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Topic: Economic development and growth 

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 2.  Understands the history of a local community and how communities in North America varied long ago
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 8.Understands changes in land use and economic activities in the local community since its founding (e.g., changes in technology, the work people did, transportation, local resources)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that the use of land in the local community has changed over time
     2.Understands that economic activities in the community have changed over time
     3.Understands that the use of technology in the local community has changed over time
     4.Understands that the types of work local community members do have changed over time
     5.Understands that means of transportation within the local community have changed over time

Economics

 Standard 9.  Understands how Gross Domestic Product and inflation and deflation provide indications of the state of the economy
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the economic growth is a sustained rise in GDP, which results from investments in human and physical capital, research and development, technological change, and improved institutional arrangements and incentives
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how economic growth is related to the GDP
     2.Understands how investments in human capital affect economic growth and GDP
     3.Understands how investments in physical capital affect economic growth and GDP
     4.Understands how investments in research and development affect economic growth and GDP
     5.Understands how investments in technological change affect economic growth and GDP
     6.Understands how improved institutional arrangements affect economic growth and GDP
     7.Understands how improved institutional incentives affect economic growth and GDP
     8.Knows the meaning of economic growth
   Benchmark 5.Understands that economic growth can alleviate poverty, raise standards of living, create new employment and profit opportunities in some industries, but can also reduce opportunities in other industries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that economic growth can alleviate poverty
     2.Understands that economic growth can raise the standards of living
     3.Understands that economic growth can create new employment opportunities in some industries
     4.Understands that economic growth can create new profit opportunities in some industries
     5.Understands that economic growth can reduce opportunities in some industries

Geography

 Standard 3.  Understands the characteristics and uses of spatial organization of Earth's surface
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how places are connected and how these connections demonstrate interdependence and accessibility (e.g., the role of changing transportation and communication technology, regions and countries Americans depend on for imported resources and manufactured goods)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Knows that the dependence of Americans on others regions and countries for imported resources connects places
     7.Knows that the dependence of Americans on others regions and countries for manufactured goods connects places
 Standard 11.  Understands the patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the factors that are important in the location of economic activities (e.g., warehouses and industries near major transportation routes, fast-food restaurants in highly accessible locations close to population concentrations, production sites near the sources of their raw materials or close to the consumers who buy their products)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that it is important for warehouses to be located near major transportation routes
     2.Knows that it is important for industries to be located near major transportation routes
     3.Knows that fast-food restaurants are located in highly accessible locations close to population concentrations
     4.Knows that production sites may be located near the sources of their raw materials
     5.Knows that production sites may be located close to the consumers who buy their products
   Benchmark 2.Knows economic activities that use natural resources in the local region, state, and nation (e.g., agriculture, mining, fishing, forestry) and the importance of the activities to these areas
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows economic activities in the local region that rely on natural resources
     2.Knows economic activities in the state that rely on natural resources
     3.Knows economic activities in the nation that rely on natural resources
     4.Understands the importance of resource-based economic activities to the local region
     5.Understands the importance of resource-based economic activities to the state
     6.Understands the importance of resource-based economic activities to the nation
     7.Knows that agriculture is an economic activity that uses natural resources
     8.Knows that mining is an economic activity that uses natural resources
     9.Knows that fishing is an economic activity that uses natural resources
     10.Knows that forestry is an economic activity that uses natural resources
   Benchmark 3.Knows how transportation and communication have changed and how they have affected trade and economic activities (e.g., regions can specialize economically; with improved roads and refrigerated trucking, more fresh fruits and vegetables are available out of season; regional, national, and global markets expand as transportation and communication systems improve)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows how changing transportation has affected trade activities
     4.Knows how changing transportation has affected economic activities
     5.Knows how changing communication has affected trade activities
     6.Knows how changing communication has affected economic activities
     7.Knows that changing transportation has allowed regions to specialize economically
     8.Knows that changing communication has allowed regions to specialize economically
     9.Knows that improved roads have helped make fresh fruits and vegetables available out of season
     10.Knows that refrigerated trucking has helped make fresh fruits and vegetables available out of season
     11.Knows that regional markets expand as transportation systems continue to improve
     12.Knows that regional markets expand as communication systems continue to improve
     13.Knows that national markets expand as transportation systems continue to improve
     14.Knows that national markets expand as communication systems continue to improve
     15.Knows that global markets expand as transportation systems continue to improve
     16.Knows that global markets expand as communication systems continue to improve
   Benchmark 4.Knows the various ways in which people satisfy their basic needs and wants through the production of goods and services in different regions of the world (e.g., growing food and shopping for food in a developing vs. a developed society, economic activities in a rural region vs. those in an urban region in the same U.S. state)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how people in different regions of the world satisfy their basic needs through the production of goods
     2.Knows how people in different regions of the world satisfy their basic needs through services
     3.Knows how people in different regions of the world satisfy their wants through the production of goods
     4.Knows how people in different regions of the world satisfy their wants through services
     5.Understands growing food in developing society versus shopping for food in a developed society
     6.Understands economic activities in a rural region versus those in an urban region in the same U.S. state
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands issues related to the spatial distribution of economic activities (e.g., the impact of economic activities in a community on the surrounding areas, the effects of the gradual disappearance of small-scale retail facilities such as corner general stores and gas stations, the economic and social impacts on a community when a large factory or other economic activity leaves and moves to another place)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of economic activities on the surrounding areas of a community
     2.Understands the effects of the gradual disappearance of small-scale retail facilities
     3.Understands the effects of the gradual disappearance of corner general stores
     4.Understands the effects of the gradual disappearance of corner gas stations
     5.Understands the economic impact on a community when an economic activity leaves and moves to another place
     6.Understands the social impact on a community when an economic activity leaves and moves to another place
     7.Understands the economic impact on a community when a large factory leaves and moves to another place
     8.Understands the social impact on a community when a large factory leaves and moves to another place
   Benchmark 3.Understands factors that influence the location of industries in the United States (e.g., geographical factors, factors of production, spatial patterns)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how geographical factors influence the location of industries in the United States
     2.Understands how factors of production influence the location of industries in the United States
     3.Understands how spatial patterns influence the location of industries in the United States
   Benchmark 6.Understands historic and contemporary systems of transportation and communication in the development of economic activities (e.g., the effect of refrigerated railroad cars, air-freight services, pipelines, telephone services, facsimile transmission services, satellite-based communications systems)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how historic systems of transportation contributed to the development of economic activities
     2.Understands how historic systems of communication contributed to the development of economic activities
     3.Understands how contemporary systems of transportation contribute to the development of economic activities
     4.Understands how contemporary systems of communication contribute to the development of economic activities
     5.Understands how refrigerated railroad cars have affected the development of economic activities
     6.Understands how air-freight services have affected the development of economic activities
     7.Understands how pipelines have affected the development of economic activities
     8.Understands how telephone services have affected the development of economic activities
     9.Understands how facsimile transmission services have affected the development of economic activities
     10.Understands how satellite-based communications systems have affected the development of economic activities
   Benchmark 7.Knows primary, secondary, and tertiary activities in a geographic context (e.g., primary economic activities such as coal mining and salmon fishing; secondary economic activities such as the manufacture of shoes and the associated worldwide trade in raw materials; tertiary economic activity such as restaurants, theaters, and hotels)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows primary economic activities in a geographic context
     2.Knows secondary economic activities in a geographic context
     3.Knows tertiary economic activities in a geographic context
     4.Knows that coal mining is a primary economic activity
     5.Knows that salmon fishing is a primary economic activity
     6.Knows that shoe manufacturing and the associated worldwide trade in raw materials are secondary activities
     7.Knows that restaurants are tertiary economic activities
     8.Knows that theaters are tertiary economic activities
     9.Knows that hotels are tertiary economic activities
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the spatial distribution of major economic systems and their relative merits in terms of productivity and the social welfare of workers (e.g., North Korea as a command economy, Burkina Faso as a traditional economy in the hinterlands beyond its cities, Singapore as a market economy)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the spatial distribution of major economic systems
     2.Knows the relative merits of major economic systems in terms of productivity
     3.Knows the relative merits of major economic systems in terms of worker welfare
     4.Knows that North Korea is a command economy
     5.Knows that Burkina Faso is a traditional economy in the hinterlands beyond its cities
     6.Knows that Singapore is a market economy
   Benchmark 3.Understands the relationships between various settlement patterns, their associated economic activities, and the relative land values (e.g., land values and prominent urban features, the zoned uses of land and the value of that land, economic factors and location of particular types of industries and businesses)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the relationship between land value and prominent urban features
     2.Understands the relationship between zoned land use land and the value of that land
     3.Understands how economic factors relate to the location of particular types of industries and businesses
     4.Knows there is a relationship between settlement patterns, economic activity, and land value
 Standard 12.  Understands the patterns of human settlement and their causes
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows ways in which both the landscape and society change as a consequence of shifting from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form (e.g., a larger marketplace, the need for an agricultural surplus to provide for the urban population, the loss of some rural workers as people decide to move into the city, changes in the transportation system)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands a larger marketplace as a consequence of the shift from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form
     4.Understands the need for an agricultural surplus to provide for the urban population as a consequence of the shift from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form
     5.Understands the loss of some rural workers as people decide to move into the city as a consequence of the shift from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Knows the similarities and differences in settlement characteristics of economically developing and developed nations (characteristics of cities; residential and transportation patterns; travel distance to schools, shopping areas, and health care facilities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how the settlement characteristics of economically developing nations are similar to developed nations
     2.Knows how the settlement characteristics of economically developing nations are different from developed nations
     3.Knows how cities of economically developing nations compare to those of developed nations
     4.Knows how the residential patterns of economically developing nations compare to those of developed nations
     5.Knows how the transportation patterns of economically developing nations compare to those of developed nations
     6.Knows how the distance one must travel to school in economically developing nations compares to that of developed nations
     7.Knows how the shopping centers in economically developing nations compare to those of developed nations
     8.Knows how the health care facilities in economically developing nations compare to those of developed nations
 Standard 16.  Understands the changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution and importance of resources
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 3.Knows the relationships between economic activities and resources (e.g., the relationship of major industrial districts to the location of iron ore, coal, and other resources)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the relationship of major industrial districts to the location of natural resources
     2.Understands the relationship of major industrial districts to the location of iron ore
     3.Understands the relationship of major industrial districts to the location of coal
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the consequences of the use of resources in the contemporary world (e.g., the relationship between a country's standard of living and its accessibility to resources, the competition for resources demonstrated by events such as the Japanese occupation of Manchuria in the 1930s or the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1991)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the relationship between a country’s standard of living and its accessibility to resources
 Standard 18.  Understands global development and environmental issues
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the concept of sustainable development and its effects in a variety of situations (e.g., toward cutting the rain forests in Indonesia in response to a demand for lumber in foreign markets, or mining the rutile sands along the coast of eastern Australia near the Great Barrier Reef)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the effects of sustainable development on cutting the rain forests in Indonesia in response to a demand for lumber in foreign markets
     4.Understands the effects of sustainable development on the mining of rutile sands along the coast of eastern Australia near the Great Barrier Reef

United States History

 Standard 1.  Understands the characteristics of societies in the Americas, Western Europe, and Western Africa that increasingly interacted after 1450
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands economic changes in Western Europe in the age of exploration (e.g., major institutions of capitalism; the effects of the emerging capitalist economy on agricultural production, manufacturing, and the uses of labor)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the major institutions of capitalism that characterize economic change in Western Europe during the Age of Exploration
     2.Understands the effects of the emerging capitalist economy on agricultural production in Western Europe during the Age of Exploration
     3.Understands the effects of the emerging capitalist economy on manufacturing in Western Europe during the Age of Exploration
     4.Understands the effects of the emerging capitalist economy on labor use in Western Europe during the Age of Exploration
 Standard 2.  Understands cultural and ecological interactions among previously unconnected people resulting from early European exploration and colonization
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the economic characteristics of the early Spanish and Portuguese empires in the Americas (e.g., encomienda system and the evolution of labor systems, the origin and expansion of the African slave trade in the Americas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the encomienda system and the evolution of labor systems in the early Spanish and Portuguese empires in the Americas
     2.Understands the origins and expansion of the African trade slave in the early Spanish and Portuguese empires in the Americas
 Standard 3.  Understands why the Americas attracted Europeans, why they brought enslaved Africans to their colonies and how Europeans struggled for control of North America and the Caribbean
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands social and economic characteristics of European colonization in the 17th and 18th centuries (e.g., changing immigration and settlement patterns of Puritans, Quakers, Germans, and Scots-Irish; the slave trade and chattel slavery in the Spanish, English, and French Caribbean, Louisiana, the Dutch West Indies, and Chesapeake)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands slave trade and chattel slavery in the Spanish colonies
     6.Understands slave trade and chattel slavery in the English colonies
     7.Understands slave trade and chattel slavery in the French Caribbean
     8.Understands slave trade and chattel slavery in the Dutch Indies
     9.Understands slave trade and chattel slavery in Chesapeake
 Standard 5.  Understands how the values and institutions of European economic life took root in the colonies and how slavery reshaped European and African life in the Americas
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the factors that shaped the economic system in the colonies and the Americas (e.g., labor systems, natural resources, relations with other countries and the home country)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how labor systems shaped the economic system in the colonies and the Americas
     2.Understands how natural resources shaped the economic system in the colonies and the Americas
     3.Understands how relations with other countries shaped the economic system in the colonies and the Americas
     4.Understands how relations with the home country shaped the economic system in the colonies and the Americas
   Benchmark 2.Understands economic life in the New England, Chesapeake, and southern colonies (e.g., environmental and human factors; the work people did; the crops that plantation, yeoman, and family farmers grew; the New England merchant’s trading triangle)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands economic life in the New England colonies
     2.Understands economic life in the Chesapeake colonies
     3.Understands economic life in the southern colonies
     4.Understands environmental factors contributing to economic life in the colonies
     5.Understands human factors contributing to economic life in the colonies
     6.Understands the work people did in the colonies
     7.Knows about the crops that plantation farmers grew (colonial America)
     8.Knows about the crops that yeoman farmers grew (colonial America)
     9.Knows about the crops that family farmers grew (colonial America)
     10.Knows about the New England merchant’s trading triangle
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands mercantilism and how it influenced patterns of economic activity (e.g., the advantages and disadvantages of mercantilism for the mother country and its colonies; the value of the regions that produced sugar, rice, tobacco, timber, coffee, grains, fish and minerals to the mother country)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the advantages of mercantilism for the mother country
     2.Understands the disadvantages of mercantilism for the mother country
     3.Understands the advantages of mercantilism for the colonies
     4.Understands the disadvantages of mercantilism for the colonies
     5.Understands the value of the regions that produced sugar to the mother country
     6.Understands the value of the regions that produced rice to the mother country
     7.Understands the value of the regions that produced tobacco to the mother country
     8.Understands the value of the regions that produced timber to the mother country
     9.Understands the value of the regions that produced coffee to the mother country
     10.Understands the value of the regions that produced grains to the mother country
     11.Understands the value of the regions that produced fish to the mother country
     12.Understands the value of the regions that produced minerals to the mother country
   Benchmark 2.Understands the environmental and legislative impacts on economic growth in different regions of the English colonies (e.g., the connection between the Navigation Acts and mercantilism; the influence of climate, land fertility, water resources, access to markets)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the environmental impacts on economic growth in different regions of the English colonies
     2.Understands the legislative impacts on economic growth in different regions of the English colonies
     3.Understands the connection between the Navigation Acts and mercantilism
     4.Understands the influence of climate on economic growth in different regions of the English colonies
     5.Understands the influence of land fertility on economic growth in different regions of the English colonies
     6.Understands the influence of water resources on economic growth in different regions of the English colonies
     7.Understands the influence of access to markets on economic growth in different regions of the English colonies
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the characteristics of mercantilism in colonial America (e.g., the Atlantic economy and triangular trade, overseas trade and the Navigation Acts, economic development in French, English, and Spanish colonies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the Atlantic economy
     2.Understands triangular trade
     3.Understands overseas trade (colonial period)
     4.Knows about the Navigation Acts
     5.Understands economic development in French colonies
     6.Understands economic development in English colonies
     7.Understands economic development in Spanish colonies
   Benchmark 2.Understands factors that influenced economic life in the North American and West Indian colonies (e.g., the development of a consumer society and the imitation of English culture)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the development of a consumer society (colonial period)
     4.Knows about the imitation of English culture (colonial period)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the contributions of African slaves to economic development in the Americas (e.g., contributions of rice cultivation and cattle raising in South Carolina) and the transmission of African cultural heritage (e.g., through religious practices, dances, and work songs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the contributions of rice cultivation to South Carolina’s economy
     2.Understands the contributions of cattle raising to South Carolina’s economy
 Standard 7.  Understands the impact of the American Revolution on politics, economy, and society
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political and economic issues addressed by the Continental Congress (e.g., the accomplishments and failures of the Continental Congress, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, revolutionary war debt, the dispute over the sale of western lands)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows about the accomplishments of the Continental Congress
     4.Knows about the failures of the Continental Congress
     5.Knows about the Northwest Ordinance of 1787
     6.Understands the revolutionary war debt
     7.Understands the dispute over the sale of western lands
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the efforts of the Continental Congress and the states to rebuild the economy after the American Revolution (e.g., by addressing issues of foreign and internal trade, banking, and taxation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the efforts of the Continental Congress to rebuild the economy after the American Revolution
     2.Understands the efforts of the states to rebuild the economy after the American Revolution
     3.Understands the efforts of the Continental Congress and the states to rebuild the economy after the American Revolution by addressing issues of foreign trade
     4.Understands the efforts of the Continental Congress and the states to rebuild the economy after the American Revolution by addressing issues of internal trade
     5.Understands the efforts of the Continental Congress and the states to rebuild the economy after the American Revolution by addressing banking issues
     6.Understands the efforts of the Continental Congress and the states to rebuild the economy after the American Revolution by addressing taxation issues
 Standard 10.  Understands how the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed American lives and led to regional tensions
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands policies affecting regional and national interests during the early 19th century (e.g., how expansion-based economic policies, including northern dominance of locomotive transportation, contributed to growing political and sectional differences; the cheap price for the sale of western lands to residents of the North, South, and West; Andrew Jackson's veto of the Bank Recharter Bill of 1832)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands policies affecting regional interests during the early 19th century
     2.Understands policies affecting national interests during the early 19th century
     3.Understands how expansion-based economic policies contributed to growing political differences
     4.Understands how expansion-based economic policies contributed to growing sectional differences
     5.Understands how northern dominance of locomotive transportation contributed to growing political differences
     7.Knows about the cheap price for the sale of western lands to residents of the North
     8.Knows about the cheap price for the sale of western lands to residents of the South
     9.Knows about the cheap price for the sale of western lands to residents of the West
     10.Understands Andrew Jackson’s veto of the Bank Recharter Bill of 1832
   Benchmark 2.Understands characteristics of economic development during the 19th century (e.g., patterns of economic development in different regions of the country during the first half of the 19th century; how early 19th century court cases promoted the market revolution; the causes and results of economic depressions of 1819, 1837, and 1857)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands patterns of economic development in different regions of the country during the first half of the 19th century
     2.Understands how early 19th century court cases promoted the market revolution
     3.Understands the causes of the economic depression of 1819
     4.Understands the results of the economic depression of 1819
     5.Understands the causes of the economic depression of 1837
     6.Understands the results of the economic depression of 1837
     7.Understands the causes of the economic depression of 1857
     8.Understands the results of the economic depression of 1857
   Benchmark 5.Understands the impact of the Industrial Revolution during the early and later 19th century (e.g., the growth and spread of the factory system in New England, the effects of ethnic, religious, and racial tensions on the emergence of a unified labor movement)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of the Industrial Revolution during the early 19th century
     2.Understands the impact of the Industrial Revolution during the later 19th century
     3.Understands the growth of the factory system in New England
     4.Understands the spread of the factory system in New England
     5.Understands the effects of ethnic tensions on the emergence of a unified labor movement
     6.Understands the effects of religious tensions on the emergence of a unified labor movement
     7.Understands the effects of racial tensions on the emergence of a unified labor movement
 Standard 15.  Understands how various reconstruction plans succeeded or failed
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Understands how economic conditions and family life in the North and South changed over the war years
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how economic conditions in the North changed over the Civil War years
     2.Understands how economic conditions in the South changed over the Civil War years
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands social and economic factors during and toward the end of Reconstruction (e.g., how economic expansion and development in the North and South were influenced by Reconstruction, the impact of fraud and violence on the end of Reconstruction)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands economic factors during Reconstruction
     4.Understands economic factors toward the end of Reconstruction
     5.Understands how economic expansion in the North was influenced by Reconstruction
     6.Understands how economic development in the North was influenced by Reconstruction
     7.Understands how economic expansion in the South was influenced by Reconstruction
     8.Understands how economic development in the South was influenced by Reconstruction
 Standard 16.  Understands how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed American society
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the economic and social changes that occurred in late 19th century American cities (e.g., where industries and transportation expanded; geographic reasons for building factories, commercial centers, and transportation hubs; why different groups moved from the farms to the big cities and how they adjusted; living conditions in the growing cities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the economic changes that occurred in late 19th century American cities
     3.Understands where industries expanded in late 19th century American cities
     4.Understands where transportation expanded in late 19th century American cities
     5.Understands geographic reasons for building factories in late 19th century American cities
     6.Understands geographic reasons for building commercial centers in late 19th century American cities
     7.Understands geographic reasons for building transportation hubs in late 19th century American cities
     8.Understands why different groups moved from the farms to the big cities in the late 19th century
 Standard 22.  Understands how the United States changed between the post-World War I years and the eve of the Great Depression
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands elements that contributed to the rise of modern capitalist economy (e.g., changes in the modern corporation of the 1920s, including labor policies and the advent of mass advertising and sales techniques; the role of new technology and scientific research in the rise of agribusiness and agricultural productivity; the impact of advertisement on the desire for new products)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands changes in the modern corporation of the 1920s
     2.Understands changes in labor policies in modern corporations of the 1920s
     3.Understands changes from the advent of mass advertising in modern corporations of the 1920s
     4.Understands changes in sales techniques in modern corporations of the 1920s
     5.Understands the role of new technology in the rise of agribusiness
     6.Understands the role of new technology in the rise of agricultural productivity
     7.Understands the role of new scientific research in the rise of agribusiness
     8.Understands the role of new scientific research in the rise of agricultural productivity
     9.Understands the impact of advertisement on the desire for new products
 Standard 26.  Understands the economic boom and social transformation of post-World War II United States
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how the American economy changed in the post-World War II period (e.g., reasons for sustained economic growth, economic opportunities for members of the armed forces)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands reasons for sustained economic growth in the post World War II period
     2.Understands economic opportunities for members of the armed forces in the post World War II period
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the immediate social, political, and economic impacts on America after World War II (e.g., the economic and political effects of demobilization and reconversion; the growth and impact of opportunities in the service, white collar, and professional sectors in government and business; the growth of the middle class)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the immediate economic impacts of World War II on America
     4.Understands the economic effects of demobilization
     5.Understands the economic effects of reconversion
     8.Understands the growth of opportunities in the service sectors in government after World War II
     9.Understands the growth of opportunities in the service sectors in business after World War II
     10.Understands the growth of opportunities in the white collar sectors in government after World War II
     11.Understands the growth of opportunities in the white collar sectors in business after World War II
     12.Understands the growth of opportunities in the professional sectors in government after World War II
     13.Understands the growth of opportunities in the professional sectors in business after World War II
     14.Understands the growth of the middle class after World War II

World History

 Standard 17.  Understands the rise of centers of civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America in the 1st millennium CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the economic and agricultural elements of Mayan society (e.g., the extent, importance, and composition of Mayan trade; the adaptability and importance of Mayan agricultural techniques and their connection to the rise of Mayan city-states)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the economic elements of Mayan society
     3.Understands the extent, importance, and composition of Mayan trade
     5.Understands the connection of Maya agricultural techniques to the rise of Mayan city states
 Standard 20.  Understands the redefinition of European society and culture from 1000 to 1300 CE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the effects of urbanization in Europe and the Mediterranean region (e.g., urban growth in the Mediterranean region and Northern Europe, and causes for expansion of manufacturing, interregional trade, and a money economy in Europe; the growth in economy, population, and urbanization in Europe in global context)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effects of urbanization in Europe
     2.Understands the effects of urbanization in the Mediterranean region
     5.Knows causes for expansion of manufacturing, interregional trade, and a money economy in Europe
     6.Understands the growth in economy, population, and urbanization in Europe in its global context
   Benchmark 10.Understands the rise of guilds as economic and social institutions and their efforts to promote economic growth, product quality, and workers' rights
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the rise of guilds as economic institutions
     3.Understands the efforts of guilds to promote economic growth
     4.Understands the efforts of guilds to promote product quality
 Standard 27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands shifts in the European economy, trade, and labor systems in the 16th century (e.g., aspects of manufacturing and production in the 16th century's emerging capitalist economy, developments that affected men's and women's work options in this period, trends in worldwide trade in the 16th century, how the Dutch and English merchant classes established a significant presence in the world market)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands shifts in the European economy in the 16th century
     2.Understands shifts in European trade in the 16th century
     3.Understands shifts in the European labor systems in the 16th century
     4.Understands aspects of manufacturing and production in the 16th century’s emerging capitalist economy
     6.Knows trends in worldwide trade in the 16th century
     7.Understands how the Dutch and English merchant classes established a significant presence in the world market
 Standard 29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands economic and political features of various European colonies between the 16th and 18th centuries (e.g., the administrative system of the Spanish viceroyalties of Peru and Mexico, and the importance of Indian agriculture and silver production to Spanish colonial economy; the fundamental ideas of mercantilism and differences in how it was practiced by the Netherlands, France, and England; diversity in colonial governments, economies, the military, and social organization in European colonies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands economic features of various European colonies between the 16th and 18th centuries
     4.Understands the importance of Indian agriculture and silver production to Spanish colonial economy
     5.Knows the fundamental ideas of mercantilism and differences in how it was practiced by the Netherlands, France, and England
     7.Understands diversity in colonial economies in European colonies
   Benchmark 6.Understands the development of different colonial labor systems and their impact on indigenous populations (e.g., the evolution of labor systems from the encomienda to the hacienda in North and South America from the 16th to the 17th centuries, the impact of the encomienda system on indigenous peoples and how it compares to slavery)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the development of different colonial labor systems
     2.Understands the impact of colonial labor systems on indigenous populations
     3.Understands the evolution of labor systems from the encomienda to the hacienda in North and South America from the 16th to the 17th centuries
     4.Understands the impact of the encomienda system on indigenous peoples and how it compares to slavery
 Standard 33.  Understands the causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions from 1700 to 1850
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Knows new patterns in world manufacturing production that developed among the nations of Great Britain, United States, Germany, France, Russia, and Italy between 1800 and 1900
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows how the distribution of world manufacturing production changed between 1800 and 1900
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Understands how political and economic change influenced Latin American society in the 19th century (e.g., Latin America's growing dependence on the global market economy, as well as the effects of international trade and investment on the power of landowners and the urban middle class; the consequences of economic development, elite domination, and the abolition of slavery for peasants, indigenous populations, and immigrant laborers in Latin America; the impact of the expansion of secular education upon women's legal and political rights; the roles and perspectives of the caudillo, military official, landowner, urban bourgeoisie, or church official in post-independence Latin America; attitudes toward nationalism and cultural identity in 19th-century Latin America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how economic change influenced Latin American society in the 19th century
     3.Understands Latin America’s growing dependence on the global market economy, as well as the effects of international trade and investment on the power of landowners and the urban middle class
     4.Understands the consequences of economic development, elite domination, and the abolition of slavery for peasants, indigenous populations, and immigrant laborers in Latin America
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands political and economic changes in Japanese society in the 19th and 20th centuries (e.g., Japan's rapid industrialization, technological advancement, and national integration in the late 19th and 20th centuries; the death of the Meiji emperor in 1912 and the main achievements of Meiji Japan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands economic changes in Japanese society in the 19th and 20th centuries
     3.Understands Japan’s rapid industrialization in the late 19th and 20th centuries
 Standard 38.  Understands reform, revolution, and social change in the world economy of the early 20th century
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the consequences of changes inside Japan in the early 20th century (e.g., Japan's economic development, national integration, and political ideologies around the turn of the century; how Japanese territorial expansion affected the industrialization and economic development of Japan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands aspects of Japan’s economic development around the turn of the century
     4.Understands how Japanese territorial expansion affected the industrialization and economic development of Japan
 Standard 42.  Understands major global trends from 1900 to the end of World War II
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands why mass consumer economies developed in some industrialized countries of the world but not in others
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows industrialized countries that have developed mass consumer economies
     2.Knows industrialized countries that have not developed mass consumer economies
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the impact of increasing economic interdependence in different regions of the world (e.g., how global communications and changing international labor demands have shaped new patterns of world migration since World War II, the effects of the European Economic Community and its growth on economic productivity and political integration in Europe, the emergence of the Pacific Rim economy and economic growth in South Korea and Singapore in recent decades, the effects of new transport and communications technology on patterns of world trade and finance)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how changing international labor demands have shaped new patterns of world migration since World War II
     3.Understands the effects of the European Economic Community and its growth on economic productivity and political integration in Europe
     4.Understands the emergence of the Pacific Rim economy and economic growth in South Korea and Singapore in recent decades
     5.Understands the effects of new transport and communications technology on patterns of world trade and finance
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands influences on economic development around the world (e.g., why economic disparities between industrialized and developing nations have persisted or increased, how neo-colonialism and authoritarian political leadership have affected development in African and Asian countries, the continuing growth of mass consumption of commodities and resources since World War II)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands why economic disparities between industrialized and developing nations have persisted or increased
     2.Understands how neo colonialism and authoritarian political leadership have affected development in African countries
     3.Understands how neo colonialism and authoritarian political leadership have affected development in Asian countries
     4.Understands the continuing growth of mass consumption of commodities and resources since World War II
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands rates of economic development and the emergence of different economic systems around the globe (e.g., systems of economic management in communist and capitalist countries, as well as the global impact of multinational corporations; the impact of black markets, speculation, and trade in illegal products on national and global markets; patterns of inward, outward, and internal migration in the Middle East and North Africa, types of jobs involved, and the impact of the patterns upon national economies; the rapid economic development of East Asian countries in the late 20th century, and the relatively slow development of Sub-Saharan African countries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands rates of economic development around the globe
     7.Understands the rapid economic development of East Asian countries in the late 20th century
     8.Understands the relatively slow economic development of Sub Saharan African countries in the late 20th century
 Standard 45.  Understands major global trends since World War II
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the usefulness of the concept of "postindustrial society" in comparing the late 20th century with the period from the industrial revolution to 1950
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of "post-industrial society"
     2.Understands the concept of "post-industrial society" as applied to the late 20th century
     3.Understands the concept of "post-industrial society" as applied to the period from the industrial revolution to 1950