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Topic: Economic conditions and society 

United States History

 Standard 16.  Understands how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed American society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands influences on economic conditions in various regions of the country (e.g., effects of the federal government's land, water and Indian policy; the extension of railroad lines, increased agricultural productivity and improved transportation facilities on commodity prices; grievances and solutions of farm organizations; the crop lien system in the South, transportation and storage costs for farmers, and the price of staples)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effects of the federal government’s land policy on economic conditions in various regions of the country
     2.Understands the effects of the federal government’s water policy on economic conditions in various regions of the country
     3.Understands the effects of the federal government’s Indian policy on economic conditions in various regions of the country
     4.Understands the effects of the extension of railroad lines on commodity prices
     5.Understands the effects of increased agricultural productivity on commodity prices
     6.Understands the effects of improved transportation facilities on commodity prices
     7.Understands the grievances of farm organizations in various regions of the country
     8.Understands the solutions of farm organizations in various regions of the country
     9.Understands the crop lien system in the South
     10.Knows about transportation costs for farmers in various regions of the country
     11.Knows about storage costs for farmers in various regions of the country
     12.Knows about the price of staples in various regions of the country
 Standard 18.  Understands the rise of the American labor movement and how political issues reflected social and economic changes
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how economic issues influenced American society (e.g., the causes and effects of the depressions of 1873-1879 and 1893-1897, and how government, business, labor, and farmers responded; the reaction of western and southern farmers to the cycle of falling prices, scarce money, and debt)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the causes of the depression of 1873-1879
     2.Understands the effects of the depression of 1873-1879
     3.Understands the causes of the depression of 1893-1897
     4.Understands the effects of the depression of 1893-1897
     5.Understands how government responded to the depression of 1873-1879
     6.Understands how business responded to the depression of 1873-1879
     7.Understands how labor responded to the depression of 1873-1879
     8.Understands how farmers responded to the depression of 1873-1879
     9.Understands how government responded to the depression of 1893-1897
     10.Understands how business responded to the depression of 1893-1897
     11.Understands how labor responded to the depression of 1893-1897
     12.Understands how farmers responded to the depression of 1893-1897
     13.Understands the reaction of western farmers to the cycle of falling prices, scarce money, and debt in the late 19th century
     14.Understands the reaction of southern farmers to the cycle of falling prices, scarce money, and debt in the late 19th century
 Standard 23.  Understands the causes of the Great Depression and how it affected American society
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands economic aspects of the Great Depression (e.g., the causes and consequences of the stock market crash of 1929; the factors that contributed to the Great Depression; the effects of the depression on farmers, city workers, and military veterans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the causes of the stock market crash of 1929
     2.Understands the consequences of the stock market crash of 1929
     3.Understands the factors that contributed to the Great Depression
     4.Understands the effects of the depression on farmers
     5.Understands the effects of the depression on city workers
     6.Understands the effects of the depression on military veterans
   Benchmark 2.Understands the environmental and social impact of the Great Depression (e.g., the effects of the Great Depression and Dust Bowl on American farm owners, tenants, and sharecroppers; the effects of the depression on diverse groups and on local communities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the environmental impact of the Great Depression
     2.Understands the social impact of the Great Depression
     3.Understands the effects of the Great Depression on American farm owners
     4.Understands the effects of the Great Depression on American farm tenants
     5.Understands the effects of the Great Depression on American sharecroppers
     6.Understands the effects of the Dust Bowl on American farm owners
     7.Understands the effects of the Dust Bowl on American farm tenants
     8.Understands the effects of the Dust Bowl on American sharecroppers
     9.Understands the effects of the depression on diverse groups
     10.Understands the effects of the depression on local communities
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands various political influences on the Great Depression (e.g., the effectiveness of measures the Hoover administration took to stem the tide of the Great Depression, the central political and economic causes of the Great Depression)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effectiveness of measures the Hoover administration took to stem the tide of the Great Depression
     2.Understands the central political causes of the Great Depression
     3.Understands the central economic causes of the Great Depression
   Benchmark 2.Understands the social and economic impact of the Great Depression (e.g., the impact of the depression on industry and workers; the response of local and state officials in combating the resulting economic and social crises; the effects of the depression on American families and on ethnic and racial minorities; the effect on gender roles; the victimization of African Americans and white sharecroppers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social impact of the Great Depression
     2.Understands the economic impact of the Great Depression
     3.Understands the impact of the depression on industry
     4.Understands the impact of the depression on workers
     5.Understands the response of local officials in combating the resulting economic crisis
     6.Understands the response of state officials in combating the resulting economic crisis
     7.Understands the response of local officials in combating the resulting social crisis
     8.Understands the response of state officials in combating the resulting social crisis
     9.Understands the effects of the depression on American families
     10.Understands the effects of the depression on ethnic minorities
     11.Understands the effects of the depression on racial minorities
     12.Understands the effect of the depression on gender roles
     13.Understands the victimization of African Americans during the Great Depression
     14.Understands the victimization of white sharecroppers during the Great Depression
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on the national and global economy in the 1920s and 1930s (e.g., economic policies of the Harding and Coolidge administrations and their impact on wealth distribution, investment, and taxes; the global context of the depression and the reasons for the worldwide economic collapse; characteristics of the American economy in the 1920s)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands influences on the national economy in the 1920s
     2.Understands influences on the national economy in the 1930s
     3.Understands influences on the global economy in the 1920s
     4.Understands influences on the global economy in the 1930s
     5.Understands the economic policies of the Harding administration
     6.Understands the economic policies of the Coolidge administration
     7.Understands the impact of the economic policies of the Harding administration on wealth distribution
     8.Understands the impact of the economic policies of the Coolidge administration on wealth distribution
     9.Understands the impact of the economic policies of the Harding administration on investment
     10.Understands the impact of the economic policies of the Coolidge administration on investment
     11.Understands the impact of the economic policies of the Harding administration on taxes
     12.Understands the impact of the economic policies of the Coolidge administration on taxes
     13.Understands the global context of the depression
     14.Understands the reasons for the worldwide economic collapse
     15.Understands characteristics of the American economy in the 1920s
   Benchmark 2.Understands the impact of the Great Depression on American culture (e.g., art, literature, and music, and the government’s role in promoting artistic expression; how the works of various American artists reflected American conditions in the 1930s and influenced the New Deal)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of art in promoting artistic expression during the Great Depression
     2.Understands the role of literature in promoting artistic expression during the Great Depression
     3.Understands the role of music in promoting artistic expression during the Great Depression
     4.Understands the role of the government in promoting artistic expression during the Great Depression
     5.Understands how the works of various American artists reflect American conditions in the 1930s
     6.Understands how the works of various American artists influenced the New Deal
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the Great Depression influenced local, state, and charitable resources in the period 1930-1938
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the Great Depression influenced local resources in the period 1930-1938
     2.Understands how the Great Depression influenced state resources in the period 1930-1938
     3.Understands how the Great Depression influenced charitable resources in the period 1930-1938
 Standard 24.  Understands how the New Deal addressed the Great Depression, transformed American federalism, and initiated the welfare state
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the influences on and impact of the New Deal (e.g., how legislation and policies affected American workers and the labor movement, the condition of working men and women in the United States in the 1930s, how the New Deal affected the lives of local families, how women contributed to New Deal programs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influences of the New Deal
     2.Understands the impact of the New Deal
     3.Understands how legislation affected American workers during the 1930s
     4.Understands how policies affected American workers during the 1930s
     5.Understands how legislation affected the labor movement during the 1930s
     6.Understands how policies affected the labor movement during the 1930s
     7.Understands the condition of working men in the United States in the 1930s
     8.Understands the condition of working women in the United States in the 1930s
     9.Understands how the New Deal affected the lives of local families
     10.Understands how women contributed to New Deal programs
   Benchmark 3.Understands the significance and legacy of the New Deal (e.g., major New Deal programs still in effect today, support for and opposition to Roosevelt’s "court packing" proposal and why he abandoned this proposal)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of the New Deal ideology
     2.Understands the legacy of the New Deal
     3.Understands that major New Deal programs are still in effect today
     4.Understands support for Roosevelt’s "court packing" proposal
     5.Understands the opposition to Roosevelt’s "court packing" proposal
     6.Understands why Roosevelt abandoned his "court packing" proposal
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands various challenges to the New Deal (e.g., arguments of leading opponents, the roots of opposition to Roosevelt's policies, the ideas of the Townsend Plan and the "Share the Wealth" program of Dr. Francis Townsend and Senator Huey Long)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands arguments of leading opponents to the New Deal
     2.Understands the roots of opposition to Roosevelt’s policies
     3.Understands the ideas of the Townsend Plan of Dr. Francis Townsend
     4.Understands the ideas of the "Share the Wealth" program of Senator Huey Long
 Standard 26.  Understands the economic boom and social transformation of post-World War II United States
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands influences on the American economy after World War II (e.g., the impact of the Cold War, increased defense spending, the U.S. economy in relation to Europe and Asian economies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of the Cold War on the American economy
     2.Knows about the increased defense spending after World War II
     3.Understands the U.S. economy in relation to Europe and Asian economies
 Standard 31.  Understands economic, social, and cultural developments in the contemporary United States
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands changes in the workplace and the economy in contemporary America (e.g., the effects of a sharp increase in labor force participation of women and new immigrants; the shift of the labor force from manufacturing to service industries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows changes in the workplace in contemporary America
     2.Knows changes in the economy in contemporary America
     3.Knows the effects of a sharp increase in labor force participation by women in contemporary America
     4.Knows the effects of a sharp increase in labor force participation by new immigrants in contemporary America
     5.Knows about the shift of the labor force from manufacturing to service industries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how changes in the national and global economy have influenced the workplace (e.g., sluggishness in the overall rate of economic growth, the relative stagnation of wages since 1973, the social and political impact of an increase in income disparities, the effects of increased global trade and competition on the U.S. economy, the influence of new technology on education and learning, and the relation between education and earnings in the workplace)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how changes in the national economy have influenced the workplace
     2.Knows how changes in the global economy have influenced the workplace
     3.Knows about sluggishness in the overall rate of economic growth
     4.Knows about the relative stagnation of wages since 1973
     5.Knows about the social impact of an increase in income disparities
     6.Knows about the political impact of an increase in income disparities
     7.Knows the effects of increased global trade on the U.S. economy
     8.Knows the effects of increased competition on the U.S. economy
     9.Knows the influence of new technology on education and learning

Geography

 Standard 16.  Understands the changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution and importance of resources
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the impact of policy decisions regarding the use of resources in different regions of the world (e.g., the long-term impact on the economy of Nauru when its phosphate reserves are exhausted, the economic and social problems related to the overcutting of pine forests in Nova Scotia, the impact of petroleum consumption in the United States and Japan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the long-term impact on the economy of Nauru when its phosphate reserves are exhausted
     2.Understands the economic and social problems related to the overcutting of pine forests in Nova Scotia
     3.Understands the impact of petroleum consumption in the United States
     4.Understands the impact of petroleum consumption in Japan

World History

 Standard 30.  Understands transformations in Asian societies in the era of European expansion
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political, economic, and social aspects of Chinese society during the era of European expansion (e.g., how the Manchus overthrew the Ming Dynasty and the consequences of this event; demands and consequences of increasing population growth, agricultural output, commerce, and European trading networks in the Manchu Empire; treatment and opportunities open to women in 17th-and 18th-century China)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands economic aspects of Chinese society during the era of European expansion
     5.Understands demands and consequences of increasing population growth, agricultural output, commerce, and European trading networks in the Manchu Empire
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the economic and social consequences of rapid population growth in China between the 17th and 19th centuries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the economic consequences of rapid population growth in China between the 17th and 19th centuries
 Standard 40.  Understands the search for peace and stability throughout the world in the 1920s and 1930s
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the economic and social impact of the Great Depression (e.g., how the Great Depression affected industrialized economies and societies around the world; the human cost of the depression; how governments, businesses, social groups, families and individuals coped with hardships of world depression)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the economic impact of the Great Depression
     3.Understands how the Great Depression affected industrialized economies around the world
     5.Understands the human cost of the depression
     6.Understands how governments coped with the hardships of world depression
     7.Understands how businesses coped with the hardships of world depression
     8.Understands how social groups coped with the hardships of world depression
     9.Understands how families coped with the hardships of world depression
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands how the Great Depression affected economies and systems of government globally (e.g., how the Depression contributed to the growth of communist, fascist, and socialist movements, and how it affected capitalist economic theory and practice among leading Western industrial powers; how the depression affected countries dependent on foreign markets and foreign capital investment)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the Great Depression affected global economies
     2.Understands how the Great Depression affected global systems of government
     3.Understands how the Depression contributed to the growth of communist movements
     4.Understands how the Depression contributed to the growth of fascist movements
     5.Understands how the Depression contributed to the growth of socialist movements
     6.Understands how the Great Depression affected capitalist economic theory
     7.Understands how the Great Depression affected capitalist economic practice among leading Western industrial powers
     8.Understands how the Great Depression affected countries dependent on foreign markets
     9.Understands how the Great Depression affected countries dependent on foreign capital investment
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how World War I influenced demographics and the international economy (e.g., the impact of the war on the international economy and the effects of industrial conversion from war to peace in Britain, France, Italy, and Germany; significant refugee populations created as a result of World War I, and their movements and dispersion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how World War I influenced the international economy
     3.Understands the effects of industrial conversion from war to peace in Britain
     4.Understands the effects of industrial conversion from war to peace in France
     5.Understands the effects of industrial conversion from war to peace in Italy
     6.Understands the effects of industrial conversion from war to peace in Germany
   Benchmark 6.Understands the causes of the Great Depression and its immediate and long-term consequences for the world (e.g., the financial, economic, and social causes of the Great Depression, and its global impact; how the Depression affected colonial peoples of Africa and Asia, and how it contributed to the growth of nationalist movements; how the Great Depression affected the Middle East under British and French mandates; to what degree Britain, Germany, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States employed the military-industrial complex to stimulate recovery from the Great Depression)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the causes of the Great Depression
     2.Understands the immediate consequences of the Great Depression for the world
     3.Understands the long-term consequences of the Great Depression for the world
     4.Understands the financial causes of the Great Depression
     5.Understands the economic causes of the Great Depression
     6.Understands the social causes of the Great Depression
     7.Understands the global impact of the Great Depression
     8.Understands how the Depression affected colonial peoples of Africa
     9.Understands how the Depression affected colonial peoples of Asia
     10.Understands how the Great Depression contributed to the growth of nationalist movements
     11.Understands how the Great Depression affected the Middle East under British and French mandates
     12.Understands to what degree Britain employed the military-industrial complex to stimulate recovery from the Great Depression
     13.Understands to what degree Germany employed the military-industrial complex to stimulate recovery from the Great Depression
     14.Understands to what degree Japan employed the military-industrial complex to stimulate recovery from the Great Depression
     15.Understands to what degree the Soviet Union employed the military-industrial complex to stimulate recovery from the Great Depression
     16.Understands to what degree the United States employed the military-industrial complex to stimulate recovery from the Great Depression
   Benchmark 11.Understands the origins and consequences for international trade of the U.S. Smoot-Hawley Tariff (e.g., how international trade was affected by the depression, how other nations reacted to the tariff)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of the U.S. Smoot-Hawley Tariff
     2.Understands the consequences of the U.S. Smoot-Hawley Tariff for international trade from
     3.Understands how international trade was affected by the depression
     4.Understands how other nations reacted to the tariff
 Standard 43.  Understands how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands factors that brought about the political and economic transformation of Western and Eastern Europe after World War II (e.g., how Western European countries and Japan achieved rapid economic recovery after the war; the impact of the Marshall Plan, the European Economic Community, government planning, and the growth of welfare states upon the political stabilization of Western Europe; the formations of the Warsaw Pact and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization after the war, and which countries have participated in each of these pacts; why Germany and Berlin were divided after the 1948 crisis, and the resulting problems)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands factors that brought about the political and economic transformation of Western Europe after World War II
     2.Understands factors that brought about the political and economic transformation of Eastern Europe after World War II
     3.Understands how Western European countries and Japan achieved rapid economic recovery after the war
     4.Understands the impact of the Marshall Plan upon the political stabilization of Western Europe
     5.Understands the impact of the European Economic Community upon the political stabilization of Western Europe
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands major reasons for the great disparities between industrialized and developing nations (e.g., disparities in resources, production, capital investment, labor, or trade; possible programs and measures to help equalize these disparities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the disparities in resources between industrialized and developing countries
     2.Understands the disparities in production between industrialized and developing countries
     3.Understands the disparities in capital investment between industrialized and developing countries
     4.Understands the disparities in labor between industrialized and developing countries
     5.Understands the disparities in trade between industrialized and developing countries
     6.Knows possible programs and measures to help equalize disparities between industrialized and developing nations
 Standard 46.  Understands long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the emergence of capitalism (e.g., the origins, development, and characteristics of capitalism; capitalist systems compared with other systems for organizing production, labor, and trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of capitalism
     2.Understands the development of capitalism
     3.Knows the characteristics of capitalism
     4.Understands how capitalist systems organize production compared with other systems
     5.Understands how capitalist systems organize labor compared with other systems
     6.Understands how capitalist systems organize trade compared with other systems