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Topic: Development, ideology, and structure of political systems 

Geography

 Standard 13.  Understands the forces of cooperation and conflict that shape the divisions of Earth's surface
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the functions of political units (e.g., law-making, law enforcement, provision of services, powers of taxation) and how they differ on the basis of scale (e.g., precinct, census district, school attendance zone, township, metropolitan area, county, state, nation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that law-making is a function of political units
     2.Knows that law enforcement is a function of political units
     3.Knows that the provision of services is a function of political units
     4.Knows that the power of taxation is a function of political units
     5.Knows how the functions of political units differ at the precinct level
     6.Knows how the functions of political units differ at the level of census district
     7.Knows how the functions of political units differ at the level of school attendance zone
     8.Knows how the functions of political units differ at the township level
     9.Knows how the functions of political units differ at the metropolis level
     10.Knows how the functions of political units differ at the county level
     11.Knows how the functions of political units differ at the state level
     12.Knows how the functions of political units differ at the national level
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the social, political, and economic divisions on Earth's surface at the local, state, national, and international levels (e.g., transnational corporations, political alliances, economic groupings, world religions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows social divisions on Earth’s surface at the local level
     2.Knows political divisions on Earth’s surface at the local level
     3.Knows economic divisions on Earth’s surface at the local level
     4.Knows social divisions on Earth’s surface at the state level
     5.Knows political divisions on Earth’s surface at the state level
     6.Knows economic divisions on Earth’s surface at the state level
     7.Knows social divisions on Earth’s surface at the national level
     8.Knows political divisions on Earth’s surface at the national level
     9.Knows economic divisions on Earth’s surface at the national level
     10.Knows social divisions on Earth’s surface at the international level
     11.Knows political divisions on Earth’s surface at the international level
     12.Knows economic divisions on Earth’s surface at the international level
     13.Understands transnational corporations as an economic division on the Earth’s surface
     14.Understands political alliances as a political division on the Earth’s surface
     15.Understands economic groupings as an economic division of the Earth’s surface
     16.Understands world religions as a social division on the Earth’s surface
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands why the boundaries of congressional districts change in the United States (e.g., the effects of statutory requirements, population shifts, ethnic and racial considerations, shifts in political power)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that boundaries of congressional districts in the United States change as a result of statutory requirements
     2.Understands that boundaries of congressional districts in the United States change as a result of population shifts
     3.Understands that boundaries of congressional districts in the United States change as a result of ethnic and racial considerations

United States History

 Standard 4.  Understands how political, religious, and social institutions emerged in the English colonies
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the development of colonial governments (e.g., how early colonies differed in the way they were established and governed, how characteristics of colonial self-government such as the right to vote and hold office were reflected in the Mayflower Compact)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how early colonies differed in the way they were established and governed
     2.Understands how characteristics of colonial self-government were reflected in the Mayflower Compact
     3.Knows that the right to vote was reflected in the Mayflower Compact
     4.Knows that the right to hold office was reflected in the Mayflower Compact
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on the development of representative government in colonial America (e.g., conflicts between legislative and executive branches in Virginia, New York, and Massachusetts; how different colonies adopted different laws and governmental frameworks; how demography influenced different forms of government in the colonies; the influence of colonial institutions; how an abundance of land, devotion to private property, and a competitive entrepreneurial spirit influenced the idea of participatory government)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the conflicts between legislative and executive branches in Virginia influenced the development of representative government in colonial America
     2.Understands how the conflicts between legislative and executive branches in New York influenced the development of representative government in colonial America
     3.Understands how the conflicts between legislative and executive branches in Massachusetts influenced the development of representative government in colonial America
     4.Understands how different colonies adopting different laws influenced the development of representative government in colonial America
     5.Understands how different colonies adopting different governmental frameworks influenced the development of representative government in colonial America
     6.Understands how demography influenced the development of different forms of government in the colonies
     7.Understands how colonial institutions influenced the development of representative government in colonial America
     8.Understands how an abundance of land influenced the development of representative government in colonial America
     9.Understands how devotion to private property influenced the development of representative government in colonial America
     10.Understands how a competitive entrepreneurial spirit influenced the idea of participatory government in colonial America
 Standard 7.  Understands the impact of the American Revolution on politics, economy, and society
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political and economic issues addressed by the Continental Congress (e.g., the accomplishments and failures of the Continental Congress, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, revolutionary war debt, the dispute over the sale of western lands)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political issues addressed by the Continental Congress
     3.Knows about the accomplishments of the Continental Congress
     4.Knows about the failures of the Continental Congress
     5.Knows about the Northwest Ordinance of 1787
     7.Understands the dispute over the sale of western lands
 Standard 8.  Understands the institutions and practices of government created during the Revolution and how these elements were revised between 1787 and 1815 to create the foundation of the American political system based on the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands events that led to and shaped the Constitutional Convention (e.g., alternative plans and major compromises considered by delegates, the grievances of the debtor class and the fears of wealthy creditors involved in Shay’s Rebellion, the accomplishments and failures of the Articles of Confederation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands events that led to the Constitutional Convention
     2.Understands events that shaped the Constitutional Convention
     3.Understands the alternative plans and major compromises considered by delegates at the Constitutional Convention
     4.Understands the grievances of the debtor class involved in Shay’s Rebellion
     5.Understands the fears of the wealthy creditors involved in Shay’s Rebellion
     6.Understands the accomplishments of the Articles of Confederation
     7.Understands the failures of the Articles of Confederation
   Benchmark 3.Understands the establishment of power and significant events in the development of the U.S. Supreme Court (e.g., the role of Chief Justice Marshall in the growth of the court, Article III of the Constitution, Judiciary Act of 1789, Marbury v. Madison )
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the establishment of power in the development of the U.S. Supreme Court
     2.Knows about the significant events in the development of the U.S. Supreme Court
     3.Understands the role of Chief Justice Marshall in the growth of the U.S. Supreme Court
     4.Understands the role of Article III of the Constitution in development of the U.S. Supreme Court
     5.Understands the role of the Judiciary Act of 1789 for the development of the U.S. Supreme Court
     6.Understands the role of Marbury v. Madison in the development of the U.S. Supreme Court
   Benchmark 4.Understands the development and impact of the American party system (e.g., social, economic, and foreign policy issues of the 1790s; influence of the French Revolution on American politics; + the rise of the Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties; the election of 1800; the appointment of the "midnight judges")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the development of the American party system
     2.Understands the impact of the American party system
     5.Understands the impact of foreign policy issues of the 1790s on the American party system
     6.Understands the influence of the French Revolution on American politics
     7.Understands the rise of the Federalists party
     8.Understands the rise of the Democratic-Republican party
     9.Knows about the election of 1800
     10.Knows about the appointment of the "midnight judges"
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how Federalists and Anti-Federalists differed (e.g., their arguments for and against the Constitution of 1787, their relevance in late 20th century politics, their backgrounds, service during the Revolution, political experience)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about Federalists
     2.Knows about Anti-Federalists
     3.Understands the arguments for the Constitution of 1787
     4.Understands the arguments against the Constitution of 1787
     5.Understands the relevance of Federalists’ and Anti-Federalists’ debates in late 20th century politics
     6.Understands the Federalists’ backgrounds
     7.Understands the Anti-Federalists’ backgrounds
     8.Knows about the Federalists’ service during the Revolution
     9.Knows about the Anti-Federalists’ service during the Revolution
     10.Understands the Federalists’ political experience
     11.Understands the Anti-Federalists’ political experience
   Benchmark 4.Understands the significance of Chief Justice Marshall’s decisions on the development of the Supreme Court (e.g., Marbury v. Madison [1803]; Dartmouth College v. Woodward [1819]; Gibbons v. Ogden [1824]; McCulloch v. Maryland)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of Chief Justice Marshall’s decisions in Marbury v. Madison (1803) on the development of the Supreme Court
     2.Understands the significance of Chief Justice Marshall’s decisions in Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) on the development of the Supreme Court
     3.Understands the significance of Chief Justice Marshall’s decisions in Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) on the development of the Supreme Court
     4.Understands the significance of Chief Justice Marshall’s decisions in McColloch v. Maryland on the development of the Supreme Court
   Benchmark 5.Understands how the stature and significance of the federal judiciary changed during the 1790s and early 19th century, and the influence of the Supreme Court today
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the stature of the federal judiciary changed during the 1790’s and early 19th century
     2.Understands how the significance of the federal judiciary changed during the 1790’s and early 19th century
     3.Understands the influence of the Supreme Court today
   Benchmark 6.Understands the factors that led to the development of the two-party system (e.g., the emergence of an organized opposition party led by Thomas Jefferson, Hamilton's financial plan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the emergence of an organized opposition party led by Thomas Jefferson helped lead to the development of the two-party system
     2.Understands how Hamilton’s financial plan helped lead to the development of the two-party system
 Standard 11.  Understands the extension, restriction, and reorganization of political democracy after 1800
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands why the election of Andrew Jackson was considered a victory for the "common man (e.g., the "spoils system," Jackson's interest in providing the "common man" with opportunities to serve in the government)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the "spoils system"
     2.Understands Jackson’s interest in providing the "common man" with opportunities to serve in the government
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political influences and views after 1800 (e.g., the impact of changes in electoral qualifications for white males on local, state, and national politics; how President Jackson’s position on the bank recharter and nullification issues contributed to the rise of the Whig party)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political influences after 1800
     2.Understands political views after 1800
     3.Understands the impact of changes in electoral qualifications for white males on local politics
     4.Understands the impact of changes in electoral qualifications for white males on state politics
     5.Understands the impact of changes in electoral qualifications for white males on national politics
     6.Understands how President Jackson’s position on the bank recharter issue contributed to the rise of the Whig party
     7.Understands how President Jackson’s position on the bank nullification issue contributed to the rise of the Whig party
   Benchmark 3.Understands how tariff policy and issues of state's rights influenced party development and promoted sectional differences (e.g., the political positions of Whigs and Democrats on important issues in 1832, how platform issues had special appeal to different sections of the country)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how tariff policy influenced party development in the antebellum period
     2.Understands how tariff policy promoted sectional differences in the antebellum period
     3.Understands how issues of state’s rights influenced party development in the antebellum period
     4.Understands how issues of state’s rights promoted sectional differences in the antebellum period
     5.Understands the political positions of Whigs on important issues in 1832
     6.Understands the political positions of Democrats on important issues in 1832
     7.Understands how platform issues had special appeal to different sections of the country
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands increased political activity in the first half of the 19th century (e.g., the importance of state and local issues, the rise of interest-group politics, and the style of campaigning in increasing voter participation; factors that affected the vitality of the National Republican, Democratic, Whig, and "Know-Nothing" parties)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of state issues in the first half of the 19th century
     3.Understands the rise of interest-group politics in the first half of the 19th century
     4.Understands the role that the style of campaigning played in increasing voter participation in the first half of the 19th century
     5.Understands the factors that affected the vitality of the National Republican party in the first half of the 19th century
     6.Understands the factors that affected the vitality of the Democratic party in the first half of the 19th century
     7.Understands the factors that affected the vitality of the Whig party in the first half of the 19th century
     8.Understands the factors that affected the vitality of the "Know-Nothing" party in the first half of the 19th century
 Standard 13.  Understands the causes of the Civil War
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the reasons for the disruption of the second American party system and how this led to the ascent of the Republican party in the 1850s
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the reasons for the disruption of the second American party system
     2.Understands the ascent of the Republican party in the 1850s
   Benchmark 2.Understands events that fueled the political and sectional conflicts over slavery and ultimately polarized the North and the South (e.g., the Missouri Compromise, the Wilmot Proviso, the Kansas-Nebraska Act)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the events that fueled the political conflict over slavery that ultimately polarized the North and the South
     2.Understands the events that fueled the sectional conflict over slavery that ultimately polarized the North and the South
     3.Understands how the Missouri Compromise fueled the conflict over slavery that ultimately polarized the North and the South
     4.Understands how the Wilmot Proviso fueled the conflict over slavery that ultimately polarized the North and the South
     5.Understands how the Kansas-Nebraska Act fueled the conflict over slavery that ultimately polarized the North and the South
 Standard 22.  Understands how the United States changed between the post-World War I years and the eve of the Great Depression
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands events that shaped the political structure of America in the 1920s (e.g., changes in Progressivism during the Harding and Coolidge administrations; foreign policy of the Republican administrations of Harding, Coolidge and Hoover; U.S. territories and spheres of influence in the 1920s; the extent of support for an Equal Rights Amendment)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands changes in Progressivism during the Harding administration
     2.Understands changes in Progressivism during the Coolidge administration
     3.Understands foreign policy of the Republican Harding administration
     4.Understands foreign policy of the Republican Coolidge administration
     5.Understands foreign policy of the Republican Hoover administration
     7.Understands the U.S. spheres of interest in the 1920s
 Standard 25.  Understands the causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the development of new political thinking and forms of government in Europe between World War I and World War II (e.g., the rise of fascism, national socialism, and communism)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the development of new political thinking in Europe between World War I and World War II
     2.Understands the development of new political forms of government in Europe between World War I and World War II
     3.Understands the rise of fascism in Europe between World War I and World War II
     4.Understands the rise of national socialism in Europe between World War I and World War II
     5.Understands the rise of communism in Europe between World War I and World War II

World History

 Standard 4.  Understands how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the social, cultural, and political characteristics of the Shang Dynasty (e.g., the development of royal government under the Shang Dynasty and the development of social hierarchy, religious institutions, and writing; the role that Chinese peasants played in sustaining the wealth and power of the Shang political centers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the political characteristics of the Shang Dynasty
     4.Understands the development of royal government under the Shang Dynasty
     8.Understands the role that Chinese peasants played in sustaining the wealth and power of the Shang political centers
 Standard 6.  Understands major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands connections between the cultural achievements of early civilizations and the development of political and economic institutions (e.g., state authority, aristocratic power, taxation systems, and institutions of coerced labor, including slavery)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands connections between the cultural achievements of early civilizations and the development of political institutions
     3.Understands connections between the cultural achievements of early civilizations and the development of the political institution of state authority
     4.Understands connections between the cultural achievements of early civilizations and the development of the political institution of aristocratic power
 Standard 7.  Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the development of Greek city-states (e.g., common features of Greek city-states in the Aegean region; the political, social, and legal character of the polis; how geography influenced the location and development of Greek city-states)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the political character of the polis
 Standard 8.  Understands how Aegean civilization emerged and how interrelations developed among peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia from 600 to 200 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the social and political characteristics of Greek city-states (e.g., significant similarities and differences between Athenian democracy and Spartan military aristocracy; hierarchical relationships in Greek societies and the civic, economic, and social tasks performed by men and women of different classes; the location and political structure of the major Greek city-states)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the political characteristics of Greek city states
     6.Understands the political structure of the major Greek city states
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the characteristics of Persian founding, expansion, and political organization (e.g., the political structure of Persia under Darius the Great, and how the Persian Empire ruled diverse ethnic populations; the leadership organization of Darius I, and why his "chain of command" was so effective; the effects of the Persian Wars upon the daily lives of the people of Persia and Greece)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the characteristics of Persian political organization
     4.Understands the political structure of Persia under Darius the Great
     5.Understands how the Persian Empire ruled diverse ethnic populations
     6.Understands the leadership organization of Darius I and why his "chain of command" was so effective
   Benchmark 6.Understands the evolution, inherent advantages, and disadvantages of major governmental systems in Greek city-states in the 6th and 5th centuries BCE
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the evolution of major governmental systems in Greek city states in the 6th and 5th centuries BCE
     2.Understands the inherent advantages of major governmental systems in Greek city states in the 6th and 5th centuries BCE
     3.Understands the disadvantages of major governmental systems in Greek city states in the 6th and 5th centuries BCE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the legacy of Greek thought and government (e.g., the importance of participatory government in Greek city-states for the development of Western political thought and institutions; essential ideas in Plato's Republic and the influence of this work on modern political thought; Athenian ideas and practices related to political freedom, national security, and justice; how the maturing democratic institutions in Greece resulted in greater restrictions on the rights and freedoms of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of participatory government in Greek city states for the development of Western political thought and institutions
     2.Knows essential ideas in Plato’s Republic
     3.Understands the influence of Plato’s Republic on modern political thought
     4.Knows Athenian ideas and practices related to political freedom
     5.Knows Athenian ideas and practices related to national security
     6.Knows Athenian ideas and practices related to justice
     7.Understands how the maturing democratic institutions in Greece resulted in greater restrictions on the rights and freedoms of women
 Standard 9.  Understand how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands shifts in the political and social framework of Roman society (e.g., political and social institutions of the Roman Republic and reasons for its transformation from Republic to Empire; how values changed from the early Republic to the last years of the Empire as reflected through the lives of such Romans as Cincinnatus, Scipio Africanus, Tiberius Gracchus, Cicero, Julius Caesar, Augustus, Nero, Marcus Aurelius, and Constantine)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands shifts in the political framework of Roman society
     3.Knows political institutions of the Roman Republic
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands influences on the economic and political framework of Roman society (e.g., how Roman unity contributed to the growth of trade among lands of the Mediterranean basin; the importance of Roman commercial connections with Sub-Saharan Africa, India, and East Asia; the history of the Punic Wars and the consequences of the wars for Rome; the major phases of Roman expansion, including the Roman occupation of Britain)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands influences on the political framework of Roman society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands shifts in the political framework of Roman society (e.g., major phases in the empire's expansion through the 1st century CE; how imperial rule over a vast area transformed Roman society, economy, and culture; the causes and consequences of the transition from Republic to Empire under Augustus in Rome; how Rome governed its provinces from the late Republic to the Empire; how innovations in ancient military technology affected patterns of warfare and empire building)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the causes and consequences of the transition from Republic to Empire under Augustus in Rome
     6.Understands how Rome governed its provinces from the late Republic to the Empire
   Benchmark 3.Understands the political and cultural characteristics of the Han Dynasty (e.g., the political and ideological contributions of the Han to the development of the imperial bureaucratic state and imperial expansion, how contemporaneous art reflects the history and philosophy of China through the end of the Han Dynasty)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the political characteristics of the Han Dynasty
     3.Understands the political contributions of the Han to the development of the imperial bureaucratic state and imperial expansion
   Benchmark 7.Understands the political legacy of Roman society (e.g., influences of the Roman Constitution on the modern U.S. political system)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands influences of the Roman Constitution on the modern U.S. political system
 Standard 11.  Understands major global trends from 1000 BCE to 300 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the development of large regional empires (e.g., the significance of military power, state bureaucracy, legal codes, belief systems, written languages, and communications and trade networks; how trade networks, merchant communities, state power, tributary systems of production, and other factors contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro-Eurasia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the significance of state bureaucracy in the development of large regional empires
     9.Understands how state power contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
 Standard 14.  Understands major developments in East Asia and Southeast Asia in the era of the Tang Dynasty from 600 to 900 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands geographic and political features of Tang China (e.g., the imperial conquests of the empire in Southeast and Central Asia; the locations of major cities in Tang China and their attraction for diverse people of differing religions; major geographical features of the area incorporated by the Tang Dynasty, the location of the network of canals, and how the Great Canal changed life in China; features of government and administration of Tang China)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands political features of Tang China
     7.Knows features of government and administration of Tang China
 Standard 15.  Understands the political, social, and cultural redefinitions in Europe from 500 to 1000 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the significance of Charlemagne (e.g., his government, laws, conquests, personal values)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features and significance of Charlemagne’s government
     2.Understands features and significance of Charlemagne’s laws
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands shifts in political power during 9th and 10th century Europe (e.g., how royal officials such as counts and dukes transformed delegated powers into hereditary, autonomous power over land and people)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how royal officials such as counts and dukes transformed delegated powers into hereditary, autonomous power over land
 Standard 19.  Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands government and politics of the Kamakura period (e.g., similarities and differences between feudalism in Japan and medieval Europe; significant political events in the history of the Kamakura period)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands similarities and differences between feudalism in Japan and medieval Europe
     2.Knows significant political events in the history of the Kamakura period
 Standard 20.  Understands the redefinition of European society and culture from 1000 to 1300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the significance of developments in medieval English legal and constitutional practice and their importance for modern democratic thought and institutions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of developments in medieval English legal and constitutional practice
     2.Understands the importance of developments in medieval English legal and constitutional practice for modern democratic thought and institutions
   Benchmark 6.Understands the significance of William the Conqueror in English society (e.g., why William invaded England; how he won control of England after the Battle of Hastings; what changes he made in governing England)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows what changes William the Conqueror made in governing England
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political events that shaped the development of European governments (e.g., how European monarchies expanded their power at the expense of feudal lords, and the growth and limitations of representative institutions in these monarchies; how the political relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and secular states changed from the Early Middle Ages to the High Middle Ages; the conflict that led to the Battle of Hastings; the political changes William initiated after his victory, and the long-term cultural and social changes in England following the Norman conquest)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how European monarchies expanded their power at the expense of feudal lords
     2.Understands the growth and limitations of representative institutions in European monarchies
     3.Understands how the political relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and secular states changed from the Early Middle Ages to the High Middle Ages
     5.Knows the political changes William the Conqueror initiated after his victory
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the development of English government and its legal and political system (e.g., the Magna Carta and its tenets of the rule of the law and constitutional liberties; the structural differences, powers of, and participants in the representative governmental bodies of the English Parliament and French Estates-General)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the development of the English legal system
     2.Understands the development of the English political system
     3.Understands the Magna Carta and its tenets of the rule of the law and constitutional liberties
     4.Understands the structural differences in the representative governmental bodies of the English Parliament and French Estates General
     5.Understands the powers of the representative governmental bodies of the English Parliament and French Estates General
     6.Knows the participants in the representative governmental bodies of the English Parliament and French Estates General
   Benchmark 3.Understands the rise of the city-state in Italy and northern Europe (e.g., how city-states differed from centralizing monarchies; common features and activities that allowed city-states such as Genoa, Venice, and Bruges to become commercial, financial, and economic leaders of Europe and maintain their independence)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the rise of the city state in Italy
     2.Understands the rise of the city state in northern Europe
     3.Understands how city states differed from centralizing monarchies
     4.Knows common features and activities that allowed city states such as Genoa, Venice, and Bruges to become commercial, financial, and economic leaders of Europe
     5.Knows common features and activities that allowed city states such as Genoa, Venice, and Bruges to maintain their independence
 Standard 23.  Understands patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia between 1300 and 1450
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands shifts in the leadership and political climate in China (e.g., the events that led to the collapse of Mongol rule in China; the reconstitution of the Mongol Empire under the Chinese Ming Dynasty; economic and political reforms and other achievements of the Hongwu emperor in China, and how these reforms restored for the Ming Dynasty continuity with pre-Yuan Empires)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands shifts in the leadership in China
     2.Understands shifts in the political climate in China
     3.Knows the events that led to the collapse of Mongol rule in China
     4.Understands the reconstitution of the Mongol Empire under the Chinese Ming Dynasty
     5.Knows economic and political reforms and other achievements of the Hongwu emperor in China
 Standard 24.  Understands the expansion of states and civilizations in the Americas between 1000 and 1500
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands major political and social features of Incan society (e.g., the development of Incan social and political institutions, the chronology of Incan imperial expansion from 1230 to 1525 and the difficulties posed by its geographically an climatically diverse territories, the location and major features of Machu Picchu and what this site reveals about Incan civilization)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the development of Incan social institutions
     2.Understands the development of Incan political institutions
 Standard 25.  Understands major global trends from 1000 to 1500 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands differences and similarities between the Inca and Aztec empires and empires of Afro-Eurasia (e.g., political institutions, warfare, social organizations, cultural achievements)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands differences and similarities between political institutions in the Inca and Aztec empires and empires of Afro Eurasia
 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Knows the dynamics of the encomienda system of colonial government and labor, and how this compares to European manorial systems
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the dynamics of the encomienda system of colonial government
     3.Understands how the encomienda system compares to the European manorial systems
 Standard 27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the emergence of strong individual leaders, monarchies, and states in Europe between the 16th and 18th centuries (e.g., the character, development, and sources of wealth of strong bureaucratic monarchies; the significance of Peter the Great's westernizing reforms; the emergence of the Dutch Republic as a powerful European state; the reign of Elizabeth I and her efficacy as a leader and builder of a strong nation-state; the governmental policies of Catherine the Great; why St. Petersburg was called the "window on the West")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the emergence of strong individual leaders and monarchies in Europe between the 16th and 18th centuries
     2.Understands the emergence of strong individual states in Europe between the 16th and 18th centuries
     3.Understands the character of strong bureaucratic monarchies
     4.Understands the development of strong bureaucratic monarchies
     5.Knows the sources of wealth of strong bureaucratic monarchies
     6.Knows the significance of Peter the Great’s westernizing reforms
     7.Understands the emergence of the Dutch Republic as a powerful European state
     8.Understands the reign of Elizabeth I and her efficacy as a leader and builder of a strong nation state
     9.Knows the governmental policies of Catherine the Great
     10.Knows why St. Petersburg was called the "window on the West"
   Benchmark 7.Understands the short and long-term impact of Enlightenment ideas (e.g., how Enlightenment-era thought contributed to the reform of church and state, the reform programs of absolutist monarchs of Central Europe and Russia, the influence of Enlightenment ideas on the development of modern nationalism and democratic thought and institutions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands how Enlightenment era thought contributed to the reform of church and state
     4.Understands the reform programs of absolutist monarchs of Central Europe and Russia
     5.Understands the influence of Enlightenment ideas on the development of modern nationalism and democratic thought and institutions
   Benchmark 10.Understands the long and short-term causes of the "Glorious" revolution of 1688 and how it earned this title
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the long term causes of the "Glorious" revolution of 1688
     3.Understands the short term causes of the "Glorious" revolution of 1688
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the accomplishments of significant European leaders between the 16th and 18th centuries (e.g., the success of Russian expansion in the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Siberia, and the success of the tsars in transforming the Duchy of Moscow into a Eurasian empire; the life and achievements of Louis XIV, and elements of absolutist power during this period; how Peter the Great and Catherine the Great expanded Russian territory; major achievements in the reigns of Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great, and Joseph II, and which of these leaders displayed the features of an "Enlightened Despot")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the success of the tsars in transforming the Duchy of Moscow into a Eurasian empire
     3.Understands the life and achievements of Louis XIV
     4.Knows elements of absolutist power between the 16th and 18th centuries
   Benchmark 10.Understands factors that influenced the economic and political development of the Dutch Republic, England, and France (e.g., characteristics of the Dutch Republic that affected commerce and religion, and enabled Amsterdam to gain commercial supremacy over the northern Italian city-states in the late 16th century; factors that led England to develop a Parliamentary government and led to absolutism in France under Louis XIV)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands factors that influenced the political development of the Dutch Republic
     5.Understands factors that influenced the political development of England
     6.Understands factors that influenced the political development of France
     8.Knows factors that led England to develop a Parliamentary government
     9.Knows factors that led to absolutism in France under Louis XIV
 Standard 28.  Understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands changes in the political structure of the Ming Dynasty (e.g., how the power of the Ming emperor changed over time, the source of political threat to the Ming Empire and the role of defense in their military strategy)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how the power of the Ming emperor changed over time
     2.Knows the source of political threat to the Ming Empire
   Benchmark 6.Understands factors that influenced the development and expansion of the Safavid Empire (e.g., key urban areas of the empire, and factors that contributed to the success of Safavid rule; how the city of Isfahan developed under the reign of Shah Abbas I)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows factors that contributed to the success of Safavid rule
 Standard 29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands economic and political features of various European colonies between the 16th and 18th centuries (e.g., the administrative system of the Spanish viceroyalties of Peru and Mexico, and the importance of Indian agriculture and silver production to Spanish colonial economy; the fundamental ideas of mercantilism and differences in how it was practiced by the Netherlands, France, and England; diversity in colonial governments, economies, the military, and social organization in European colonies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands political features of various European colonies between the 16th and 18th centuries
     3.Understands the administrative system of the Spanish viceroyalties of Peru and Mexico
     6.Understands diversity in colonial governments in European colonies
 Standard 30.  Understands transformations in Asian societies in the era of European expansion
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands social and political features of Japanese society under the Tokugawa shogunate (e.g., centralized feudalism in Japan and how Japan achieved political stability, economic growth, and cultural dynamism; the nature of the relationship between Japan and European powers between the 16th and 18th centuries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands political features of Japanese society under the Tokugawa shogunate
     3.Understands characteristics of centralized feudalism in Japan
     4.Understands how Japan achieved political stability, economic growth, and cultural dynamism
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Understands how the unification of Japan and the centralization of feudalism under Tokugawa rule compared to the rise of nation states in early modern Europe
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands events in the unification of Japan and the centralization of feudalism under Tokugawa rule
     2.Understands events in the rise of nation states in early modern Europe
 Standard 32.  Understands the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the French Revolution changed social conditions in France (e.g., how the revolution changed political and religious institutions, social relations, education, family life, and the legal and political position of women; how territorial changes were made in Europe between 1789 and 1815 and their consequences for diverse social groups such as clergy, nobility, peasantry, bourgeoisie, and sans-culottes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the French Revolution changed political institutions
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands influences on the government structure in Latin America and Mexico (e.g., the effects of foreign intervention and liberal government policies on social and economic change in Mexico; the advent of the caudillo ruler in Latin America, his supporters, and the methods by which he maintained power)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands influences on the government structure in 19th century Latin America
     2.Understands influences on the government structure in 19th century Mexico
     4.Understands the effects of liberal government policies on social and economic change in Mexico
     5.Understands the advent of the caudillo ruler in Latin America, his supporters, and the methods by which he maintained power
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands factors that led to social and political change in 19th-century Europe (e.g., the interconnections between labor movements, various forms of socialism, and political or social changes in Europe; the influence of industrialization, democratization, and nationalism on popular 19th-century reform movements; the extent to which Britain, France, and Italy become broadly liberal and democratic societies in the 19th century; the broad beneficial and detrimental effects of the industrial revolution on specific European countries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands factors that led to political change in 19th century Europe
     3.Understands the interconnections between labor movements, various forms of socialism, and political or social changes in Europe
     5.Understands the extent to which Britain became a broadly liberal and democratic society in the 19th century
     6.Understands the extent to which France became a broadly liberal and democratic society in the 19th century
     7.Understands the extent to which Italy became a broadly liberal and democratic society in the 19th century
     8.Understands the broad beneficial and detrimental effects of the industrial revolution on specific European countries
   Benchmark 9.Understands the definition of realpolitik and how Cavour and Bismarck exemplified this political philosophy
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the definition of realpolitik
     2.Understands how Cavour exemplified the political philosophy of realpolitik
     3.Understands how Bismarck exemplified the political philosophy of realpolitik
 Standard 37.  Understand major global trends from 1750 to 1914
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the importance of ideas associated with republicanism, liberalism, socialism, and constitutionalism on 19th-century political life in such states as Great Britain, France, the United States, Germany, Russia, Mexico, Argentina, the Ottoman Empire, China, or Japan (e.g., how these movements were tied to new or old-class interests)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of ideas associated with republicanism in such states as Great Britain, France, the United States, Germany, Russia, Mexico, Argentina, the Ottoman Empire, China, or Japan
     2.Understands the importance of ideas associated with liberalism on 19th century political life in such states as Great Britain, France, the United States, Germany, Russia, Mexico, Argentina, the Ottoman Empire, China, or Japan
     3.Understands the importance of ideas associated with socialism on 19th century political life in such states as Great Britain, France, the United States, Germany, Russia, Mexico, Argentina, the Ottoman Empire, China, or Japan
     4.Understands the importance of ideas associated with constitutionalism on 19th century political life in such states as Great Britain, France, the United States, Germany, Russia, Mexico, Argentina, the Ottoman Empire, China, or Japan
     5.Understands how the movements of republicanism, liberalism, socialism, and constitutionalism were tied to new or old class interests
 Standard 40.  Understands the search for peace and stability throughout the world in the 1920s and 1930s
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands how the Great Depression affected economies and systems of government globally (e.g., how the Depression contributed to the growth of communist, fascist, and socialist movements, and how it affected capitalist economic theory and practice among leading Western industrial powers; how the depression affected countries dependent on foreign markets and foreign capital investment)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how the Great Depression affected global systems of government
     3.Understands how the Depression contributed to the growth of communist movements
     4.Understands how the Depression contributed to the growth of fascist movements
     5.Understands how the Depression contributed to the growth of socialist movements
     8.Understands how the Great Depression affected countries dependent on foreign markets
     9.Understands how the Great Depression affected countries dependent on foreign capital investment
 Standard 41.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War II
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the rise of fascism and Nazism in Europe and Japan (e.g., the ideologies of fascism and Nazism, and how fascist regimes seized power and gained mass support in Germany, Italy, Spain, and Japan; German, Italian, and Japanese military conquests and drives for empires in the 1930's; how Hitler, Franco, and Mussolini rose to power; the causes of the Spanish Civil War and how this war coincided with the rise of fascism in Europe; what Nazi oppression in Germany was like)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the rise of fascism in Europe
     2.Understands the rise of Nazism in Europe
     3.Understands the rise of fascism in Japan
     4.Knows the ideology of fascism
     5.Knows the ideology of Nazism
     6.Understands how fascist regimes seized power and gained mass support in Germany
     7.Understands how fascist regimes seized power and gained mass support in Italy
     8.Understands how fascist regimes seized power and gained mass support in Spain
     9.Understands how fascist regimes seized power and gained mass support in Japan
     13.Understands how Hitler rose to power
     14.Understands how Franco rose to power
     15.Understands how Mussolini rose to power
     16.Knows the causes of the Spanish Civil War and how this war coincided with the rise of fascism in Europe
     17.Knows what Nazi oppression in Germany was like
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the rise of Nazism and how it was received by society (e.g., the essence and elements of Nazi ideology as represented in Mein Kampf and the Nazi party platform, and their use of terror against "enemies of the state"; the propaganda techniques employed by the Nazis to promote their ideas; political debate and opposition to the Nazi and Fascist movements in Germany and Italy in the 1920s and 1930s)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the rise of Nazism
     2.Understands how Nazism was received by society
     3.Understands the essence and elements of Nazi ideology as represented in Mein Kampf and the Nazi party platform
     4.Understands the Nazi use of terror against "enemies of the state"
     5.Knows the propaganda techniques employed by the Nazis to promote their ideas
     6.Understands political debate and opposition to the Nazi and Fascist movements in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s
     7.Understands political debate and opposition to the Nazi and Fascist movements in Italy in the 1920s and 1930s
 Standard 42.  Understands major global trends from 1900 to the end of World War II
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the ideologies, policies, and governing methods of 20th century totalitarian regimes compared to those of contemporary democracies and absolutist states of earlier centuries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the ideologies of 20th century totalitarian regimes
     2.Understands the policies of 20th century totalitarian regimes
     3.Understands the governing methods of 20th century totalitarian regimes
     4.Understands the ideologies, policies, and governing methods of 20th century totalitarian regimes compared to those of contemporary democracies
     5.Understands the ideologies, policies, and governing methods of 20th century totalitarian regimes compared to those of absolutist states of earlier centuries
 Standard 43.  Understands how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the rise of the Communist Party in China between 1936 and 1949, the factors leading to Mao's programs (e.g., the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution) and their results (e.g., effects on economic development, human suffering)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the rise of the Communist Party in China between 1936 and 1949
     2.Knows the factors leading to Mao’s programs
     3.Knows factors leading to the Great Leap Forward
     4.Knows factors leading to the Cultural Revolution
     5.Understands the effects of Mao’s programs on economic development
     6.Understands the effects of Mao’s programs on human suffering
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political shifts in Europe and Asia following World War II (e.g., why fascism was discredited after World War II; how popular democratic institutions were established in such countries as Italy, the German Federal Republic, Greece, India, Spain, and Portugal between 1945 and 1975)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political shifts in Europe following World War II
     2.Understands political shifts in Asia following World War II
     3.Knows why fascism was discredited after World War II
     4.Understands how popular democratic institutions were established in such countries as Italy, the German Federal Republic, Greece, India, Spain, and Portugal between 1945 and 1975
   Benchmark 6.Understands factors that influenced political conditions in China after World War II (e.g., how much of the Communist success in the Chinese civil war was the result of Mao Zedong's leadership or Jiang Jieshi's lack of leadership, why rifts developed in the relationships between the U.S.S.R. and China in spite of the common bond of Communist-led government)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how much of the Communist success in the Chinese civil war was the result of Mao Zedong’s leadership or Jiang Jieshi’s lack of leadership
     2.Understands why rifts developed in the relationships between the U.S.S.R. and China in spite of the common bond of Communist led government
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the role of political ideology, religion, and ethnicity in shaping modern governments (e.g., the strengths of democratic institutions and civic culture in different countries and challenges to civil society in democratic states; how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Africa, Asia, and Latin America; the implications of ethnic, religious, and border conflicts on state-building in the newly independent republics of Africa; significant differences among nationalist movements in Eastern Europe that have developed in the 20th century, how resulting conflicts have been resolved, and the outcomes of these conflicts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of political ideology in shaping modern governments
     4.Understands the strengths of democratic institutions and civic culture in different countries and challenges to civil society in democratic states
     5.Understands how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Africa,
     6.Understands how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Asia
     7.Understands how successful democratic reform movements have been in challenging authoritarian governments in Latin America
     8.Understands the implications of ethnic, religious, and border conflicts on state building in the newly independent republics of Africa
     9.Knows significant differences among nationalist movements in Eastern Europe that have developed in the 20th century, how resulting conflicts have been resolved, and the outcomes of these conflicts
 Standard 46.  Understands long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how ideals and institutions of freedom, equality, justice, and citizenship have changed over time and from one society to another
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how ideals and institutions of freedom, equality, justice, and citizenship have changed over time
     2.Understands how ideals and institutions of freedom, equality, justice, and citizenship have changed from one society to another
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the development of the nation-state and how nation-states differ from empires or other forms of political organization
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the development of the nation state
     2.Understands how nation states differ from empires or other forms of political organization