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Topic: Farming and agriculture 

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 8.  Understands major discoveries in science and technology, some of their social and economic effects, and the major scientists and inventors responsible for them
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Understands differences between hunters and gatherers and people who cultivated plants and raised domesticated animals for food (e.g., in family life, the amounts of land necessary for support, ability to acquire surplus food for storage and trading)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands family life in hunting and gathering societies
     2.Understands how much land was needed to support hunting and gathering societies
     3.Understands that hunting and gathering societies were not able to acquire surplus food for storage and trade
     4.Understands family life in societies that cultivate plants and raise domesticated animals for food
     5.Understands how much land was needed to support societies that cultivated plants and raised domesticated animals for food

United States History

 Standard 16.  Understands how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed American society
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands differences in commercial farming in various regions of the United States (e.g., crop production, farm labor, financing, and transportation in the Northeast, South, Great Plains, West; the significance of farm organizations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about crop production in the Northeast
     2.Knows about farm labor in the Northeast
     3.Knows about financing commercial farming in the Northeast
     4.Knows about transportation for farms in the Northeast
     5.Knows about crop production in the South
     6.Knows about farm labor in the South
     7.Knows about financing commercial farming in the South
     8.Knows about transportation for farms in the South
     9.Knows about crop production in the Great Plains
     10.Knows about farm labor in the Great Plains
     11.Knows about financing commercial farming in the Great Plains
     12.Knows about transportation for farms in the Great Plains
     13.Knows about crop production in the West
     14.Knows about farm labor in the West
     15.Knows about financing commercial farming in the West
     16.Knows about transportation for farms in the West
     17.Knows about the significance of farm organizations in various regions of the United States
 Standard 26.  Understands the economic boom and social transformation of post-World War II United States
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands agricultural innovation and consolidation in the postwar period and their impact on the world economy
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands agricultural innovation in the postwar period
     2.Understands agricultural consolidation in the postwar period
     3.Understands the impact of agriculture on the world economy in the postwar period

World History

 Standard 2.  Understands the processes that contributed to the emergence of agricultural societies around the world
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the role of agriculture in early settled communities (e.g., how archaeological evidence explains the technology, social organization, and cultural life of settled farming communities in Southwest Asia; differences between wild and domestic plants and animals; how patterns of settlement were influenced by agricultural practices)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how archaeological evidence explains the technology of settled farming communities in Southwest Asia
     2.Understands how archaeological evidence explains the social organization of settled farming communities in Southwest Asia
     3.Understands how archaeological evidence explains the cultural life of settled farming communities in Southwest Asia
     4.Understands the differences between wild and domestic plants and animals
     5.Understands how patterns of settlement were influenced by agricultural practices
   Benchmark 2.Understands the development of early agricultural communities in different regions of the world (e.g., differences between hunter-gatherer, fishing, and agrarian communities; social, cultural, and economic characteristics of large agricultural settlements and their unique problems; the development of tropical agriculture in Southeast Asia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands social characteristics of large early agricultural settlements
     3.Understands cultural characteristics of large early agricultural settlements
     4.Understands economic characteristics of large early agricultural settlements
     5.Understands the unique problems of early agricultural settlements
     6.Understands the development of tropical agriculture in Southeast Asia
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands immediate and long-term impacts and influences of early agricultural communities (e.g., areas in Southwest Asia and the Nile valley where early farming communities first appeared, the effect of new tools and other objects on early farming settlements, whether fishing was considered a nomadic or agricultural way of life)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows areas in Southwest Asia and the Nile valley where early farming communities first appeared
     2.Knows the effect of new tools and other objects on early farming settlements
     3.Understands whether fishing was considered a nomadic or agricultural way of life
   Benchmark 2.Understands influences on the spread of agricultural communities (e.g., how local needs and conditions affected food plant domestication and world-wide patterns of settlement)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how local needs and conditions affected food plant domestication
   Benchmark 3.Understands what archaeological evidence reveals about the social and cultural conditions of agricultural societies (e.g., the emergence of social class divisions, occupational specialization, differences in gender roles; long distance trade routes in Southwest Asia; the importance of obsidian to this trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the emergence of social class divisions in early agricultural societies
     4.Understands the emergence of occupational specialization in early agricultural societies
     5.Understands the differences in gender roles in early agricultural societies
     6.Knows long distance trade routes in Southwest Asia
     7.Understands the importance of obsidian to long distance trade in Southwest Asia
   Benchmark 5.Understands the bases for the argument that agricultural life was an advance in human social development
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the effects of agricultural life on human social development
     2.Knows that the agricultural lifestyle is considered an advance in human social development
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how agricultural communities maintained their produce and livestock (e.g., methods used by scholars to reconstruct the early history of domestication and agricultural settlement, how and why human groups domesticated wild grains and animals after the last Ice Age, the importance of controlling food supplies and storing them in the "Neolithic revolution")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how early agricultural communities maintained their produce
     2.Understands how early agricultural communities maintained their livestock
     3.Knows methods used by scholars to reconstruct the early history of domestication and agricultural settlement
     4.Understands how and why human groups domesticated wild grains and animals after the last Ice Age
     5.Understands the importance of controlling food supplies and storing them in the "Neolithic revolution"
   Benchmark 5.Understands why some groups developed and accepted complete sedentary agriculture and others retained earlier subsistence methods
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands why some groups developed and accepted complete sedentary agriculture
     2.Understands why some groups retained earlier subsistence methods
 Standard 4.  Understands how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the role of technology in early agrarian societies (e.g., how the advent of the plow influenced new agrarian societies in Southwest Asia, the Mediterranean basin, and temperate Europe; how megalithic stone buildings, such as Stonehenge, indicate the emergence of complex agrarian societies in Europe; changes for humankind and civilization brought on by the bow and arrow and by pottery; what physical evidence indicated about the characteristics of the agrarian society of ancient Egypt and the life of the Pharaoh)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the advent of the plow influenced new agrarian societies in Southwest Asia, the Mediterranean basin, and temperate Europe
     2.Understands how megalithic stone buildings, such as Stonehenge, indicate the emergence of complex agrarian societies in Europe
     4.Knows what physical evidence indicates about the characteristics of the agrarian society of ancient Egypt and the life of the Pharaoh
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the significance of advancements in tool and weapon technology (e.g., the technology of bronze casting and why bronze weapons were superior to those made of stone; how the development of the plow, bow and arrow, and pottery affected early man and led to changes in gender roles)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how the development of the plow, bow and arrow, and pottery affected early man
     3.Understands how the development of the plow, bow and arrow, and pottery led to changes in gender roles
 Standard 6.  Understands major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Knows areas of Eurasia and Africa where cities and dense farming populations appeared between 4000 and 1000 BCE, and understands the connection between the spread of agriculture and the acceleration of world population growth
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows areas of Eurasia where cities and dense farming populations appeared between 4000 and 1000 BCE
     2.Knows areas of Africa where cities and dense farming populations appeared between 4000 and 1000 BCE
     3.Understands the connection between the spread of agriculture and the acceleration of world population growth
 Standard 10.  Understands how early agrarian civilizations arose in Mesoamerica
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the major characteristics and contributions of Olmec civilization (e.g, how maize cultivation influenced the development of the Olmec civilization, the major contributions of Olmec civilization to Mesoamerican civilization, the achievements of Olmec civilization circa 1200 to 400 BCE, how geography influenced the development of Olmec civilization, the essential aspects of the Olmec civilization)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands how maize cultivation influenced the development of the Olmec civilization
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands characteristics of Olmec agriculture (e.g., the social and environmental impacts, and the methods of Olmec agriculture; how farming in Mesoamerica differed from that of other agrarian societies in the ancient world)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social impacts of Olmec agriculture
     2.Understands the environmental impacts of Olmec agriculture
     3.Knows the methods of Olmec agriculture
     4.Understands how farming in Mesoamerica differed from that of other agrarian societies in the ancient world
 Standard 16.  Understands the development of agricultural societies and new states in tropical Africa and Oceania
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the establishment of agricultural societies on the Pacific Islands and New Zealand (e.g., the plants and animals that early migrants carried with them; how these "introductions" affected the existing island flora and fauna; possible links between the cultures of Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and New Zealand)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the establishment of agricultural societies on the Pacific Islands
     2.Understands the establishment of agricultural societies on New Zealand
     3.Knows types of plants and animals that early migrants to the Pacific Islands carried with them
     4.Knows types of plants and animals that early migrants to New Zealand carried with them
     5.Understands how "introductions" of new plants and animals to the Pacific Islands affected the existing island flora and fauna
     6.Understands how "introductions" of new plants and animals to New Zealand affected the existing island flora and fauna
 Standard 17.  Understands the rise of centers of civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America in the 1st millennium CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands different farming methods of Teotihuacan and Moche civilization (e.g., agricultural methods, water utilization, and herding methods used by the Teotihuacan and Moche peoples, and how the natural environment of the Andes helped to influence these methods)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands farming methods of the Teotihuacan civilization
     2.Understands farming methods of the Moche civilization
     3.Knows agricultural methods used by the Teotihuacan peoples
     4.Knows agricultural methods used by the Moche peoples
     5.Knows water utilization methods used by the Teotihuacan peoples
     6.Knows water utilization methods used by the Moche peoples
     7.Knows herding methods used by the Teotihuacan peoples
     8.Knows herding methods used by the Moche peoples
     9.Understands how the natural environment of the Andes helped to influence agriculture, water utilization, and herding methods used by the Teotihuacan and Moche peoples
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the economic and agricultural elements of Mayan society (e.g., the extent, importance, and composition of Mayan trade; the adaptability and importance of Mayan agricultural techniques and their connection to the rise of Mayan city-states)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the agricultural elements of Mayan society
     4.Understands the adaptability and importance of Mayan agricultural techniques
     5.Understands the connection of Maya agricultural techniques to the rise of Mayan city states
   Benchmark 4.Understands social features of Andean societies (e.g., different agriculture practices in the Moche/Andean region; kinship groups, regulated family and community life in Andean societies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows different agriculture practices in the Moche/Andean region
 Standard 24.  Understands the expansion of states and civilizations in the Americas between 1000 and 1500
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands social and political elements of Incan society (e.g., Incan methods for expansion and unification of their empire, daily life for different people in Incan society, the food plants that formed the basis of Incan as compared with Aztec agriculture)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Knows the food plants that formed the basis of Incan as compared with Aztec agriculture
 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Knows which crops in Spanish and Portuguese regions of the Americas were domestic and which were commercial, and knows what resources commercial crops demanded
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows which crops in Spanish and Portuguese regions of the Americas were domestic
     2.Knows which crops in Spanish and Portuguese regions were commercial
     3.Knows what resources commercial crops in Spanish and Portuguese regions of the Americas demanded
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 10.Knows the routes of exchange of specific flora and fauna (e.g., corn, cassava, sugar; horses, cattle, pigs) throughout the world between the 15th and 18th centuries, and the impact of these exchanges on the world economy
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the routes of exchange of corn throughout the world between the 15th and 18th centuries
     2.Knows the routes of exchange of cassava throughout the world between the 15th and 18th centuries
     3.Knows the routes of exchange of sugar throughout the world between the 15th and 18th centuries
     4.Knows the routes of exchange of horses throughout the world between the 15th and 18th centuries
     5.Knows the routes of exchange of cattle throughout the world between the 15th and 18th centuries
     6.Knows the routes of exchange of pigs throughout the world between the 15th and 18th centuries
 Standard 27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands changes in urban and rural Europe between the 15th and 18th centuries (e.g., social and economic consequences of population growth and urbanization in Europe between the 15th and 18th centuries; the growth pattern of European cities between the 17th and 18th centuries, and the major urban centers of this period; causes and effects of the "agrarian revolution" on Western and Eastern European society)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Understands causes and effects of the "agrarian revolution" on Western and Eastern European society
 Standard 29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands features of the labor system and economy in the Americas (e.g., why sugar, tobacco, coffee, tea, and other crops grown in the colonies became so important in the world economy; different jobs performed by indigenous peoples in the Americas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands why sugar, tobacco, coffee, tea, and other crops grown in the colonies became so important in the world economy
 Standard 33.  Understands the causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions from 1700 to 1850
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the importance and consequences of new technologies (e.g., seed drill, crop rotation, stock breeding, three piece iron) in the agricultural revolution
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of new technologies (e.g., seed drill, crop rotation, stock breeding, three piece iron) in the agricultural revolution
     2.Understands the consequences of new technologies (e.g., seed drill, crop rotation, stock breeding, three piece iron) in the agricultural revolution
 Standard 46.  Understands long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the importance of the revolutions in tool-making, agriculture, and industrialization as major turning points in human history
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the importance of agricultural revolution as a major turning point in human history