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Topic: Historical analysis and interpretations 

Historical Understanding

 Standard 1.  Understands and knows how to analyze chronological relationships and patterns
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Knows how to interpret data presented in time lines (e.g., identify the time at which events occurred; the sequence in which events developed; what else was occurring at the time)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how to identify on a time line the time at which an event occurred
     2.Knows how to ascertain from a time line the sequence in which events developed
     3.Knows how to ascertain from a time line what else was occurring at the time of the event in question
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows how to construct and interpret multiple tier time lines (e.g., a time line that contains important social, economic, and political developments in colonial history; a time line that compares developments in the English, French, and Spanish colonies in North America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how to construct a time line that contains important social, economic, and political developments in colonial history
     2.Knows how to interpret a time line that contains important social, economic, and political developments in colonial history
     3.Knows how to construct a time line that compares developments in the English, French, and Spanish colonies in North America
     4.Knows how to interpret a time line that compares developments in the English, French, and Spanish colonies in North America
   Benchmark 5.Knows how to impose temporal structure on their historical narratives (e.g., working backward from some issue, problem, or event to explain its causes that arose from some beginning and developed through subsequent transformations over time)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how to work backwards from an issue, problem, or event to explain its causes
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Knows how to identify the temporal structure and connections disclosed in historical narratives
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how to identify temporal structure in historical narratives
     2.Knows how to identify temporal connections in historical narratives
 Standard 2.  Understands the historical perspective
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands that specific ideas had an impact on history
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that an idea can have an impact on history
     2.Knows an example of an idea that has had a significant impact on history
   Benchmark 4.Understands that "chance events" had an impact on history
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows an example of a chance event that had an impact on history
   Benchmark 5.Understands that specific decisions and events had an impact on history
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows examples of specific decisions that had an impact on history
     2.Knows examples of specific events that had an impact on history
   Benchmark 6.Evaluates historical fiction according to the accuracy of its content and the author's interpretation
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Evaluates historical fiction according to the accuracy of its content
     2.Evaluates historical fiction according to the accuracy of the author’s interpretation
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Analyzes the influence specific ideas and beliefs had on a period of history
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that specific ideas can have an impact on a period of history
     2.Understands that specific beliefs can have an impact on history
     3.Knows how to trace the influence of an idea or belief
   Benchmark 3.Analyzes the effect that specific "chance events" had on history
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows a specific "chance event" that had an effect on history
     2.Knows how to identify the effect of a "chance event" on history
   Benchmark 4.Analyzes the effects specific decisions had on history
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows a specific decision that had an effect on history
   Benchmark 5.Understands that historical accounts are subject to change based on newly uncovered records and interpretations
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that historical accounts are subject to change based on newly uncovered records
     2.Understands that historical accounts are subject to change based on new interpretations
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Analyzes the values held by specific people who influenced history and the role their values played in influencing history
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows a specific person whose impact on history resulted from the values that person held
     2.Knows how to infer a person’s values from that person’s action
   Benchmark 2.Analyzes the influences specific ideas and beliefs had on a period of history and specifies how events might have been different in the absence of those ideas and beliefs
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows specific ideas that had an influence on a period of history
     2.Knows specific beliefs that had an influence on a period of history
     3.Speculates how a period of history might have been different in the absence of specific ideas
     4.Speculates how a period of history might have been different in the absence of specific beliefs
   Benchmark 3.Analyzes the effects that specific "chance events" had on history and specifies how things might have been different in the absence of those events
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Speculates how a period of history might have been different in the absence of a specific "chance event"
   Benchmark 4.Analyzes the effects specific decisions had on history and studies how things might have been different in the absence of those decisions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Speculates how a period of history might have been different in the absence of a specific decision
   Benchmark 5.Understands that the consequences of human intentions are influenced by the means of carrying them out
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that human intentions must be carried out in order to have consequences
     2.Knows that the consequences of an act are related to the way in which the act is carried out
   Benchmark 7.Knows how to avoid seizing upon particular lessons of history as cures for present ills
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows why particular lessons of history might not be applicable to present circumstances
     2.Knows how careful analysis helps to avoid applying the lessons of history inappropriately to present circumstances
   Benchmark 8.Understands how past events are affected by the irrational (e.g., the assassination of John F. Kennedy or Archduke Francis Ferdinand) and the accidental (e.g., the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how past events are affected by irrational occurrences
     2.Understands how past events are affected by accidental occurrences
     3.Understands the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus as an example of an accidental event
     4.Understands the assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Archduke Francis Ferdinand are examples of irrational events
   Benchmark 9.Analyzes how specific historical events would be interpreted differently based on newly uncovered records and/or information
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how the meaning of past events can change in the light of new evidence
   Benchmark 10.Understands how the past affects our private lives and society in general
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the past affects our private lives
     2.Understands how the past affects society in general
   Benchmark 11.Knows how to perceive past events with historical empathy
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that understanding the perspective of the time is one way to perceive past events with historical empathy
     2.Knows why it is important to perceive past events with historical empathy
   Benchmark 12.Knows how to evaluate the credibility and authenticity of historical sources
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how to evaluate the credibility of historical sources
     2.Knows how to evaluate the authenticity of historical sources
   Benchmark 13.Evaluates the validity and credibility of different historical interpretations
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how to evaluate the credibility of historical interpretations
     2.Knows how to evaluate the validity of historical interpretations
   Benchmark 14.Uses historical maps to understand the relationship between historical events and geography
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how to read a historical map
     2.Knows that a relationship can exist between geography and historical events

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 7.  Understands selected attributes and historical developments of societies in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how historians learn about the past if there are no written records
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that historians can learn about the past even in the absence of written records
   Benchmark 9.Understands the different perspectives and major arguments surrounding the Columbian encounter
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the different perspectives held by various groups on the Columbian encounter
     2.Understands the major arguments surrounding the Columbian encounter

United States History

 Standard 2.  Understands cultural and ecological interactions among previously unconnected people resulting from early European exploration and colonization
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how interpretations of Columbus' voyages and his interactions with indigenous peoples have changed (e.g., between 1892 and 1992)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows various interpretations of Columbus’ voyages and interactions with indigenous peoples in the Americas