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Topic: Comparative analysis of culture and societies 

Behavioral Studies

 Standard 1.  Understands that group and cultural influences contribute to human development, identity, and behavior
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 4.Understands that "acceptable" human behavior varies from culture to culture and from one time period to another, but there are some behaviors that are "unacceptable" in almost all cultures, past and present
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that "acceptable" human behavior varies from culture to culture
     2.Understands that "acceptable" human behavior varies from one time period to another
     3.Understands that there are some behaviors that are "unacceptable" in almost all cultures, past and present
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands that each culture has distinctive patterns of behavior that are usually practiced by most of the people who grow up in it
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that each culture has distinctive patterns of behavior
     2.Knows that cultural patterns of behavior are usually practiced by most people who grow up in the culture
 Standard 2.  Understands various meanings of social group, general implications of group membership, and different ways that groups function
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 3.Understands that different groups, societies, and cultures have some similar wants and needs
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that different groups have some similar wants and needs
     2.Understands that different cultures have some similar wants and needs

Arts and Communication

 Standard 5.  Knows a range of arts and communication works from various historical and cultural periods
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Knows the cross-cultural relationships among art objects, motifs, designs, and themes of separate societies (e.g., treatment of similar themes in drama of different genres and styles from various cultures and historical periods)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the cross-cultural relationships among art objects of separate societies
     2.Knows the cross-cultural relationships among art motifs of separate societies
     3.Knows the cross-cultural relationships among art designs of separate societies
     4.Knows the cross-cultural relationships among themes in art of separate societies
     5.Understands the treatment of similar themes in drama of different genres from various historical periods
     6.Understands the treatment of similar themes in drama of different genres from various cultures
     7.Understands the treatment of similar themes in drama of different styles from various historical periods
     8.Understands the treatment of similar themes in drama of different styles from various cultures

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 1.  Understands family life now and in the past, and family life in various places long ago
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   Benchmark 3.Knows similarities and differences among people (e.g., culture, language, gender, abilities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Recognizes similarities between people
     2.Recognizes differences between people
     3.Knows ways in which he or she is like others
     4.Knows ways in which he or she is unique
     5.Knows that people may differ by gender
     6.Knows that people may differ by language
     7.Knows that people may differ by culture
     8.Knows that people have different abilities
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 3.Knows the cultural similarities and differences in clothes, homes, food, communication, technology, and cultural traditions between families now and in the past
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows types of clothing worn by families today
     2.Knows types of clothing worn by families in the past
     3.Knows similarities and differences in clothing worn by families today and in the past
     4.Knows types of homes families live in today
     5.Knows types of homes families lived in the past
     6.Knows similarities and differences in homes of families now and in the past
     7.Knows types of food consumed by families today
     8.Knows types of food consumed by families in the past
     9.Knows similarities and differences in food consumed by families now and in the past
     10.Knows means of communication used by families today
     11.Knows means of communication used by families in the past
     12.Knows similarities and differences in means of communication used by families now and in the past
     13.Knows types of technology used by families today
     14.Knows types of technology used by families in the past
     15.Knows similarities and differences in types of technology used by families now and in the past
     16.Knows cultural traditions of families today
     17.Knows cultural traditions of families in the past
     18.Knows similarities and differences in cultural traditions of families now and in the past
 Standard 3.  Understands the people, events, problems, and ideas that were significant in creating the history of their state
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 1.Understands differences between the lives of Native Americans or Hawaiians today and their lives 100 years ago
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands that Native Americans in the state or region live differently today than they did 100 years ago
     6.Understands that Hawaiians live differently today than they did 100 years ago
 Standard 8.  Understands major discoveries in science and technology, some of their social and economic effects, and the major scientists and inventors responsible for them
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Understands differences between hunters and gatherers and people who cultivated plants and raised domesticated animals for food (e.g., in family life, the amounts of land necessary for support, ability to acquire surplus food for storage and trading)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands family life in hunting and gathering societies
     2.Understands how much land was needed to support hunting and gathering societies
     3.Understands that hunting and gathering societies were not able to acquire surplus food for storage and trade
     4.Understands family life in societies that cultivate plants and raise domesticated animals for food
     5.Understands how much land was needed to support societies that cultivated plants and raised domesticated animals for food
     6.Understands that societies that cultivated plants and raised domesticated animals for food were able to acquire surplus food for storage and trade

United States History

 Standard 1.  Understands the characteristics of societies in the Americas, Western Europe, and Western Africa that increasingly interacted after 1450
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Compares political, social, economic, and religious systems of Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans who converged in the western hemisphere after 1492 (e.g., concepts of political authority, civic values, and the organization and practice of government; population levels, urbanization, family structure, and modes of communication; systems of labor, trade, concepts of property, and exploitation of natural resources; dominant ideas and values including religious beliefs and practices, gender roles, and attitudes toward nature)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political systems of African, European, and Native American societies circa 1492
     2.Understands that political systems might include concepts of political authority, civic values, and the organization and practice of government
     3.Understands social systems of African, European, and Native American societies circa 1492
     4.Understands that social systems might be shaped by population levels, urbanization, family structure, and modes of communication
     5.Understands economic systems in African, European, and Native American societies circa 1492
     6.Understands that economic systems might include systems of labor, trade, concepts of property, and attitudes about exploitation of natural resources
     7.Understands religious systems of African, European, and Native American societies circa 1492
     8.Understands that religious systems might include dominant religious beliefs and values, religious practices, assignment of gender roles, and attitudes toward nature
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the similarities and differences among Native American societies (e.g., gender roles; patterns of social organization; cultural traditions; economic organization; political culture; among Hopi, Zuni, Algonkian, Iroquoian, Moundbuilder, and Mississippian cultures)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the similarities and differences in gender roles among Hopi, Zuni, Algonkian, Iroquoian, Moundbuilder, and Mississippian Native American cultures
     2.Understands the similarities and differences in patterns of social organization among Hopi, Zuni, Algonkian, Iroquoian, Moundbuilder, and Mississippian Native American cultures
     3.Understands the similarities and differences in cultural traditions among Hopi, Zuni, Algonkian, Iroquoian, Moundbuilder, and Mississippian Native American cultures
     4.Understands the similarities and differences in economic organization among Hopi, Zuni, Algonkian, Iroquoian, Moundbuilder, and Mississippian Native American cultures
     5.Understands the similarities and differences in political culture among Hopi, Zuni, Algonkian, Iroquoian, Moundbuilder, and Mississippian Native American cultures

World History

 Standard 1.  Understands the biological and cultural processes that shaped the earliest human communities
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how different human communities expressed their beliefs (e.g., theories regarding the relationship between linguistic and cultural development; possible social, cultural, and/or religious meanings inferred from late paleolithic cave paintings found in Spain and France; theories about the ways in which hunter-gatherers may have communicated, maintained memory of past events, and expressed religious feelings)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows theories regarding the relationship between linguistic and cultural development
     2.Knows possible social, cultural, and/or religious meanings inferred from late paleolithic cave paintings found in Spain and France
     3.Knows theories about the ways in which hunter gatherers may have communicated
     4.Knows theories about the ways in which hunter gatherers may have maintained memory of past events
     5.Knows theories about the ways in which hunter gatherers may have expressed religious feelings
 Standard 5.  Understands the political, social, and cultural consequences of population movements and militarization in Eurasia in the second millennium BCE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands characteristics of Mycenaean society (e.g., the impact of Mycenaean expansion and city-building on commerce and political life in the Eastern Mediterranean; society, trade, and government in Mycenae; comparisons of Mycenaean and Minoan societies from archaeological remains)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands comparisons of Mycenaean and Minoan societies from archaeological remains
   Benchmark 7.Understands the decline of the Indus valley civilization in comparison to that of other peoples such as the Sumerians
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows features of the decline of the Indus Valley civilization that are similar to the decline of other groups of peoples
     4.Knows features of the decline of the Indus Valley civilization that are different from the decline of other groups of peoples
 Standard 7.  Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 6.Understands geographical and architectural features of Egypt and Kush (e.g., the locations of Egypt and Kush on the African continent and the geographic features that either assisted or hampered communication between these two kingdoms, what architectural evidence suggests about the relationship between Egypt and Kush)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows geographical features of Egypt and Kush
     2.Knows architectural features of Egypt and Kush
     3.Knows the locations of Egypt and Kush on the African continent
     4.Knows the geographic features that either assisted or hampered communication between the kingdoms of Egypt and Kush
     5.Knows what architectural evidence suggests about the relationship between Egypt and Kush
 Standard 8.  Understands how Aegean civilization emerged and how interrelations developed among peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean and Southwest Asia from 600 to 200 BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 7.Understands comparisons of the creation myths of Sumer, Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and nationalized China and the similarities and differences in world view they suggest
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows creation myths of Sumer, Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and nationalized China
     2.Understands comparisons of the creation myths of Sumer, Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and nationalized China
     3.Understands similarities and differences in world view suggested by the creation myths of Sumer, Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and nationalized China
 Standard 12.  Understands the Imperial crises and their aftermath in various regions from 300 to 700 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands possible reasons for the decline of the Roman and Han Empires (e.g., possible factors that motivated nomadic peoples to move into the Roman Empire and China, common patterns of decline and fall in the Roman and Han Empires, the chronological order of significant historical events for Rome from the late Empire through the reign of Justinian, how differences in architecture can illustrate unity and alienation between the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Knows common patterns of decline and fall in the Roman and Han Empires
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political events that may have contributed to the decline of the Roman and Han Empires (e.g., the consequences of nomadic military movements in China and the western part of the Roman Empire; the nomadic invasions of the Roman Empire as described in the accounts of Orosius, Ammianus Marcellinus, Priscus, and secondary sources; significant battles, internal divisions, political changes, and invasions between the 3rd and 7th centuries CE that led to the fall of the Roman and Han Empires; the relative strengths and weaknesses of the Roman, Byzantine, and Han Empires)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the consequences of nomadic military movements in China and the western part of the Roman Empire
     7.Understands the relative strengths and weaknesses of the Roman, Byzantine, and Han Empires
   Benchmark 2.Understands how the spread of Buddhism and Christianity influenced different regions (e.g., the spread of the two religions in the context of change and crisis in the Roman and Han empires; the importance of monasticism in the growth of Christianity and Buddhism and the participation of men and women in monastic life and missionary activity; the importance of universal salvation to the early history of these two religions; the locations of new centers of Buddhism and Christianity and the major routes used to spread the faith beyond these centers; the efforts and successes of Ashoka and Constantine to legitimize Buddhism and Christianity and spread them throughout India and Europe respectively)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the spread of Christianity and Buddhism in the context of change and crisis in the Roman and Han empires
     5.Understands the importance of universal salvation to the early history of Christianity and Buddhism
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political and social elements during the decline of the Roman and Han Empires and the rise of the Byzantine Empire (e.g., the strengths and weaknesses of the Eastern and Western Roman Empires and the factors that enabled the Byzantine Empire to continue as Rome fell; how Constantine selectively supported aspects of Western rule with Eastern institutions to create a new, independent, Byzantine state in the 4th century CE; the links between military, social, and economic causes for the decline in the Han and Roman Empires; the impact of barbarian movements on the regions of Europe, China, and India by the end of the 7th century CE; the life of Germanic peoples and society including the status and role of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands the links between military, social, and economic causes for the decline in the Han and Roman Empires
 Standard 13.  Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands political and economic systems of the Byzantine state (e.g., Byzantium's imperial political system compared to that of the Abbasid state; understands patterns of economic, political, and military power in the manufacturing and trading centers of Constantinople and Baghdad )
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands Byzantium’s imperial political system compared to that of the Abbasid state
 Standard 20.  Understands the redefinition of European society and culture from 1000 to 1300 CE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands comparisons of church-state relations and religious authority between Orthodox Christianity in the East and Latin Christianity in the West
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how church-state relations in Orthodox Christianity in the East compared to church-state relations in Latin Christianity in the West
     2.Understands how features of religious authority in Orthodox Christianity in the East compared to features of religious authority in Latin Christianity in the West
 Standard 21.  Understands the rise of the Mongol Empire and its consequences for Eurasian peoples from 1200 to 1350
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the interaction between the Mongols and cultures of Mongol domination (e.g., the Islamization of the Golden Horde and the Khanate of Persian-Iraq; why the Mongols did not conquer the Mamluks in Northern Africa; comparisons between Mongol and Muslim society and culture; the extent of Mongol control of Southwest Asia; relations between Chinese artists and the Mongol court during the Yuan Dynasty; the advantages of living under Mongol rule for the Chinese, Russians, and Southwest Asians)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands comparisons between Mongol and Muslim society and culture
 Standard 24.  Understands the expansion of states and civilizations in the Americas between 1000 and 1500
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands cultural and economic elements of North American and Mesoamerican civilizations (e.g., the major characteristics of Toltecs, Anasazi, Pueblo, and North American mound-building peoples; patterns of long-distance trade centered in Mesoamerica)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands cultural elements of North American and Mesoamerican civilizations
     2.Understands economic elements of North American and Mesoamerican civilizations
     3.Knows the major characteristics of Toltecs, Anasazi, Pueblo, and North American mound building peoples
     4.Knows patterns of long distance trade centered in Mesoamerica
   Benchmark 4.Understands the similarities and differences between Incan and Aztec society (e.g., the essential differences between Aztec and Incan government, economy, religion, and social organization; how Incan and Aztec art and architecture reveal cultural achievements in their societies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the similarities between Incan and Aztec society
     2.Understands the differences between Incan and Aztec society
     3.Understands the essential differences between Aztec and Incan government
     4.Understands the essential differences between Aztec and Incan economy
     5.Understands the essential differences between Aztec and Incan religion
     6.Understands the essential differences between Aztec and Incan social organization
     7.Understands how Incan and Aztec art and architecture reveal cultural achievements in their societies
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands political, social, and economic features of Aztec society (e.g., the locations and geographic limits of different phases of the Aztec Empire, the role and status of women in Aztec society and how this compares to the Incan and Mayan societies, the complex structure and features of the Aztec city of Tenochtitl n)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the role and status of women in Aztec society and how this compares to the Incan and Mayan societies
   Benchmark 3.Understands gender roles in Caribbean, Mesoamerican, and Andean societies and how these are reflected in images, myths, and individual qualities of their gods
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands gender roles in Caribbean, Mesoamerican, and Andean societies
     2.Understands how gender roles of the Caribbean, Mesoamerican, and Andean societies are reflected in images, myths, and individual qualities of their gods
   Benchmark 4.Knows the technology (e.g., engineering of roads, bridges, irrigation systems) and urbanism of the Incas (in Cuzco), the Aztecs (in Tenochtitl n), and of North American mound-builders
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the engineering of roads and bridges by the Incas (in Cuzco), the Aztecs (in Tenochtitlán), and of North American mound builders
     2.Understands the use of irrigation systems by the Incas (in Cuzco), the Aztecs (in Tenochtitlán), and of North American mound builders
     3.Understands aspects of urbanism of the Incas (in Cuzco), the Aztecs (in Tenochtitlán), and of North American mound builders
 Standard 25.  Understands major global trends from 1000 to 1500 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands economic, political, and cultural differences and similarities between Europe and Asia (e.g., causes and consequences of productive growth, commercialization, urbanization, and technological or scientific innovation in Europe and China; society, economy, and political organization of Europe and Japan, and causes of economic growth, urbanization, and cultural innovation in the two regions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands economic similarities between Europe and Asia
     2.Understands economic differences between Europe and Asia
     3.Understands political differences between Europe and Asia
     4.Understands political similarities between Europe and Asia
     5.Understands cultural differences between Europe and Asia
     6.Understands cultural similarities between Europe and Asia
     7.Understands causes and consequences of productive growth in Europe and China
     8.Understands causes and consequences of commercialization in Europe and China
     9.Understands causes and consequences of urbanization in Europe and China
     10.Understands causes and consequences of technological or scientific innovation in Europe and China
     11.Understands society of Europe and Japan from 1000 to 1500 CE
     12.Understands the economies of Europe and Japan from 1000 to 1500 CE
     13.Understands the political organization of Europe and Japan from 1000 to 1500 CE
     14.Understands causes of economic growth in Europe and Japan
     15.Understands the causes of urbanization in Europe and Japan
     16.Understands causes of cultural innovation in Europe and Japan
   Benchmark 5.Understands differences and similarities between the Inca and Aztec empires and empires of Afro-Eurasia (e.g., political institutions, warfare, social organizations, cultural achievements)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands differences and similarities between political institutions in the Inca and Aztec empires and empires of Afro Eurasia
     2.Understands differences and similarities between warfare in the Inca and Aztec empires and empires of Afro Eurasia
     3.Understands differences and similarities between social organizations in the Inca and Aztec empires and empires of Afro Eurasia
     4.Understands differences and similarities between cultural achievements in the Inca and Aztec empires and empires of Afro Eurasia
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands demographic changes in various regions from 1000 to 1500 CE (e.g., the growth, decline, and recovery of the overall population of Afro-Eurasia; ways in which large demographic swings affected economic, social, and cultural life in various regions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands ways in which large demographic swings affected economic life in various regions from 1000 to 1500 CE
     3.Understands ways in which large demographic swings affected social life in various regions from 1000 to 1500 CE
     4.Understands ways in which large demographic swings affected cultural life in various regions from 1000 to 1500 CE
 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Knows the dynamics of the encomienda system of colonial government and labor, and how this compares to European manorial systems
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands how the encomienda system compares to the European manorial systems
 Standard 28.  Understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Knows similarities and differences between major empires and leaders (e.g., comparisons between the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires; differences and similarities in government, military, and religious patterns of the six major Mughal emperors)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows similarities between major empires
     2.Knows differences between major empires
     3.Knows similarities between leaders of major empires
     4.Knows differences between leaders of major empires
     5.Understands comparisons between the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires
     6.Knows similarities in government, military, and religious patterns of the six major Mughal emperors
     7.Knows differences in government, military, and religious patterns of the six major Mughal emperors
 Standard 29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands factors that contributed to the development of various African societies (e.g., the importance of trade, slavery, and an expanding world economy to the development of such African states as Ashanti, Dahomey, Benin, Lunda, and Kongo; different forms of slave resistance and the founding of Maroon societies; how Ashanti concepts of monarchical power compare to those of Europeans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands how Ashanti concepts of monarchical power compare to those of Europeans
   Benchmark 5.Understands the differences in the demands and purposes of European colonies in different areas of the Western Hemisphere (e.g., how European colonies in Peru differed from those in the Great Lakes region, Barbados, or Massachusetts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how European colonies in Peru differed from those in the Great Lakes region, Barbados, or Massachusetts
 Standard 30.  Understands transformations in Asian societies in the era of European expansion
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the spread of different religions throughout the world (e.g., the varieties of Buddhism and Hindu practice and teaching that developed in Asia and their influence on social and cultural life; major world religions in the mid-18th century, their relative sizes, and their degrees of success at winning new converts; how the development of Buddhism in Japan compared to that in China)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands how the development of Buddhism in Japan compared to that in China
 Standard 38.  Understands reform, revolution, and social change in the world economy of the early 20th century
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the industrial power of Great Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States in the early 20th century (e.g., how the nations compare statistically, the importance and potential of industrialization)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands how Great Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States compare statistically in terms of industrial power in the 20th century
 Standard 42.  Understands major global trends from 1900 to the end of World War II
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the ideologies, policies, and governing methods of 20th century totalitarian regimes compared to those of contemporary democracies and absolutist states of earlier centuries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the ideologies, policies, and governing methods of 20th century totalitarian regimes compared to those of contemporary democracies
     5.Understands the ideologies, policies, and governing methods of 20th century totalitarian regimes compared to those of absolutist states of earlier centuries
 Standard 46.  Understands long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how ideals and institutions of freedom, equality, justice, and citizenship have changed over time and from one society to another
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how ideals and institutions of freedom, equality, justice, and citizenship have changed from one society to another