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Topic: Cultural diffusion, adaptation, and interaction 

Arts and Communication

 Standard 5.  Knows a range of arts and communication works from various historical and cultural periods
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Knows similarities and differences among the lives, works, and influence of representative individuals in various art forms from different cultures and historical periods (e.g., composers in music, artists, dancers, actors and actresses)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows similarities among the lives of representative individuals in various art forms from different cultures and historical periods
     2.Knows differences among the lives of representative individuals in various art forms from different cultures and historical periods
     3.Knows similarities among the works of representative individuals in various art forms from different cultures and historical periods
     4.Knows differences among the works of representative individuals in various art forms from different cultures and historical periods
     5.Knows similarities among the influence of representative individuals in various art forms from different cultures and historical periods
     6.Knows differences among the influence of representative individuals in various art forms from different cultures and historical periods
     7.Knows the similarities among different composers in music from different cultures and historical periods
     8.Knows the differences among different composers in music from different cultures and historical periods
     9.Knows the similarities among different artists from different cultures and historical periods
     10.Knows the differences among different artists from different cultures and historical periods
     11.Knows the similarities among different dancers from different cultures and historical periods
     12.Knows the differences among different dancers from different cultures and historical periods
     13.Knows the similarities among different actors from different cultures and historical periods
     14.Knows the differences among different actors from different cultures and historical periods
     15.Knows the similarities among different actresses from different cultures and historical periods

Behavioral Studies

 Standard 1.  Understands that group and cultural influences contribute to human development, identity, and behavior
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands that technology, especially in transportation and communication, is increasingly important in spreading ideas, values, and behavior patterns within a society and among different societies
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that technology is important in spreading the ideas, values, and behavior patterns within a society
     2.Understands that technology is important in spreading the ideas, values, and behavior patterns among different societies
     3.Understands that transportation technology is increasingly becoming more important in spreading the ideas, values, and behavior patterns within a society
     4.Understands that communication technology is increasingly becoming more important in spreading the ideas, values, and behavior patterns within a society
     5.Understands that transportation technology is increasingly becoming more important in spreading the ideas, values, and behavior patterns among different societies
     6.Understands that communication technology is increasingly becoming more important in spreading the ideas, values, and behavior patterns among different societies
 Standard 2.  Understands various meanings of social group, general implications of group membership, and different ways that groups function
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands that groups have patterns for preserving and transmitting culture even as they adapt to environmental and/or social change
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that groups have patterns for preserving culture even as they adapt to environmental change
     2.Understands that groups have patterns for transmitting culture even as they adapt to environmental change
     3.Understands that groups have patterns for preserving culture even as they adapt to social change
     4.Understands that groups have patterns for transmitting culture even as they adapt to social change
 Standard 4.  Understands conflict, cooperation, and interdependence among individuals, groups, and institutions
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 11.Understands that mass media, migrations, and conquest affect social change by exposing one culture to another, and that extensive borrowing among cultures has led to the virtual disappearance of some cultures but only modest change in others
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that mass media affects social change by exposing one culture to another
     2.Understands that migration affects social change by exposing one culture to another
     3.Understands that conquest affects social change by exposing one culture to another
     4.Understands that extensive borrowing among cultures has led to the virtual disappearance of some cultures but only modest changes in others

Geography

 Standard 3.  Understands the characteristics and uses of spatial organization of Earth's surface
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the patterns and processes of migration and diffusion (e.g., the spread of language, religion, and customs from one culture to another; spread of a contagious disease through a population; global migration patterns of plants and animals)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the patterns of diffusion
     4.Understands the processes involved in diffusion
     5.Understands the spread of language from one culture to another
     6.Understands the spread of religion from one culture to another
     7.Understands the spread of customs from one culture to another
     8.Understands the spread of a contagious disease in a population
 Standard 10.  Understands the nature and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the distinctive cultural landscapes associated with migrant populations (e.g., Chinatowns in the Western world, European enclaves in Japan and China in the 19th century, Little Italy sections of American cities from the beginning of the 19th century to the present)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the distinctive cultural landscapes associated with Chinatowns in the Western world
     2.Knows the distinctive cultural landscapes associated with European enclaves in Japan and China in the 19th century
     3.Knows the distinctive cultural landscapes associated with Little Italy sections of American cities from the beginning of the 19th century to the present
   Benchmark 2.Knows ways in which communities reflect the cultural background of their inhabitants (e.g., distinctive building styles, billboards in Spanish, foreign-language advertisements in newspapers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that distinctive building styles reflect the cultural background of a community’s inhabitants
     2.Knows that foreign-language billboards reflect the cultural background of a community’s inhabitants
     3.Knows that foreign-language advertisements in newspapers reflect the cultural background of a community’s inhabitants
   Benchmark 3.Understands the significance of patterns of cultural diffusion (e.g., the use of terraced rice fields in China, Japan, Indonesia, and the Philippines; the use of satellite television dishes in the United States, England, Canada, and Saudi Arabia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that the use of terraced rice fields in China, Japan, Indonesia, and the Philippines represents a pattern of cultural diffusion
     2.Understands that the use of satellite television dishes in the United States, England, Canada, and Saudi Arabia represents a pattern of cultural diffusion
     3.Understands the concept of cultural diffusion
 Standard 13.  Understands the forces of cooperation and conflict that shape the divisions of Earth's surface
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the factors that affect the cohesiveness and integration of countries (e.g., language and religion in Belgium, the religious differences between Hindus and Muslims in India, the ethnic differences in some African countries that have been independent for only a few decades, the elongated shapes of Italy and Chile)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that language affects the cohesiveness and integration of Belgium
     2.Understands that religion affects the cohesiveness and integration of Belgium
     3.Understands that religious differences between Hindus and Muslims affect the cohesiveness and integration of India
     4.Understands that ethnic differences affect the cohesiveness and integration of some African countries
     5.Understands that the long shape of Italy affects the cohesiveness and integration of the country
     6.Understands that the long shape of Chile affects the cohesiveness and integration of the country
 Standard 17.  Understands how geography is used to interpret the past
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the processes of spatial change have affected history (e.g., the diffusion of a phenomenon through regions of contact, such as the spread of bubonic plague, or the diffusion of tobacco smoking from North America to Europe, Africa, and Asia; the development of the national transportation systems in the U.S.; effects of migration streams and counterstreams)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the diffusion of a phenomenon through regions of contact, such as the spread of bubonic plague
     2.Understands the diffusion of tobacco smoking from North America to Europe, Africa, and Asia

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 1.  Understands family life now and in the past, and family life in various places long ago
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the ways that families long ago expressed and transmitted their beliefs and values through oral tradition, literature, songs, art, religion, community celebrations, mementos, food, and language (e.g., celebration of national holidays, religious observances, and ethnic and national traditions; visual arts and crafts; hymns, proverbs, and songs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that families long ago expressed and transmitted their beliefs and values through oral tradition
     2.Knows that families long ago expressed and transmitted their beliefs and values through literature
     3.Knows that families long ago expressed and transmitted their beliefs and values through songs, hymns, and proverbs
     4.Knows that families long ago expressed and transmitted their beliefs and values through visual arts and crafts
     5.Knows that families long ago expressed and transmitted their beliefs and values through religious observances
     6.Knows that families long ago expressed and transmitted their beliefs and values through community celebrations, such as celebrations of national holidays
     7.Knows that families long ago expressed and transmitted their beliefs and values through mementos
     8.Knows that families long ago expressed and transmitted their beliefs and values through food
     9.Knows that families long ago expressed and transmitted their beliefs and values through language
     10.Knows that families long ago expressed and transmitted their beliefs and values through ethnic and national traditions
 Standard 3.  Understands the people, events, problems, and ideas that were significant in creating the history of their state
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the interactions that occurred between the Native Americans or Hawaiians and the first European, African, and Asian-Pacific explorers and settlers in the state or region
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the interactions that occurred between Native Americans or Hawaiians and the first European explorers and settlers in the state or region
     2.Understands the interactions that occurred between Native Americans or Hawaiians and the first Africans in the state or region
     3.Understands the interactions that occurred between Native Americans or Hawaiians and the first Asian-Pacific explorers and settlers in the state or region
   Benchmark 8.Understands major historical events and developments in the state or region that involved interaction among various groups
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major historical events in the state that involved interaction among various groups
     2.Understands major historical developments in the state that involved interaction among various groups
     3.Understands major historical events in the region that involved interaction among various groups
     4.Understands major historical developments in the region that involved interaction among various groups
   Benchmark 12.Knows the origin of the names of places, rivers, cities, and counties, and knows the various cultural influences within a particular region
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the origins of the names of rivers in the state or region
     2.Knows the origins of the names of cities in the state or region
     3.Knows the origins of the names of counties in the state or region
     4.Knows that various cultures have influenced the state or region
 Standard 7.  Understands selected attributes and historical developments of societies in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 8.Knows about the various crops, foods, and animals that were transported from the Western Hemisphere and from the Eastern Hemisphere as a result of the "Columbian Exchange" (e.g., tomato, corn, cassava, potato; horse, cattle, sugar cane)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the tomato, corn, cassava, and the potato are crops that were transported from the Western Hemisphere as a result of the "Columbian Exchange"
     2.Knows that horse and cattle were transported from the Eastern Hemisphere as a result of the "Columbian Exchange"
     3.Knows that sugar cane was transported from the Eastern Hemisphere as a result of the "Columbian Exchange"

United States History

 Standard 2.  Understands cultural and ecological interactions among previously unconnected people resulting from early European exploration and colonization
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the immediate and long-term impact of Columbus’ voyages on Native populations and on colonization in the Americas (e.g., Columbus’ interactions with indigenous peoples, the Columbian Exchange, religious influences)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the immediate effects of Columbus’ voyages on Native populations in the Americas
     2.Understands the immediate effects of Columbus’ voyages on colonization in the Americas
     3.Understands the long-term effects of Columbus’ voyages on Native populations in the Americas
     4.Understands the long-term effects of Columbus’ voyages on colonization in the Americas
     5.Understands Columbus’ interactions with indigenous peoples in the Americas
     7.Understands religious influences on colonization in the Americas
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the long-range social and ecological impact of the Columbian Exchange (e.g., how the horse, the pig, and the dandelion brought about changes in the land; how the sugar trade affected Caribbean slaves, Indian laborers, and European urban proletarians)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the Columbian Exchange in terms of how the horse, the pig, and the dandelion brought about changes in the Americas
     2.Understands the Columbian Exchange in terms of how the sugar trade affected Caribbean slaves, Indian laborers, and European urban proletarians
 Standard 3.  Understands why the Americas attracted Europeans, why they brought enslaved Africans to their colonies and how Europeans struggled for control of North America and the Caribbean
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands peaceful and conflicting interaction between English settlers and Native Americans in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, Chesapeake, and lower South colonies (e.g., how Native American and European societies influenced one another, differing European and Native American views of the land and its use)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands peaceful and conflicting interactions between English settlers and Native Americans in New England colonies
     2.Understands peaceful and conflicting interactions between English and Native Americans in Mid-Atlantic colonies
     3.Understands peaceful and conflicting interactions between English and Native Americans in the Chesapeake colonies
     4.Understands peaceful and conflicting interactions between English settlers and Native Americans in the lower South colonies
     5.Understands how Native American and European societies influenced one another
     6.Knows differences between European and Native American views of land and its use
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the cultural and environmental impacts of European settlement in North America (e.g., friendly and conflictory relations between English, French, Spanish, and Dutch settlers and Native Americans; how various Native American societies changed as a result of the expanding European settlements and how they influenced European societies; the impact of the fur trade on the environment)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows of friendly relations between English, French, Spanish, and Dutch settlers and Native Americans
     2.Knows of conflictory relations between English, French, Spanish, and Dutch settlers and Native Americans
     3.Understands how various Native American societies changed as a result of expanding European settlements
     4.Understands how various Native American societies influenced European societies
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the nature of the interaction between Native Americans and various settlers (e.g., Native American involvement in the European wars for control between 1675 and 1763, how Native American societies responded to European land hunger and expansion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Native American involvement in the European wars for control between 1675 and 1763
     2.Knows how Native American societies responded to European land hunger and expansion
 Standard 10.  Understands how the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed American lives and led to regional tensions
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 6.Understands elements of early western migration (e.g., the lure of the West and the reality of life on the frontier; motivations of various settlers; Mormon contributions to the settlement of the West; differences in the settlement of California and Oregon in the late 1840s and 1850s; routes taken by settlers of the Western U.S.; interactions between settlers and Native Americans and Mexicans in the western territories)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the reality of life on the frontier
     3.Understands the motivations of various settlers
     4.Understands Mormon contributions to the settlement of the West
     5.Understands differences in the settlement of California and Oregon in the late 1840s and 1850s
     6.Understands routes taken by settlers of the Western U.S.
     7.Understands interactions between settlers and Native Americans in the western territories
     8.Understands interactions between settlers and Mexicans in the western territories
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands characteristics of life on the western frontier in the 19th century (e.g., cultural interactions between diverse groups in the trans-Mississippi region, how the Mormons established the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints and their communities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands cultural interactions between diverse groups in the trans-Mississippi region in the 19th century
     2.Understands how the Mormons established the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
     3.Knows about Mormon communities in the 19th century
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands significant religious, cultural, and social changes in the American West (e.g., the degree to which political democracy influenced social and political conditions on the frontier, cultural characteristics of diverse groups, the impact of the Second Great Awakening and religious revivals on Mormon migration to the West, the lives of women in the West)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands significant religious changes in the American West
     2.Understands significant cultural changes in the American West
     3.Understands significant social changes in the American West
     4.Understands the degree to which political democracy influenced social conditions on the frontier
     5.Understands the degree to which political democracy influenced political conditions on the frontier
     6.Understands cultural characteristics of diverse groups in the American West
     7.Understands the impact of the Second Great Awakening on Mormon migration to the West
     8.Understands the impact of religious revivals on Mormon migration to the West
 Standard 16.  Understands how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed American society
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands influences on the development of the American West (e.g., cross-cultural encounters and conflicts among different racial and ethnic groups; the daily life of women on the western frontier; disputes between farmers, ranchers, and miners over water rights and open ranges)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands cross-cultural encounters among different racial groups in the American West
     2.Understands cross-cultural encounters among different ethnic groups in the American West
     3.Understands cross-cultural conflicts among different racial groups in the American West
     4.Understands cross-cultural conflicts among different ethnic groups in the American West
     6.Understands the disputes between farmers, ranchers, and miners over water rights in the American West
     7.Understands the disputes between farmers, ranchers, and miners over open ranges in the American West
 Standard 19.  Understands federal Indian policy and United States foreign policy after the Civil War
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands interaction between Native Americans and white society (e.g., the attitudes and policies of government officials, the U.S. Army, missionaries, and settlers toward Native Americans; the provisions and effects of the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 on tribal identity, land ownership and assimilation; the legacy of the 19th century federal Indian policy; Native American responses to increased white settlement, mining activities, and railroad construction)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the attitudes of government officials concerning Native Americans
     2.Understands the policies of government officials concerning Native Americans
     3.Understands the attitudes of the U.S. Army concerning Native Americans
     4.Understands the policies of the U.S. Army concerning Native Americans
     5.Understands the attitudes of missionaries toward Native Americans
     6.Understands the policies of missionaries toward Native Americans
     7.Understands the attitudes of settlers toward Native Americans
     8.Understands the policies of settlers toward Native Americans
     9.Understands the provisions of the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
     10.Understands the effects of the Dawes Deveralty Act of 1887 on tribal identity
     11.Understands interactions between Native Americans and White society concerning land ownership
     12.Understands interactions between Native Americans and White society concerning assimilation
     13.Understands the legacy of the 19th century federal Indian policy
     14.Understands Native American responses to increased white settlement
     15.Understands Native American responses to increased mining activities
     16.Understands Native American responses to increased railroad construction
 Standard 22.  Understands how the United States changed between the post-World War I years and the eve of the Great Depression
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands changes in the social and cultural life of American society in the 1920s (e.g., art and literature from the social realists to the "Lost Generation," how cultural trends were introduced into mainstream society, reasons for increased leisure time in the 1920s)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands changes in the cultural life of American society in the 1920s
     3.Understands art from the social realists to the "Lost Generation"
     4.Understands literature from the social realists to the "Lost Generation"
     5.Understands how cultural trends were introduced into mainstream society in the 1920s
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the impact of new cultural movements on American society in the 1920s (e.g., the extension of secondary education to new segments of American society, the emergence of artists in the postwar period, the origins and development of jazz, how the creation of national parks affected Native American culture)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of the extension of secondary education to new segments of American society
     2.Understands the impact of emerging artists in the postwar period
     3.Understands the origin of jazz
     4.Understands the development of jazz
     5.Understands how the creation of national parks affected Native American culture

World History

 Standard 3.  Understands the major characteristics of civilization and the development of civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how economic, political, and environmental factors influenced the civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., the impact of trade networks connecting various regions of Southwest Asia on Mesopotamian civilization; the importance of commercial, cultural, and political connections between Egypt and peoples of Nubia along the upper Nile; how geography and climate affected trade in the Nile Valley)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     10.Understands the impact of trade networks connecting various regions of Southwest Asia on Mesopotamian civilization
     11.Understands the importance of commercial, cultural, and political connections between Egypt and peoples of Nubia along the upper Nile
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the role of economics in shaping the development of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., the economic and cultural significance of the trade routes between Egypt, India, and Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium, the importance of traded goods to each society)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the economic and cultural significance of the trade routes between Egypt, India, and Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium
 Standard 4.  Understands how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands interaction between urban centers of Southwest Asia, Egypt, and the Aegean Basin, and the Eastern Mediterranean coast (e.g., the important urban centers of Southwest Asia, Egypt, and the Aegean Basin; the role of cities along the Mediterranean coast as commercial bridges between the trading networks of Southwest Asia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the role of cities along the Mediterranean coast as commercial bridges between the trading networks of Southwest Asia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean
   Benchmark 7.Understands influences on the cultural and economic conditions of Minoan and Egyptian civilizations (e.g., the nature and extent of cultural contact between Minoan and Egyptian civilizations, the extent of Minoan trade and its impact on the development of Minoan civilization)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands influences on the cultural conditions of Minoan civilization
     2.Understands influences on the cultural conditions of Egyptian civilization
     5.Understands the nature and extent of cultural contact between Minoan and Egyptian civilizations
 Standard 5.  Understands the political, social, and cultural consequences of population movements and militarization in Eurasia in the second millennium BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands significant events in the development of Mycenaean culture (e.g., the cultural influences of Egypt, Minoan Crete, and Southwest Asian civilizations on the Mycenaeans; the story of the Trojan war through different sources)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the cultural influences of Egyptian civilization on the Mycenaeans
     2.Understands the cultural influences of Minoan Crete on the Mycenaeans
     3.Understands the cultural influences of Southwest Asian civilizations on the Mycenaeans
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands characteristics of Mycenaean society (e.g., the impact of Mycenaean expansion and city-building on commerce and political life in the Eastern Mediterranean; society, trade, and government in Mycenae; comparisons of Mycenaean and Minoan societies from archaeological remains)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of Mycenaean expansion and city building on commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean
     2.Understands the impact of Mycenaean expansion and city building on political life in the Eastern Mediterranean
     6.Understands comparisons of Mycenaean and Minoan societies from archaeological remains
 Standard 6.  Understands major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how new ideas, products, techniques, and institutions spread from one region to another and the conditions under which people assimilated or rejected new ideas or adapted them to cultural traditions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how new ideas spread from one region to another
     2.Understands how new products spread from one region to another
     3.Understands how new techniques spread from one region to another
     4.Understands how new institutions spread from one region to another
     5.Understands the conditions under which people assimilated new ideas
     6.Understands the conditions under which people rejected new ideas
     7.Understands the conditions under which people adapted new ideas to cultural traditions
 Standard 7.  Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how Kush culture interacted with or reflected characteristics of other civilizations (e.g., the importance of political, commercial, and cultural relations between Egypt and Kush; how Kush could be viewed as a cultural satellite of Egypt, or its own distinctive civilization or both, and the evidence used to support such arguments; how Kushite achievements during the Meroitic period might have been seen by contemporaries in the Nile Delta, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Assyria)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of political relations between Egypt and Kush
     2.Understands the importance of commercial relations between Egypt and Kush
     3.Understands the importance of cultural relations between Egypt and Kush
     4.Understands how Kush could be viewed as a cultural satellite of Egypt
     6.Understands how Kush could be viewed as a cultural satellite of Egypt as well as its own distinctive civilization
     7.Knows evidence used to support arguments about whether Kush was cultural satellite of Egypt or its own distinctive civilization
 Standard 8.  Understands how Aegean civilization emerged and how interrelations developed among peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia from 600 to 200 BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the impact and achievements of the Hellenistic period (e.g., major lasting achievements of Hellenistic art, mathematics, science, philosophy, and political thought; the impact of Hellenism on Indian art; how architecture in West Asia after the conquests of Alexander reflected Greek and Macedonian influence)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     8.Understands the impact of Hellenism on Indian art
     9.Understands how architecture in West Asia after the conquests of Alexander reflected Greek and Macedonian influence
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands how conquest influenced cultural life during the Hellenistic era (e.g., the cultural diffusion of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian art and architecture through assimilation, conquest, migration, and trade; the benefits and costs of Alexander's conquests on numerous cultures, and the extent to which these conquests brought about cultural mixing and exchange)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the cultural diffusion of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian art and architecture through assimilation, conquest, migration, and trade
     3.Understands the extent to which Alexander’s conquests brought about cultural mixing and exchange
 Standard 9.  Understand how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the significant individuals and achievements of Roman society (e.g., the major legal, artistic, architectural, technological, and literary achievements of the Roman Republic; the influence of Hellenistic cultural traditions; the accomplishments of different, famous Roman citizens [Cincinnatus, the Gracchi, Cicero, Constantine, Nero, Marcus Aurelius])
    Knowledge/skill statements
     8.Understands the influence of Hellenistic cultural traditions on Roman culture
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Understands how art and literature reflect different aspects of Indian society (e.g., how literature such as the Ramayana can reflect the status and role of women in ancient cultures, how Indian art reflects a Persian or Greek influence)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands how Indian art reflects a Persian or Greek influence
 Standard 10.  Understands how early agrarian civilizations arose in Mesoamerica
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the framework of Olmec society and the influence of Olmec civilization on other civilizations (e.g., the cultural influence of the Olmec on the development of Zapotec and Mayan civilizations; the role of trade in the diffusion of this culture; the political, economic, and social structure of Olmec society and Olmec beliefs, and how this knowledge has been acquired in spite of undeciphered written records)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the influence of Olmec civilization on other civilizations
     3.Understands the cultural influence of the Olmec on the development of Zapotec and Mayan civilizations
     4.Understands the role of trade in the diffusion of Olmec culture
 Standard 11.  Understands major global trends from 1000 BCE to 300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how new religious or ethical systems contributed to cultural integration of large regions of Afro-Eurasia
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows regions of Afro Eurasia that were integrated between 1000 BCE to 300 CE
     2.Understands how new religious systems contributed to cultural integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
     3.Understands how ethical systems contributed to cultural integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the concept and importance of "classical civilizations" (e.g., the enduring importance of ideas, institutions, and art forms that emerged in the classical periods; the significance of Greek or Hellenistic ideas and cultural styles in the history of the Mediterranean basin, Europe, Southwest Asia, and India)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the significance of Greek or Hellenistic ideas and cultural styles in the history of Europe
     6.Understands the significance of Greek or Hellenistic ideas and cultural styles in the history of Southwest Asia
     7.Understands the significance of Greek or Hellenistic ideas and cultural styles in the history of India
   Benchmark 2.Understands the development of large regional empires (e.g., the significance of military power, state bureaucracy, legal codes, belief systems, written languages, and communications and trade networks; how trade networks, merchant communities, state power, tributary systems of production, and other factors contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro-Eurasia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Understands how trade networks contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
     8.Understands how merchant communities contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
     9.Understands how state power contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
     10.Understands how tributary systems of production contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
     11.Understand how other factors contributed to the economic integration of large regions of Afro Eurasia
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands patterns of social and cultural continuity in various societies (e.g., ways in which peoples maintained traditions and resisted external challenges in the context of increasing interregional contacts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands patterns of social continuity in various societies
     2.Understands patterns of cultural continuity in various societies
     3.Knows ways in which peoples maintained traditions in the context of increasing interregional contacts
     4.Knows ways in which peoples resisted external challenges in the context of increasing interregional contacts
 Standard 12.  Understands the Imperial crises and their aftermath in various regions from 300 to 700 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the influence of Hinduism and Buddhism in East and Southeast Asia (e.g., the role of trade in spreading these religions; the geographical limits of Hindu and Buddhist influence; the presence and influence of Hinduism and Buddhism in India, Malaysia, and Southeast Asia; how ocean currents affected cultural contact between India and Southeast Asia, and the evidence for this contact)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of Hinduism in East and Southeast Asia
     2.Understands the influence of Buddhism in East and Southeast Asia
     3.Understands the role of trade in spreading Hinduism and Buddhism
     6.Understands the presence and influence of Hinduism in India
     7.Understands the presence and influence of Hinduism in Malaysia
     8.Understands the presence and influence of Hinduism in Southeast Asia
     9.Understands the presence and influence of Buddhism in India
     10.Understands the presence and influence of Buddhism in Malaysia
     11.Understands the presence and influence of Buddhism in Southeast Asia
     12.Understands how ocean currents affected cultural contact between India and Southeast Asia, and the evidence for this contact
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how the spread of Buddhism and Christianity influenced different regions (e.g., the spread of the two religions in the context of change and crisis in the Roman and Han empires; the importance of monasticism in the growth of Christianity and Buddhism and the participation of men and women in monastic life and missionary activity; the importance of universal salvation to the early history of these two religions; the locations of new centers of Buddhism and Christianity and the major routes used to spread the faith beyond these centers; the efforts and successes of Ashoka and Constantine to legitimize Buddhism and Christianity and spread them throughout India and Europe respectively)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the spread of Buddhism influenced different regions
     2.Understands how the spread of Christianity influenced different regions
     3.Understands the spread of Christianity and Buddhism in the context of change and crisis in the Roman and Han empires
     6.Knows the locations of new centers of Buddhism
     7.Knows the locations of new centers of Christianity
     8.Knows the major routes used to spread the Buddhist faith beyond its new centers
     9.Knows the major routes used to spread Christianity beyond its new centers
     10.Understands the efforts and successes of Ashoka and Constantine to legitimize Buddhism and spread it throughout India and Europe respectively
     11.Understands the efforts and successes of Ashoka and Constantine to legitimize Christianity and spread it throughout India and Europe respectively
   Benchmark 5.Understands how the spread of trade and religion influenced Southeast Asia and Polynesian areas (e.g., the impact of Indian civilization on state-building in mainland Southeast Asia and the Indonesian archipelago, the nature of monumental religious architecture as evidence for the spread of Buddhist and Hindu belief and practice in Southeast Asia, the function of Hindu and Buddhist clerics in the spread of their religions and trade to Southeast Asia and Malayo- Polynesia by the end of the 1st millennium BCE, the locations and geographic challenges of potential and actual trade routes in the Southeast Asian and Polynesian areas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the spread of trade influenced Southeast Asia and Polynesian areas
     2.Understands how the spread of religion influenced Southeast Asia and Polynesian areas
     3.Understands the impact of Indian civilization on state building in mainland Southeast Asia and the Indonesian archipelago
     4.Understands the nature of monumental religious architecture as evidence for the spread of Buddhist and Hindu belief and practice in Southeast Asia
     5.Understands the function of Hindu and Buddhist clerics in the spread of their religions and trade to Southeast Asia and Malayo Polynesia by the end of the 1st millennium BCE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands Indian contributions to Southeast Asia (e.g., the adaptation of Buddhist-Hindu culture in Southeast Asia , how art and architecture revealed the spread of Indian influence in Southeast Asia, the Indian concept of ideal kingship and its introduction and spread throughout the emerging states of Southeast Asia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the adaptation of Buddhist Hindu culture in Southeast Asia
     2.Understands how art and architecture revealed the spread of Indian influence in Southeast Asia
     3.Understands the Indian concept of ideal kingship and its introduction and spread throughout the emerging states of Southeast Asia
   Benchmark 6.Understands the resurgence of Hinduism in India and its spread to South India (e.g., as reflected in the growth of temple towns and the development of South Indian temple architecture such as the temple of Maduri)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the spread of Hinduism to South India
     3.Understands how the growth of temple towns and the development of South Indian temple architecture such as the temple of Maduri reflect the resurgence and spread of Hinduism
   Benchmark 7.Understands the significance of Pandyas and Pallavas (e.g., the history of Pandyas and Pallavas in South India; trade relationships with West Asia, Greece, Rome, and Southeast Asia; how Pallavas helped spread Hindu and Buddhist thought to Southeast Asia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the history of Pandyas and Pallavas in South India
     2.Understands trade relationships with West Asia, Greece, Rome, and Southeast Asia
     3.Understands how Pallavas helped spread Hindu and Buddhist thought to Southeast Asia
 Standard 13.  Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the spread of Islam in Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean region (e.g., the life of Muhammad, his devotion to God, and the basic beliefs and values he preached; how Islam spread in Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean and evidence for its influence; the importance to Islam of the Hegira [Hirjah], the Ka'abah, the Qur'an, the Sunnah, the Hajj, the daily prayer [Salat], the poor due [Zakat] and Ramadan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the spread of Islam in Southwest Asia
     2.Understands the spread of Islam in the Mediterranean region
     5.Knows evidence of the influence of Islam in Southwest Asia
     6.Knows evidence of Islam’s influence in the Mediterranean basin
   Benchmark 2.Understands the influence of Islamic ideas and practices on other cultures and social behavior (e.g., the origin and development of Islamic law; the influence of Islamic law and Muslim practice on family life, morals, marriage, inheritance, and slavery; the possible appeal of Islam to culturally diverse non-Muslims across Afro-Eurasia in the Abbasid era)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the influence of Islamic law and Muslim practice on family life
     4.Understands the influence of Islamic law and Muslim practice on morals
     5.Understands the influence of Islamic law and Muslim practice on marriage practices
     6.Understands the influence of Islamic law and Muslim practice on inheritance practices
     7.Understands the influence of Islamic law and Muslim practice on slavery practices
     8.Understands the possible appeal of Islam to culturally diverse non Muslims across Afro Eurasia in the Abbasid era
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands how the spread of Greek Orthodox Christianity affected different regions (e.g., the patterns of the spread of Greek Orthodox Christianity into the Balkans, Ukraine, and Russia between the 9th and 11th centuries; explanations for the preference of Greek over Latin Christianity in the Slavic world; the story of Vladimir of Kiev in the Russian Chronicle, and the nature of the church/state relationship in Kievan Russia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the patterns of the spread of Greek Orthodox Christianity into the Balkans between the 9th and 11th centuries
     2.Knows the patterns of the spread of Greek Orthodox Christianity into the Ukraine between the 9th and 11th centuries
     3.Knows the patterns of the spread of Greek Orthodox Christianity into Russia between the 9th and 11th centuries
     4.Knows explanations for the preference of Greek over Latin Christianity in the Slavic world
 Standard 14.  Understands major developments in East Asia and Southeast Asia in the era of the Tang Dynasty from 600 to 900 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands China's influence on other cultures (e.g., relations with pastoral peoples of Inner Asia in the Tang period and long-term patterns of interaction along China's grassland frontier; how Korea assimilated Chinese ideas and institutions yet preserved its political independence; China's colonization of Vietnam and the effects of Chinese rule on Vietnamese society, including resistance to Chinese domination)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Chinese relations with pastoral peoples of Inner Asia in the Tang period
     2.Understands long term patterns of interaction along China’s grassland frontier
     3.Understands how Korea assimilated Chinese ideas and institutions yet preserved its political independence
     4.Understands China’s colonization of Vietnam
     5.Understands the effects of Chinese rule on Vietnamese society, including resistance to Chinese domination
   Benchmark 2.Understands how Buddhism was introduced from Tang China to Korea and Japan (e.g., why the Korean emperor encouraged Japan to adopt this religion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how Buddhism was introduced from Tang China to Korea
     2.Understands how Buddhism was introduced from Tang China to Japan
     3.Understands why the Korean emperor encouraged Japan to adopt the Buddhist religion
   Benchmark 3.Understands the culture and technological achievements of Tang China (e.g., the ideals and values of everyday life expressed in the poetry, landscape, painting, and pottery of the Tang Dynasty; the system of roads and canals in Tang China; the extent of the Tang Empire, the trade routes used by the empire, and the products exchanged; major technologies developed under the Tang Dynasty, how these technologies influenced Tang society and spread to other regions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the cultural achievements of Tang China
     5.Knows the extent of the Tang Empire
     7.Knows the products exchanged along trade routes in the Tang empire
     10.Understands how technologies developed under the Tang Dynasty spread to other regions
   Benchmark 4.Understands events that shaped Japanese culture (e.g., the influence of Chinese culture on Japanese society from the 7th to the 11th century; use of Chinese as the lingua franca in East Asia in the late 1st millennium; major contributions and developments of early cultures of Japan from 10,000 B.C.E. to circa 200 CE; the influence of Buddhism on Japan between the 8th and 9th centuries, how it changed Japanese society, and reasons for its restriction by the emperor in Heian)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of Chinese culture on Japanese society from the 7th to the 11th century
     2.Understands the use of Chinese as the lingua franca in East Asia in the late 1st millennium
     4.Understands the influence of Buddhism on Japan between the 8th and 9th centuries and how it changed Japanese society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the influence of Chinese culture on different countries (e.g., the political and cultural influence of Tang China in East Asian countries such as Korea, Vietnam, and Japan; the uniqueness of the Chinese writing system and how Japan adapted this system to fit the spoken language of Japan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the political of Tang China in East Asian countries such as Korea, Vietnam, and Japan
     2.Understands the cultural influence of Tang China in East Asian countries such as Korea, Vietnam, and Japan
     4.Understands how Japan adapted the Chinese writing system to fit the spoken language of Japan
 Standard 16.  Understands the development of agricultural societies and new states in tropical Africa and Oceania
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the establishment of agricultural societies on the Pacific Islands and New Zealand (e.g., the plants and animals that early migrants carried with them; how these "introductions" affected the existing island flora and fauna; possible links between the cultures of Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and New Zealand)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Knows possible links between the cultures of Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and New Zealand
 Standard 17.  Understands the rise of centers of civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America in the 1st millennium CE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands relationships between Mesoamerican and Andean societies (e.g., the growth of urban society centered on Teotihuacan and the importance of this city as a transmitter of Mesoamerican cultural traditions to later societies; comparisons between Mayan, Moche, and Teotihuacan religions and rituals; the basic structure, economy, and ritual of Andean societies such as the Moche, Tihuanaco, and Chimu; the basic construction and variations of Mesoamerican calendars; possible methods of contact between Mesoamerican and Andean societies and the cultural diffusion seen in areas such as agriculture, societal structure, and artisan crafts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the growth of urban society centered on Teotihuacán and the importance of this city as a transmitter of Mesoamerican cultural traditions to later societies
     2.Understands comparisons between Mayan, Moche, and Teotihuacan religions and rituals
     6.Understands the basic construction and variations of Mesoamerican calendars
     7.Understands possible methods of contact between Mesoamerican and Andean societies
     8.Understands the cultural diffusion among Mesoamerican and Andean societies in areas such as agriculture, societal structure, and artisan crafts
 Standard 18.  Understands major global trends from 300 to 1000 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands major changes in the religious map of Eurasia and Africa between 300 and 1000 CE (e.g., the success of Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam in making converts among peoples of differing ethnic and cultural traditions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the success of Christianity in making converts among peoples of differing ethnic and cultural traditions
     2.Understands the success of Buddhism in making converts among peoples of differing ethnic and cultural traditions
     3.Understands the success of Hinduism in making converts among peoples of differing ethnic and cultural traditions
     4.Understands the success of Islam in making converts among peoples of differing ethnic and cultural traditions
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the growth of economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE (e.g., the importance of Muslim civilization in mediating long-distance commercial, cultural, intellectual, and food crop exchange across Eurasia and parts of Africa; migrations of farming peoples to new regions of Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, China, Oceania, and Mesoamerica; connections between new settlements and the development of towns, trade, and greater cultural complexity in these regions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the growth of economic exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     2.Understands the growth of cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     3.Understands the importance of Muslim civilization in mediating long distance commercial, cultural, intellectual, and food crop exchange across Eurasia and parts of Africa
     4.Knows how migrations of farming peoples to new regions of Europe affected economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     5.Knows how migrations of farming peoples to new regions of Sub-Saharan Africa affected economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     6.Knows how migrations of farming peoples to new regions of China affected economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     7.Knows how migrations of farming peoples to new regions of Oceania affected economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     8.Knows how migrations of farming peoples to new regions of Mesoamerica affected economic and cultural exchanges among different regions from 300 to 1000 CE
     9.Understands connections between new settlements and the development of towns, trade, and greater cultural complexity in these regions
 Standard 20.  Understands the redefinition of European society and culture from 1000 to 1300 CE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the spread of philosophy to Europe (e.g., the importance of the Islamic states of Iberia and Sicily as well as the Byzantine Empire in transmitting scientific and philosophical knowledge to Western and Central Europe; how classical works such as those of Aristotle and Plato became part of medieval philosophy in Western Europe, and the attitude of the Church toward these non-Christian philosophies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of the Islamic states of Iberia and Sicily in transmitting scientific and philosophical knowledge to Western and Central Europe
     2.Understands the importance of the Byzantine Empire in transmitting scientific and philosophical knowledge to Western and Central Europe
     3.Understands how classical works such as those of Aristotle and Plato became part of medieval philosophy in Western Europe
 Standard 21.  Understands the rise of the Mongol Empire and its consequences for Eurasian peoples from 1200 to 1350
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands Mongol interaction with different cultures (e.g., how Mongol rule affected economy, society, and culture in China and Korea; how Southeast Asians and Japanese resisted incorporation into the Mongol empire; how citizens responded to Mongol rule)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how Mongol rule affected the economy, society, and culture of China
     2.Understands how Mongol rule affected the economy, society, and culture of Korea
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the political features of the Mongol Empire and its influence on other regions (e.g., the political character of Mongol rule in China, Central Asia, southwest Asia, and Russia; the significance of the "Pax Mongolica" and how long-distance communication and trade led to cultural and technological diffusion across Eurasia; how Mongol military organization and techniques led to victory in their conquests between 1206 and 1279)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the influence of the Mongol empire on other regions
     5.Knows how long distance communication and trade led to cultural and technological diffusion across Eurasia
 Standard 22.  Understands the growth of states, towns, and trade in Sub-Saharan Africa between the 11th and 15th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how architecture (e.g., the churches of Lalaibela and of Kalash in Ellora, India) reveals the influence of foreign states and the end of African isolation
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how architecture (e.g., the churches of Lalaibela and of Kalash in Ellora, India) reveals the influence of foreign states
     2.Understands how architecture (e.g., the churches of Lalaibela and of Kalash in Ellora, India) reveals the end of African isolation
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how art and architecture reveal elements of Ile-Ife, Benin, and other African societies (e.g., the role of the ruler, political power, gender differences, foreign contact, technology)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Understands how art and architecture reveal aspects of foreign contact among different African societies
 Standard 25.  Understands major global trends from 1000 to 1500 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on the growth of long-distance exchanges between different regions (e.g., the continuing spread of Islam, and the importance of Muslim civilization in mediating long-distance commercial, cultural, and intellectual exchanges; why new ports, manufacturing centers, merchant communities, and long-distance trade routes emerged in the region of the "Southern Seas," from the Arabian Sea to the coasts of China)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the continuing spread of Islam and the importance of Muslim civilization in mediating long distance commercial, cultural, and intellectual exchanges
     2.Understands why new ports, manufacturing centers, merchant communities, and long distance trade routes emerged in the region of the "Southern Seas," from the Arabian Sea to the coasts of China
 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the character and impact of Portuguese maritime expansion to Africa, India, and Southeast Asia upon local populations (e.g., relations between King Affonso II of the Kongo and Portuguese, why Bartholomew de las Casas was considered the "defender of the Indians")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the character and impact on local populations of Portuguese maritime expansion to Africa
     2.Understands the character and impact on local populations of Portuguese maritime expansion to India
     3.Understands the character and impact on local populations of Portuguese maritime expansion to Southeast Asia
   Benchmark 4.Understands features of Spanish exploration and conquest (e.g., why the Spanish wanted to invade the Incan and Aztec Empires, and why these empires collapsed after the conflict with the Spanish; interaction between the Spanish and indigenous populations such as the Inca and the Aztec; different perspectives on Cort‚s journey into Mexico)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands features of Spanish conquest
     5.Understands interaction between the Spanish and indigenous populations such as the Inca and the Aztec
   Benchmark 5.Understands the cultural and biological exchange between the Americas and Afro-Eurasia in the late 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., the exchange of animals between the Americas and Afro-Eurasia; how the exchange of plants between the Americas and other countries affected societies and commerce; the roots of "cowboy" culture in the Americas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the cultural exchange between the Americas and Afro Eurasia in the late 15th and 16th centuries
     4.Understands how the exchange of plants between the Americas and other countries affected societies and commerce
     5.Understands the roots of "cowboy" culture in the Americas
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands cultural interaction between various societies in the late 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., how the Church helped administer Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas; reasons for the fall of the Incan Empire to Pizarro; how the Portuguese dominated seaborne trade in the Indian Ocean basin in the 16th century; the relations between pilgrims and indigenous populations in North and South America, and the role different religious sects played in these relations; how the presence of Spanish conquerors affected the daily lives of Aztec, Maya, and Inca peoples)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the Church helped administer Spanish colonies in the Americas
     2.Understands how the Church helped administer Portuguese colonies in the Americas
     5.Understands the relations between pilgrims and indigenous populations in North and South America, and the role different religious sects played in these relations
     6.Understands how the presence of Spanish conquerors affected the daily lives of Aztec, Maya, and Inca peoples
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Understands how various cultures responded to European presence in the 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., how practitioners of free trade along the northern rim of the Indian Ocean responded to European penetration; relations between the church and native populations; Asian responses to European naval encroachments)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands relations between the church and native populations
 Standard 29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Knows the causes and consequences of encounters among Khoisan groups, Bantu-speaking peoples, and European settlers in South Africa in the 17th and 18th centuries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the causes of encounters among Khoisan groups, Bantu speaking peoples, and European settlers in South Africa in the 17th and 18th centuries
     2.Knows the consequences of encounters among Khoisan groups, Bantu speaking peoples, and European settlers in South Africa in the 17th and 18th centuries
 Standard 30.  Understands transformations in Asian societies in the era of European expansion
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the spread of different religions affected various Asian countries (e.g., how and why Islam continued to expand in India, Southeast Asia, and China)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how and why Islam continued to expand in India
     2.Understands how and why Islam continued to expand in Southeast Asia
     3.Understands how and why Islam continued to expand in India, Southeast Asia, and China
   Benchmark 5.Understands the spread of Confucianism in various Asian cultures (e.g., how the rising popularity of Confucianism among the elites in Korea and Japan contributed to changes in the roles of women; how Confucianism was influenced by government and society in China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how Confucianism was influenced by government and society in China
     3.Understands how Confucianism was influenced by government and society in Japan
     4.Understands how Confucianism was influenced by government and society in Korea
     5.Understands how Confucianism was influenced by government and society in Vietnam
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the spread of different religions throughout the world (e.g., the varieties of Buddhism and Hindu practice and teaching that developed in Asia and their influence on social and cultural life; major world religions in the mid-18th century, their relative sizes, and their degrees of success at winning new converts; how the development of Buddhism in Japan compared to that in China)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the influence of Buddhist and Hindu practices and teachings on social and cultural life in Asia
     5.Knows the varying degrees of success of major world religions at winning new converts in the mid-18th century
     6.Understands how the development of Buddhism in Japan compared to that in China
 Standard 31.  Understands major global trends from 1450 to 1770
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows how Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity spread between 1450 and 1750 (e.g., the location and geographical area of influence, the rate of growth of practitioners, reasons for growth)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how Buddhism spread between 1450 and 1750
     2.Knows how Islam spread between 1450 and 1750
     3.Knows how Christianity spread between 1450 and 1750
     4.Knows the location and geographical area of influence of Buddhism between 1450 and 1750
     5.Knows the location and geographical area of influence of Islam between 1450 and 1750
     6.Knows the location and geographical area of influence of Christianity between 1450 and 1750
     7.Knows the rate of growth of practitioners of Buddhism between 1450 and 1750
     8.Knows the rate of growth of practitioners of Islam between 1450 and 1750
     9.Knows the rate of growth of practitioners of Christianity between 1450 and 1750
     10.Knows reasons for the growth of Buddhism between 1450 and 1750
     11.Knows reasons for the growth of Islam between 1450 and 1750
     12.Knows reasons for the growth of Christianity between 1450 and 1750
   Benchmark 4.Understands patterns of social and cultural continuity in various societies (e.g., ways in which peoples maintained traditions and resisted external challenges in the context of a rapidly changing world)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows various ways in which peoples maintained traditions in the context of a rapidly changing world
     2.Knows various ways in which peoples resisted external challenges in the context of a rapidly changing world
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the Ming and Qing rulers viewed the European merchants, Christian missionaries, and military personnel who sought trading privileges in China
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the Ming and Qing rulers viewed the European merchant who sought trading privileges in China
     2.Understands how the Ming and Qing rulers viewed the Christian missionaries who sought trading privileges in China
     3.Understands how the Ming and Qing rulers viewed the military personnel who sought trading privileges in China
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the impact of foreign trade and politics on Indian culture (e.g., major trade routes that linked China, India, and Europe, and the impact of this trade on Indian agriculture and industry; the decline of the Mughal empire and the rise of British political and military influence in India between 1750 and 1858; the competitive policies of the British and the French in India, and why the British East India Company was able to prevail; the goods imported to and exported from India)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of foreign trade on Indian culture
     2.Understands the impact of foreign politics on Indian culture
   Benchmark 8.Understands significant cultural and political changes in India in the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., changing linguistic and religious diversity in India between the early 18th and late 19th centuries, the significant changes in political control and boundaries in India between 1798 and 1850)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands significant cultural changes in India in the 18th and 19th centuries
     3.Understands changing linguistic diversity in India between the early 18th and late 19th centuries
     4.Understands changing religious diversity in India between the early 18th and late 19th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how Western culture influenced Asian societies (e.g., British policies in India compared to Dutch colonial practices in the East Indies; the lives of indigenous elites under these regimes; aspects of indigenous cultures that were embraced by Europeans; the major accomplishments of Ram Mohan Roy and his central ideas regarding Western influence in India)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows aspects of indigenous cultures that were embraced by Europeans
     4.Understands the major accomplishments of Ram Mohan Roy and his central ideas regarding Western influence in India
 Standard 37.  Understand major global trends from 1750 to 1914
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands where Christianity and Islam grew in this era, and understands the causes of 19th-century reform movements or renewal in Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands where Christianity grew between 1750 and 1914
     2.Understands where Islam grew between 1750 and 1914
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands patterns of social and cultural continuity in various societies, and how people maintained and resisted external changes in an era of expanding Western hegemony and rapid industrial and urban change (e.g., the efforts of people such as Jamal al-Din, al-Afghani, Rashid Rida, and Muhammad Abdul)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands patterns of social continuity in various societies
 Standard 42.  Understands major global trends from 1900 to the end of World War II
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands patterns of social and cultural continuity in various societies (e.g., ways in which peoples maintained traditions, sustained basic loyalties, and resisted external challenges in an era of recurrent world crises)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands patterns of social continuity in various societies
     3.Understands ways in which peoples maintained traditions, sustained basic loyalties, and resisted external challenges in an era of recurrent world crises
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 6.Understands cultural trends of the second half of the 20th century (e.g., the influence of television, the Internet, and other forms of electronic communication on the creation and diffusion of cultural and political information worldwide; how the world's religions have responded to challenges and uncertainties in society and the world)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of television on the creation and diffusion of cultural and political information worldwide
     2.Understands the influence of the Internet on the creation and diffusion of cultural and political information worldwide
     3.Understands the influence of various forms of electronic communication on the creation and diffusion of cultural and political information worldwide
 Standard 45.  Understands major global trends since World War II
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands connections between globalizing trends in economy, technology, and culture and dynamic assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows globalizing trends in technology
     3.Knows globalizing trends in culture
     4.Understands connections between globalizing trends in economy and dynamic assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness
     5.Understands connections between globalizing trends in technology and dynamic assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness
     6.Understands connections between globalizing trends in culture and dynamic assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness
 Standard 46.  Understands long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands major patterns of long-distance trade from ancient times to the present and how trade has contributed to economic and cultural change in particular societies or civilizations
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how trade has contributed to economic change in particular societies or civilizations
     3.Understands how trade has contributed to cultural change in particular societies or civilizations