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Topic: Expansion, exploration, and conquest 

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 7.  Understands selected attributes and historical developments of societies in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 7.Knows about European explorers of the 15th and 16th centuries, their reasons for exploring, the information gained from their journeys, and what happened as a result of their travels (e.g., Christopher Columbus, Marco Polo, Eric the Red, Zheng He, Ferdinand Magellan, Vasco de Gama, Jacques Cartier)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows Christopher Columbus’ reasons for exploring
     2.Knows information that was gained from Christopher Columbus’ journeys
     3.Knows events that resulted from Christopher Columbus’ travels
     4.Knows Marco Polo’s reasons for exploring
     5.Knows information that was gained from Marco Polo’s journeys
     6.Knows events that resulted from Marco Polo’s travels
     7.Knows Eric the Red’s reasons for exploring
     8.Knows information that was gained from Eric the Red’s journeys
     9.Knows events that resulted from Eric the Red’s travels
     10.Knows Zheng He’s reasons for exploring
     11.Knows information that was gained from Zheng He’s journeys
     12.Knows events that resulted from Zheng He’s travels
     13.Knows Ferdinand Magellan’s reasons for exploring
     14.Knows information that was gained from Ferdinand Magellan’s journeys
     15.Knows events that resulted from Ferdinand Magellan’s travels
     16.Knows Vasco de Gama’s reasons for exploring
     17.Knows information that was gained from Vasco de Gama’s journeys
     18.Knows events that resulted from Vasco de Gama’s travels
     19.Knows Jacques Cartier’s reasons for exploring
     20.Knows information that was gained from Jacques Cartier’s journeys
     21.Knows events that resulted from Jacques Cartier’s travels
   Benchmark 8.Knows about the various crops, foods, and animals that were transported from the Western Hemisphere and from the Eastern Hemisphere as a result of the "Columbian Exchange" (e.g., tomato, corn, cassava, potato; horse, cattle, sugar cane)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the tomato, corn, cassava, and the potato are crops that were transported from the Western Hemisphere as a result of the "Columbian Exchange"
     2.Knows that horse and cattle were transported from the Eastern Hemisphere as a result of the "Columbian Exchange"
     3.Knows that sugar cane was transported from the Eastern Hemisphere as a result of the "Columbian Exchange"
   Benchmark 9.Understands the different perspectives and major arguments surrounding the Columbian encounter
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the different perspectives held by various groups on the Columbian encounter

United States History

 Standard 1.  Understands the characteristics of societies in the Americas, Western Europe, and Western Africa that increasingly interacted after 1450
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the social, economic, and political factors that stimulated overseas exploration (e.g., the rise of centralized states, the development of urban centers, the expansion of commerce, the spirit of individualism and how it affected cross-cultural contacts with new peoples)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social factors that stimulated overseas exploration during the Age of Exploration
     2.Understands the economic factors that stimulated overseas exploration during the Age of Exploration
     3.Understands the political factors that stimulated overseas exploration during the Age of Exploration
     4.Understands the rise of centralized states as a factor that stimulated overseas exploration during the Age of Exploration
     5.Understands the development of urban centers as a factor that stimulated overseas exploration during the Age of Exploration
     6.Understands the expansion of commerce as a factor that stimulated overseas exploration during the Age of Exploration
     7.Understands the spirit of individualism during the Age of Exploration and how it affected cross-cultural interactions and stimulated overseas exploration
 Standard 2.  Understands cultural and ecological interactions among previously unconnected people resulting from early European exploration and colonization
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the features of the major European explorations that took place between the 15th and 17th centuries (e.g., the routes and motives of Spanish, French, Dutch, and English explorers; the goals and achievements of major expeditions; problems encountered on the high seas; fears and superstitions of the times; what sailors expected to find when they reached their destinations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the major routes of exploration of European explorers between the 15th and 17th centuries
     2.Knows the goals and achievements of major European expeditions between the 15th and 17th centuries
     3.Knows problems encountered by 15th-17th century European explorers on the high seas
     4.Knows typical fears and superstitions that affected European exploration between the 15th and 17th centuries
     5.Knows what different European explorers expected to find when they reached their destinations
   Benchmark 2.Understands aspects of the Spanish exploration, conquest, and immigration to the Americas in the centuries following Columbus (e.g., Spanish interactions with the Aztec, Inca, and Pueblo; the expeditions of Cabeza de Vaca and Francisco Vasquez de Coronado in the American Southwest; the conquest of Spanish America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the interaction of Spanish explorers with the Aztec in the centuries following Columbus
     2.Understands the interaction of Spanish explorers with the Inca in the centuries following Columbus
     3.Understands the interaction of Spanish explorers with the Pueblo in the centuries following Columbus
     4.Understands the expeditions of Cabeza de Vaca in the American Southwest in the centuries following Columbus
     5.Understands the expeditions of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado in the American Southwest in the centuries following Columbus
     6.Understands aspects of the conquest of Spanish America in the centuries following Columbus
     7.Understands aspects of the Spanish exploration of the Americas in the centuries following Columbus
     8.Understands aspects of Spanish immigration to the Americas in the centuries following Columbus
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the immediate and long-term impact of Columbus’ voyages on Native populations and on colonization in the Americas (e.g., Columbus’ interactions with indigenous peoples, the Columbian Exchange, religious influences)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the immediate effects of Columbus’ voyages on Native populations in the Americas
     2.Understands the immediate effects of Columbus’ voyages on colonization in the Americas
     3.Understands the long-term effects of Columbus’ voyages on Native populations in the Americas
     4.Understands the long-term effects of Columbus’ voyages on colonization in the Americas
     5.Understands Columbus’ interactions with indigenous peoples in the Americas
     6.Understands religious influences on Columbus’ voyages to the Americas
     7.Understands religious influences on colonization in the Americas
   Benchmark 2.Understands characteristics of the Spanish and Portuguese exploration and conquest of the Americas (e.g., the social composition of early settlers of America and their motives for exploration and colonization, connections between silver mined in Peru and Mexico and the rise of global trade and the price revolution in 16th century Europe, methods the Spanish used to conquer the Aztec and Incan empires, societies the Spanish explorers encountered in the Aztec and Incan settlements)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the social composition of the early Spanish and Portuguese settlers in the Americas
     2.Understands the motives of the Spanish and Portuguese for exploration and colonization
     3.Understands connections between silver mined in Peru and Mexico and the rise of global trade and the price revolution in 16th century Europe
     4.Knows methods the Spanish used to conquer the Aztec and Incan empires
     5.Knows various societies the Spanish explorers encountered in the Aztec and Incan settlements
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands characteristics of Spanish conquest and settlement in the Americas (e.g., the social composition of early Spanish settlers in the Americas in terms of age, gender, class, and its consequences for Latin America; how Cortes and Pizarro were able to conquer the Aztec and Inca; the role of religious beliefs in perceptions the Aztec and Spanish held of one another; Spanish attempts at justification for their treatment of Native Americans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the social composition of early Spanish settlers in the Americas in terms of age, gender, class, and its consequences for Latin America
     2.Understands how Cortes and Pizarro were able to conquer the Aztec and Inca during the Spanish conquest in the Americas
     3.Understands the role of religious beliefs in perceptions the Aztec and Spanish held of one another during the Spanish conquest of the Americas
     4.Knows Spanish attempts at justification for their treatment of Native Americans during the Spanish conquest of the Americas
 Standard 9.  Understands the United States territorial expansion between 1801 and 1861, and how it affected relations with external powers and Native Americans
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the factors that led to U.S. territorial expansion in the Western Hemisphere (e.g., Napoleon's reasons for selling the Louisiana Territory, expeditions of American explorers and mountain men)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Napoleon’s reasons for selling the Louisiana Territory
     2.Knows about expeditions of American explorers
     3.Knows about the mountain men
   Benchmark 3.Knows the foreign territorial claims in the Western Hemisphere in 1800 and the impact on American foreign policy (e.g., the origins and provisions of the Monroe Doctrine; the claims of Spain, France, Britain, and Russia; nations that declared their independence in 1823; how President Monroe dealt with European attempts to reestablish control)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about foreign territorial claims in the Western Hemisphere in 1800
     2.Understands the impact of foreign territorial claims in the Western Hemisphere on American foreign policy (1800)
     9.Knows about the nations that declared their independence in 1823
     10.Understands how President Monroe dealt with European attempts to reestablish control in the Western Hemisphere
   Benchmark 4.Understands the impact of territorial expansion on Native American tribes (e.g., the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole removals, the significance of the Trail of Tears, the original lands held by various tribes of the Southeast and those held in the Old Northwest territory)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of territorial expansion on the Cherokee
     2.Understands the impact of territorial expansion on the Choctaw
     3.Understands the impact of territorial expansion on the Creek
     4.Understands the impact of territorial expansion on the Seminole
     5.Understands the significance of the Trail of Tears
     6.Knows the original lands held by various tribes of the Southeast
     7.Knows the original lands held by various tribes in the Old Northwest territory
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the short-term political and long-term cultural impacts of the Louisiana Purchase (e.g., those who opposed and supported the acquisition, the impact on Native Americans between 1801 and 1861)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the short-term political impacts of the Louisiana Purchase
     2.Understands the long-term cultural impacts of the Louisiana Purchase
     3.Understands those who opposed the Louisiana Purchase
     4.Understands those who supported the Louisiana Purchase
     5.Understands the impact of the Louisiana Purchase on Native Americans between 1801 and 1861
   Benchmark 5.Understands the significance of the Lewis and Clark expedition (e.g., its role as a scientific expedition, its contributions to friendly relations with Native Americans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of the Lewis and Clark expedition as a scientific expedition
     2.Understands the contributions of the Lewis and Clark expedition to friendly relations with Native Americans
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the impact of the Louisiana Purchase (e.g., its influence on politics, economic development, and the concept of Manifest Destiny; how it affected relations with Native Americans and the lives of French and Spanish inhabitants of the Louisiana Territory; how the purchase of the Louisiana Territory was justified)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of the Louisiana Purchase on politics
     2.Understands the influence of the Louisiana Purchase on economic development
     3.Understands the influence of the Louisiana Purchase on the concept of Manifest Destiny
     4.Understands how the Louisiana Purchase affected relations with Native Americans
     5.Understands how the Louisiana Purchase affected the lives of French inhabitants of the Louisiana Territory
     6.Understands how the Louisiana Purchase affected the lives of Spanish inhabitants of the Louisiana Territory
     7.Understands how the purchase of the Louisiana Territory was justified
 Standard 19.  Understands federal Indian policy and United States foreign policy after the Civil War
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the expansion of U.S. territories in the post-Civil War era (e.g., areas the U.S. annexed, primary interests in these areas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the areas the U.S. annexed in the post-Civil War era
     2.Understands the primary interests in the areas annexed by the U.S. in the post-Civil War era
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands factors that influenced U.S. expansionism in the late 19th century (e.g., consequences of the Philippine annexation and Filipino insurrection; geographic, economic, and social factors; arguments used to justify expansion; arguments of opponents to expansion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the consequences of the Philippine annexation
     2.Understands the consequences of the Filipino insurrection
     3.Understands the geographic factors that influenced U.S. expansionism in the late 19th century
     4.Understands the economic factors that influenced U.S. expansionism in the late 19th century
     5.Understands the social factors that influenced U.S. expansionism in the late 19th century
     6.Understands the arguments used to justify U.S. expansion
     7.Understands the arguments of opponents to U.S. expansion

World History

 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands features of Spanish exploration and conquest (e.g., why the Spanish wanted to invade the Incan and Aztec Empires, and why these empires collapsed after the conflict with the Spanish; interaction between the Spanish and indigenous populations such as the Inca and the Aztec; different perspectives on Cort‚s journey into Mexico)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features of Spanish exploration
     2.Understands features of Spanish conquest
     4.Understands why the Aztec and Incan empires collapsed after the conflict with the Spanish
   Benchmark 6.Knows the major accomplishments of Columbus (e.g., his voyages off the coast of Africa and to North America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows features of Christopher Columbus’ voyages off the coast of Africa
     2.Knows features of Christopher Columbus’ voyages to North America
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the impact of the exploratory and commercial expeditions in the 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., the motives and short-term significance of the Portuguese and Spanish military and commercial expeditions to Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas; technologies that advanced international, seaborne trade in the latter part of the century; the connotations of the words "conquest," "exchange," and "discovery" used to describe Columbus' travels to North America and his encounters with indigenous populations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the motives of the Portuguese military and commercial expeditions to Sub Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas
     2.Understands the motives of the Spanish military and commercial expeditions to Sub Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas
     3.Understands the short term significance of the Portuguese military and commercial expeditions to Sub Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas
     4.Understands the short term significance of the Spanish military and commercial expeditions to Sub Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas
     6.Understands the connotations of the words "conquest," "exchange," and "discovery" used to describe Columbus’ travels to North America and his encounters with indigenous populations
   Benchmark 3.Understands cultural interaction between various societies in the late 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., how the Church helped administer Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas; reasons for the fall of the Incan Empire to Pizarro; how the Portuguese dominated seaborne trade in the Indian Ocean basin in the 16th century; the relations between pilgrims and indigenous populations in North and South America, and the role different religious sects played in these relations; how the presence of Spanish conquerors affected the daily lives of Aztec, Maya, and Inca peoples)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands how the presence of Spanish conquerors affected the daily lives of Aztec, Maya, and Inca peoples
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the consequences of the spread of disease globally and regionally (e.g., which diseases spread through colonization and exploration in the 16th and 17th centuries, how they were spread, and the effects of these diseases on individual societies, world trade, political expansion, and political control; fundamental plantation systems brought to the New World and how these may be connected to the spread of disease on the continents)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows which diseases spread through colonization and exploration in the 16th and 17th centuries
     4.Understands how diseases were spread through exploration and colonization
     5.Understands the effects of these diseases spread though exploration and colonization on individual societies, world trade, political expansion, and political control
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Understands events that shaped the expansion and development of Russia in the 19th century and early 20th century (e.g., the causes of the Crimean War and its consequences for Russia, the Ottoman Empire, Britain, and France; the limits of Russian expansion eastward across Siberia and southward beyond the Caspian Sea; why Russia invaded the Ottoman territory in the early 1850s; how the Crimean War led to political and social reform for Russia; how Pan-Slavism affected Russian foreign policy in the late 19th century; what the Trans-Siberian and other railroad routes tell about Russian development and expansion from 1801 to 1914)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands events that shaped the expansion of Russia in the 19th century and early 20th century
     3.Knows the causes of the Crimean War
     4.Knows the consequences of the Crimean War for Russia
     8.Knows the limits of Russian expansion eastward across Siberia and southward beyond the Caspian Sea
     9.Knows why Russia invaded the Ottoman territory in the early 1850s
     12.Understands what the Trans Siberian and other railroad routes tell about Russian development and expansion from 1801 to 1914
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands expansion and nation-building in the United States and Canada in the 19th century (e.g., the factors that contributed to nation-building in Canada; the territorial expansions of the United States in the 19th century, how new territories were acquired, and from whom)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands expansion and nation building in the United States in the 19th century
     2.Understands expansion and nation building in Canada in the 19th century
     3.Knows the factors that contributed to nation building in Canada
     4.Knows the territorial expansions of the United States in the 19th century
     5.Understands how the United States acquired new territories and from whom
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the experiences and motivations of European migrants and immigrants in the 19th century (e.g., why migrants left Europe in large numbers in the 19th century and regions of the world where they settled; the consequences of encounters between European migrants and indigenous peoples in such regions as the United States, Canada, South Africa, Australia, and Siberia; the general appeal of Canada to European immigrants in the second half of the 19th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows why migrants left Europe in large numbers in the 19th century and regions of the world where they settled
     5.Understands the general appeal of Canada to European immigrants in the second half of the 19th century
   Benchmark 3.Understands factors that contributed to European imperialist expansion between 1850 and 1914 (e.g., advances in transportation, medicine, and weaponry that helped European imperial expansion in the late 19th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows advances in transportation that helped European imperial expansion in the late 19th century
     2.Knows advances in medicine that helped European imperial expansion in the late 19th century
     3.Knows advances in weaponry that helped European imperial expansion in the late 19th century
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Understands the debate on the westward movement in North America in the 19th century: whether this movement was unique, or simply part of a larger pattern of European overseas settlement, and what consequences the expansion had for indigenous peoples
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the debate on whether the westward movement in North America in the 19th century was unique
     2.Understands the debate on whether westward movement in North American in the 19th century was simply part of a larger pattern of European overseas settlement
     3.Understands the debate on what consequences westward expansion had for indigenous peoples
 Standard 38.  Understands reform, revolution, and social change in the world economy of the early 20th century
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the consequences of changes inside Japan in the early 20th century (e.g., Japan's economic development, national integration, and political ideologies around the turn of the century; how Japanese territorial expansion affected the industrialization and economic development of Japan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands how Japanese territorial expansion affected the industrialization and economic development of Japan