understands the causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands events leading to U.S. involvement in World War II (e.g., reasons for American isolationist sentiment and its effects on international relations and diplomacy; American responses to German, Italian, and Japanese aggression in Europe, Africa, and Asia from 1935 to 1941, global involvement of nations and people before World War II; the location of Pearl Harbor and events that brought the U.S. into the war)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands reasons for American isolationist sentiment prior to World War II
     2.Understands the effects of American isolationist sentiment on international relations prior to World War II
     3.Understands the effects of American isolationist sentiment on international diplomacy prior to World War II
     4.Understands American responses to German aggression in Europe from 1935 to 1941
     5.Understands American responses to Italian aggression in Africa from 1935 to 1941
     6.Understands American responses to Japanese aggression in Asia from 1935 to 1941
     7.Understands the global involvement of nations before World War II
     8.Understands the global involvement of people before World War II
     10.Understands the events that brought the U.S. into the war
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the influence of international events on U.S. policies and political developments (e.g., Roosevelt’s foreign policy toward Latin America and the reasons for the Good Neighbor Policy; the effect of the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact of 1939 on the U.S. Communist Party)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Roosevelt’s foreign policy toward Latin America
     2.Understands the Good Neighbor Policy
     3.Understands the effect of the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact of 1939 on the U.S. Community Party
   Benchmark 2.Understands events that led to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (e.g., why Japan set up the East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere, U.S. reasons for cutting off oil to Japan, U.S. response to the November 10 proposal from Japan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands why Japan set up the East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere
     2.Understands U.S. reasons for cutting off oil to Japan
     3.Understands U.S. response to the November 10 proposal from Japan
 Standard 27.  Understands how the Cold War and conflicts in Korea and Vietnam influenced domestic and international politics
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands shifts in international relations after World War II (e.g., effects of popular uprisings against communist governments in Eastern Europe on U.S. foreign policy, U.S. relations with Israel and how Arab-Israeli crises influenced U.S. foreign policy, how the modern state of Israel became an independent country after World War II)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands effects of popular uprisings against communist governments in Eastern Europe on U.S. foreign policy
     2.Understands U.S. relations with Israel and how Arab-Israeli crises influenced U.S. foreign policy
     3.Knows how the modern state of Israel became an independent country after World War II

World History

 Standard 40.  Understands the search for peace and stability throughout the world in the 1920s and 1930s
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands treaties and other efforts to achieve peace and recovery from World War I (e.g., the conflicting aims and aspirations of the conferees at Versailles, and how the major powers responded to the terms of the settlement; why and how the League of Nations was founded, and its initial goals and limitations; the nations that were and were not invited to participate in the League of Nations; changes made to political boundaries after the peace treaties ending World War I, and which countries were winners or losers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands treaties and other efforts to achieve peace from World War I
     2.Understands treaties and other efforts to achieve recovery from World War I
     3.Understands the conflicting aims of the conferees at Versailles
     4.Understands the conflicting aspirations of the conferees at Versailles
     5.Understands how the major powers responded to the terms of the Versailles settlement
     6.Understands why the League of Nations was founded
     7.Understands how the League of Nations was founded
     8.Understands the League of Nation’s initial goals
     9.Understands the League of Nation’s initial limitations
     10.Knows the nations that were invited to participate in the League of Nations
     11.Knows the nations that were not invited to participate in the League of Nations
     12.Understands changes made to political boundaries after the peace treaties ending World War I, and which countries were winners or losers
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the collapse of the German, Hapsburg, and Ottoman Empires and the creation of new states affected international relations in Europe and the Middle East
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the collapse of the German Empire affected international relations in Europe
     2.Understands how the collapse of the Hapsburg Empire affected international relations in Europe
     3.Understands how the collapse of the Ottoman Empire affected international relations in Europe
     4.Understands how the collapse of the German Empire affected international relations in the Middle East
     5.Understands how the collapse of the Hapsburg Empire affected international relations in the Middle East
     6.Understands how the collapse of the Ottoman Empire affected international relations in the Middle East
     7.Understands how the creation of new states affected international relations in Europe
     8.Understands how the creation of new states affected international relations in the Middle East
   Benchmark 7.Understands how the treaties ending World War I and the League of Nations addressed different groups of people (e.g., how treaties ending World War I accorded with Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points and the processes by which the treaties were established, the varied reactions of the Chinese to the provisions of the Versailles Peace Treaty, the goals and failures of the "racial equality clause" in the preamble to the Covenant of the League of Nations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the groups of people addressed in the treaties ending World War I
     2.Understands the groups of people addressed in the League of Nations
     3.Understands how treaties ending World War I accorded with Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points
     4.Understands the process by which the treaties ending Word War I were established
     5.Understands the varied reactions of the Chinese to the provisions of the Versailles Peace Treaty
     6.Understands the goals of the "racial equality clause" in the preamble to the Covenant of the League of Nations
     7.Understands the failures of the "racial equality clause" in the preamble to the Covenant of the League of Nations
   Benchmark 10.Understands the conditions of the Hussein-McMahon correspondence and the Sykes-Picot agreement, how they differed from the conditions of the treaties of Versailles and San Remo, and what each party sought to gain from these efforts
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the conditions of the Hussein-McMahon correspondence
     2.Understands the conditions of the Sykes-Picot agreement
     3.Understands how the Hussein-McMahon correspondence and the Sykes-Picot agreement differed from the conditions of the treaties of Versailles and San Remo
     4.Understands what each party sought to gain from the Hussein-McMahon correspondence
     5.Understands what each party sought to gain from the Sykes-Picot agreement
 Standard 41.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War II
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the positions of the major powers Britain, France, the U.S., and the Soviet Union on fascist aggression, and the consequences of their failure to take forceful measures to stop this aggression
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the position of the major power Britain on fascist aggression
     2.Understands the position of the major power France on fascist aggression
     3.Understands the position of the major power United States on fascist aggression
     4.Understands the position of the major power Soviet Union on fascist aggression
     5.Understands the consequences of the failure of major powers to take forceful measures to stop fascist aggression
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands motives and consequences of the Soviet nonaggression pacts with Germany and Japan (e.g., the Munich Agreement in 1938, what it meant for Stalin, and how it lead to the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact of 1939)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands motives of the Soviet nonaggression pact with Germany
     2.Understands motives of the Soviet nonaggression pact with Japan
     3.Understands consequences of the Soviet nonaggression pacts with Germany
     4.Understands consequences of the Soviet nonaggression pacts with Japan
     5.Understands aspects of the Munich Agreement in 1938
     6.Understands what the Munich Agreement in 1938 meant for Stalin
     7.Understands how the Munich Agreement in 1938 lead to the Nazi Soviet Non Aggression Pact of 1939
 Standard 42.  Understands major global trends from 1900 to the end of World War II
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands major shifts in world geopolitics between 1900 and 1945, and understands the growing role of the United States in international affairs
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major shifts in world geopolitics between 1900 and 1945
     2.Understands the growing role of the United States in international affairs between 1900 and 1945
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands events that led to an easing of Cold War tensions from the 1970s to the early 1990s (e.g., why the Cold War eased in the 1970s and how the Helsinki Accords, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and Reagan-Gorbachev "summit diplomacy" affected progress toward detente; the collapse of the government of the Soviet Union and other communist governments around the world in the late 1980s and 1990s; the internal and external forces that led to changes within the USSR and in its relations with Eastern European countries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands why the Cold War eased in the 1970s
     2.Understands how the Helsinki Accords affected progress toward detente
     3.Understands how the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan affected progress toward detente
     4.Understands how Reagan and Gorbachev "summit diplomacy" affected progress toward detente
     6.Understands the internal and external forces that led to changes within the USSR and in its relations with Eastern European countries
 Standard 45.  Understands major global trends since World War II
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the origins and decline of the Cold War and its significance as a 20th-century event
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of the Cold War
     2.Understands events in the decline of the Cold War
     3.Understands the significance of the Cold War as a 20th century event