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Topic: European exploration and colonization, 9th to 17th centuries 

United States History

 Standard 2.  Understands cultural and ecological interactions among previously unconnected people resulting from early European exploration and colonization
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the features of the major European explorations that took place between the 15th and 17th centuries (e.g., the routes and motives of Spanish, French, Dutch, and English explorers; the goals and achievements of major expeditions; problems encountered on the high seas; fears and superstitions of the times; what sailors expected to find when they reached their destinations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the major routes of exploration of European explorers between the 15th and 17th centuries
     2.Knows the goals and achievements of major European expeditions between the 15th and 17th centuries
     3.Knows problems encountered by 15th-17th century European explorers on the high seas
     4.Knows typical fears and superstitions that affected European exploration between the 15th and 17th centuries
     5.Knows what different European explorers expected to find when they reached their destinations
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the immediate and long-term impact of Columbus’ voyages on Native populations and on colonization in the Americas (e.g., Columbus’ interactions with indigenous peoples, the Columbian Exchange, religious influences)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the immediate effects of Columbus’ voyages on Native populations in the Americas
     2.Understands the immediate effects of Columbus’ voyages on colonization in the Americas
     3.Understands the long-term effects of Columbus’ voyages on Native populations in the Americas
     4.Understands the long-term effects of Columbus’ voyages on colonization in the Americas
     5.Understands Columbus’ interactions with indigenous peoples in the Americas
     6.Understands religious influences on Columbus’ voyages to the Americas
     7.Understands religious influences on colonization in the Americas
   Benchmark 3.Understands how motives differed among English colonizers and between the English and the Spanish, French, and Dutch colonizers
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the motives of different groups of English colonizers
     2.Understands the motives of Spanish colonizers
     3.Understands the motives of French colonizers
     4.Understands the motives of Dutch colonizers
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the political and religious factors that influenced English, Spanish, French, and Dutch colonization of the Americas (e.g., the enclosure movement; the accession of Elizabeth I to the throne in England; how the Spanish "Black Legend" was used to motivate and justify English colonization of North America; to what extent the "Black Legend" was Protestant propaganda; to what extent it was a valid description of the Spanish conquest)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the enclosure movement in Europe influenced the colonization of the Americas
     2.Understands how the accession of Elizabeth I to the throne in England influenced colonization of the Americas
     3.Understands how the Spanish "Black Legend" was used to motivate and justify English colonization of North America
     4.Understands the extent to which the "Black Legend" was Protestant propaganda
     5.Understands the extent to which the "Black Legend" was a valid description of the Spanish conquest of the Americas
   Benchmark 3.Understands how interpretations of Columbus' voyages and his interactions with indigenous peoples have changed (e.g., between 1892 and 1992)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows various interpretations of Columbus’ voyages and interactions with indigenous peoples in the Americas
   Benchmark 4.Understands the long-range social and ecological impact of the Columbian Exchange (e.g., how the horse, the pig, and the dandelion brought about changes in the land; how the sugar trade affected Caribbean slaves, Indian laborers, and European urban proletarians)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the Columbian Exchange in terms of how the horse, the pig, and the dandelion brought about changes in the Americas
     2.Understands the Columbian Exchange in terms of how the sugar trade affected Caribbean slaves, Indian laborers, and European urban proletarians