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Topic: Colonies and colonial systems  

United States History

 Standard 2.  Understands cultural and ecological interactions among previously unconnected people resulting from early European exploration and colonization
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how motives differed among English colonizers and between the English and the Spanish, French, and Dutch colonizers
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the motives of different groups of English colonizers
     2.Understands the motives of Spanish colonizers
     3.Understands the motives of French colonizers
     4.Understands the motives of Dutch colonizers
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the political and religious factors that influenced English, Spanish, French, and Dutch colonization of the Americas (e.g., the enclosure movement; the accession of Elizabeth I to the throne in England; how the Spanish "Black Legend" was used to motivate and justify English colonization of North America; to what extent the "Black Legend" was Protestant propaganda; to what extent it was a valid description of the Spanish conquest)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the enclosure movement in Europe influenced the colonization of the Americas
     2.Understands how the accession of Elizabeth I to the throne in England influenced colonization of the Americas
     3.Understands how the Spanish "Black Legend" was used to motivate and justify English colonization of North America
     4.Understands the extent to which the "Black Legend" was Protestant propaganda
     5.Understands the extent to which the "Black Legend" was a valid description of the Spanish conquest of the Americas
   Benchmark 2.Understands the economic characteristics of the early Spanish and Portuguese empires in the Americas (e.g., encomienda system and the evolution of labor systems, the origin and expansion of the African slave trade in the Americas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the encomienda system and the evolution of labor systems in the early Spanish and Portuguese empires in the Americas
     2.Understands the origins and expansion of the African trade slave in the early Spanish and Portuguese empires in the Americas
 Standard 3.  Understands why the Americas attracted Europeans, why they brought enslaved Africans to their colonies and how Europeans struggled for control of North America and the Caribbean
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands growth and change in the European colonies during the two centuries following their founding (e.g., the arrival of Africans in the European colonies in the 17th century, the rapid increase of slave importation in the 18th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the growth and change caused by the arrival of Africans in the European colonies during the 17th century
     2.Understands the growth and change caused by the rapid increase of the slave importation during the 18th century
   Benchmark 4.Understands the similarities and differences in backgrounds, motivations, and occupational skills between people in the English settlements and those in the French and Spanish settlements
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the similarities in backgrounds between people in the English settlements and those in the French and Spanish settlements
     2.Understands differences in backgrounds between people in the English settlements and those in the French and Spanish settlements
     3.Understands the similarities in motivations between people in the English settlements and those in the French and Spanish settlements
     4.Understands differences in motivations between people in the English settlements and those in the French and Spanish settlements
     5.Understands similarities in occupational skills between people in the English settlements and those in the French and Spanish settlements
     6.Understands differences in occupational skills between people in the English settlements and those in the French and Spanish settlements

Geography

 Standard 13.  Understands the forces of cooperation and conflict that shape the divisions of Earth's surface
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands how external forces can conflict economically and politically with internal interests in a region (e.g., how the Pampas in Argentina underwent a significant socioeconomic transformation in the 19th and early 20th centuries as a consequence of European demands for grain and beef; the consequences of the French colonization of IndoChina in the 19th century to procure tin, tungsten, and rubber; the friction between Hindus and Muslims in the Indian subcontinent in the 1940s which led to the formation of India and Pakistan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the consequences of the French colonization of IndoChina in the 19th century to procure tin, tungsten, and rubber
 Standard 16.  Understands the changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution and importance of resources
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the relationships between resources and exploration, colonization, and settlement of different regions of the world (e.g., the development of mercantilism and imperialism and the consequent settlement of Latin America and other regions of the world by the Spanish and Portuguese; the abundance of fur, fish, timber, and gold in Siberia, Alaska, and California and the settlement of these areas by the Russians)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the relationship between resources and colonization in different regions of the world
 Standard 17.  Understands how geography is used to interpret the past
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the ways in which physical and human features have influenced the evolution of significant historic events and movements (e.g., the effects of imperialism, colonization, and decolonization on the economic and political developments of the 19th and 20th centuries; the geographical forces responsible for the industrial revolution in England in the late 18th and early 19th centuries; physical and human factors that have led to famines and large-scale refugee movements)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands the effects colonization on the economic and political developments of the 19th and 20th centuries
     7.Understands the effects of decolonization on the economic and political developments of the 19th and 20th centuries

World History

 Standard 29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the differences in the demands and purposes of European colonies in different areas of the Western Hemisphere (e.g., how European colonies in Peru differed from those in the Great Lakes region, Barbados, or Massachusetts)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how European colonies in Peru differed from those in the Great Lakes region, Barbados, or Massachusetts
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands economic and political features of various European colonies between the 16th and 18th centuries (e.g., the administrative system of the Spanish viceroyalties of Peru and Mexico, and the importance of Indian agriculture and silver production to Spanish colonial economy; the fundamental ideas of mercantilism and differences in how it was practiced by the Netherlands, France, and England; diversity in colonial governments, economies, the military, and social organization in European colonies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands economic features of various European colonies between the 16th and 18th centuries
     2.Understands political features of various European colonies between the 16th and 18th centuries
     3.Understands the administrative system of the Spanish viceroyalties of Peru and Mexico
     4.Understands the importance of Indian agriculture and silver production to Spanish colonial economy
     5.Knows the fundamental ideas of mercantilism and differences in how it was practiced by the Netherlands, France, and England
     6.Understands diversity in colonial governments in European colonies
     7.Understands diversity in colonial economies in European colonies
     8.Understands diversity in the colonial military in European colonies
     9.Understands diversity in colonial social organization in European colonies
   Benchmark 4.Understands characteristics of the development of European colonies in the Americas (e.g., the appeal of the Americas for European colonists in the 16th and 17th centuries, why Europeans were able to establish large colonies on these continents, and why they did not assert this type of control in Africa and Asia)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the appeal of the Americas for European colonists in the 16th and 17th centuries
     2.Understands why Europeans were able to establish large colonies on the American continents
     3.Understands why Europeans did not assert control in Africa and Asia as they did in the Americas
 Standard 30.  Understands transformations in Asian societies in the era of European expansion
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the economic and cultural consequences of European involvement in other countries (e.g., the significance of Christian missionary activity in India, Vietnam, and the Philippines, and how people of other religions - Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam - responded to these efforts; Joseph Francois Dupleix's theory of "divide and rule" in South India for the French, and how this policy affected relations between the British East India Company and Indian peasants; how the French, Dutch, and British attempted to remedy unfavorable trade balances in Asia between 1500 and 1800)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the economic consequences of European involvement in other countries
     2.Understands the cultural consequences of European involvement in other countries
     5.Knows Joseph Francois Dupleix’s theory of "divide and rule" in South India for the French
     6.Understands how Joseph Francois Dupleix’s theory of "divide and rule" in South India for the French affected relations between the British East India Company and Indian peasants
 Standard 31.  Understands major global trends from 1450 to 1770
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the major changes in world political boundaries that took place between 1450 and 1770, and how far European nations had extended political and military influence in Africa, Asia, and the Americas as of the mid-18th century
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the major changes in world political boundaries that took place between 1450 and 1770
     2.Knows how far European nations had extended political and military influence in Africa as of the mid 18th-century
     3.Knows how far European nations had extended political and military influence in Asia as of the mid 18th-century
     4.Knows how far European nations had extended political and military influence in the Americas as of the mid-18th century
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 9.Understands Dutch involvement in various regions (e.g., changes in Dutch influence and control in South Asia between 1815 and 1850, how the Dutch ruled their colonies in the East Indies and what types of goods were traded by the Dutch in this region)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows changes in Dutch influence and control in South Asia between 1815 and 1850
     2.Understands how the Dutch ruled their colonies in the East Indies
     3.Knows what types of goods were traded by the Dutch in this region
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how Western culture influenced Asian societies (e.g., British policies in India compared to Dutch colonial practices in the East Indies; the lives of indigenous elites under these regimes; aspects of indigenous cultures that were embraced by Europeans; the major accomplishments of Ram Mohan Roy and his central ideas regarding Western influence in India)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the lives of indigenous elites under the British and Dutch regimes in Asia
   Benchmark 9.Understands how the British presence and British policies shaped Indian society (e.g., the attitude of Muslim and upper-class Hindus toward the British presence in India; Britain's "modernizing" policies in India under the administration of Lord Dalhousie, and the social and political impact of the railroad on India; the central issues surrounding the supposition that the British "unified" India)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the British presence shaped Indian society
     2.Understands how British policies shaped Indian society
     3.Understands the attitude of Muslim and upper class Hindus toward the British presence in India
     4.Understands Britain’s "modernizing" policies in India under the administration of Lord Dalhousie
     5.Understands the social and political impact of the railroad on India
     6.Understands the central issues surrounding the supposition that the British "unified" India
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands factors that contributed to European imperialist expansion between 1850 and 1914 (e.g., advances in transportation, medicine, and weaponry that helped European imperial expansion in the late 19th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows advances in transportation that helped European imperial expansion in the late 19th century
     2.Knows advances in medicine that helped European imperial expansion in the late 19th century
     3.Knows advances in weaponry that helped European imperial expansion in the late 19th century
   Benchmark 6.Understands major changes in the political geography of Africa between 1880 and 1914
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows what interests the Europeans had for taking control of the African continent
     2.Knows how Germany, France, and England changed the political geography of Africa
   Benchmark 8.Knows the causes, course, and consequences of the Boxer Rebellion
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the causes of the Boxer Rebellion
     2.Knows the course of the Boxer Rebellion
     3.Knows the consequences of the Boxer Rebellion
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands European motives and ideology that justified extending imperial power into African and Asian countries (e.g., the motives that impelled several European powers to undertake imperial expansion against peoples of Africa, Southeast Asia, and China; achievements of Cecil Rhodes and his motives and goals in the "scramble for Africa")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands European motives that justified extending imperial power into African and Asian countries
     2.Understands European ideology that justified extending imperial power into African and Asian countries
     3.Knows the motives that impelled several European powers to undertake imperial expansion against peoples of Africa, Southeast Asia, and China
     4.Knows the achievements of Cecil Rhodes
     5.Knows Cecil Rhode’s motives and goals in the "scramble for Africa"
   Benchmark 4.Knows the causes and course of the Spanish-American War, and how this related to U.S. participation in Western imperial expansion
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the causes of the Spanish American War
     2.Knows the course of the Spanish American War
     3.Understands how the Spanish-American War related to U.S. participation in Western imperial expansion
   Benchmark 5.Understands the extent of British rule in India, and British reaction to Indian nationalism (e.g., the economic and political impact of British rule on India in the 19th century; the social, economic, and intellectual sources of Indian nationalism; the British reaction to Indian nationalism; the causes of the Uprising of 1857)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the extent of British rule in India
     3.Understands the political impact of British rule on India in the 19th century
     4.Understands the economic impact of British rule on India in the 19th century
     6.Knows the causes of the Uprising of 1857
   Benchmark 9.Understands the geographic location of European interests in South, Southeast, and East Asia in the late 19th century
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the geographic location of European interests in South Asia in the late 19th century
     2.Understands the geographic location of European interests in Southeast in the late 19th century
     3.Understands the geographic location of European interests in East Asia in the late 19th century
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the influence of European imperial expansion on political and social facets of African and Indian society (e.g., ideas of Social Darwinism and scientific racism in 19th-century Europe and how these encouraged European imperial expansion in Africa and Asia; the major chain of events in Europe and Africa that led to the "scramble" for African territory, and the role of particular African governments or peoples in the partition of Africa by the Europeans; the impact of European expansion on legal, familial, and gender relations in Indian and African village life)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of European imperial expansion on political facets of African society
     2.Understands the influence of European imperial expansion on social facets of African society
     3.Understands the influence of European imperial expansion on political facets of Indian society
     4.Understands the influence of European imperial expansion on social facets of Indian society
     5.Understands ideas of Social Darwinism and scientific racism in 19th century Europe and how these encouraged European imperial expansion in Africa and Asia
     6.Knows the major chain of events in Europe and Africa that led to the "scramble" for African territory
     7.Understands the role of particular African governments or peoples in the partition of Africa by the Europeans
     8.Understands the impact of European expansion on legal, familial, and gender relations in Indian village life
     9.Understands the impact of European expansion on legal, familial, and gender relations in African village life
   Benchmark 4.Understands the effects of the Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War, and the colonization of Korea on Japan's status as a world power, and how Japan justified its imperial expansion
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effects of the Sino Japanese War on Japan’s status as a world power
     2.Understands the effects of the Russo Japanese War on Japan’s status as a world power
     3.Understands the effects of the colonization of Korea on Japan’s status as a world power
     4.Understands how Japan justified its imperial expansion
   Benchmark 5.Knows where the British and French expanded into mainland Southeast Asia, how their colonial policies differed, and how Thailand avoided colonization
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows where the British and French expanded into mainland Southeast Asia
     2.Understands how British and French colonial policies in Southeast Asia differed
     3.Knows how Thailand avoided colonization by the British and French
   Benchmark 6.Understands economic, social, and religious influences on African society (e.g., the impact of religious and political revolutions in Sudan on state-building, Islamization, and European imperial conquest; how and why slavery and the slave trade flourished in both West and East Africa even after the end of the trans-Atlantic slave trade; the relative strengths of Islam and Christianity in Africa at the beginning of the 20th century, types of rivalries among Christian denominations, and the links between both of these and the interests of the government)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands economic influences on African society in the 19th century
     2.Understands social influences on African society in the 19th century
     3.Understands religious influences on African society in the 19th century
     4.Understands the impact of religious and political revolutions in Sudan on state building, Islamization, and European imperial conquest
     5.Understands how and why slavery and the slave trade flourished in both West and East Africa even after the end of the trans Atlantic slave trade
   Benchmark 7.Understands African resistance movements against the British during the period of European imperial expansion (e.g., the successes and failures of prominent African resistance movements in West Africa, Sudan, Ethiopia, and South Africa; the nature of the Sudanese resistance to the British, as well as the general success of Mahdi Muhammad Ahmed and the Mahdi uprising against British imperialism)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the successes and failures of prominent African resistance movements in West Africa
     2.Knows the successes and failures of prominent African resistance movements in Sudan
     3.Knows the successes and failures of prominent African resistance movements in Ethiopia
     4.Knows the successes and failures of prominent African resistance movements in South Africa
     5.Understands the nature of the Sudanese resistance to the British, as well as the general success of Mahdi Muhammad Ahmed and the Mahdi uprising against British imperialism
   Benchmark 9.Understands the advantages and disadvantages of imperialism (e.g., the chief benefits and costs of the introduction of new political institutions, and advances in communication, technology, and medicine to countries under European imperialist rule; how medical advances, steam power, and military technology were used in European imperialism)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the advantages of 19th century imperialism
     2.Understands the disadvantages of 19th century imperialism
     3.Understands the chief benefits and costs of the introduction of new political institutions to countries under European imperialist rule
     4.Understands the chief benefits and costs of the advances in communication, technology, and medicine to countries under European imperialist rule
     5.Understands how medical advances, steam power, and military technology were used in European imperialism
   Benchmark 11.Understands the European intellectual justifications for imperialism (e.g., the French notion of mission civilisatrice, the German concept of Kultur, and British imperialism as reflected in Rudyard Kipling's White Man's Burden)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the French notion of mission civilisatrice was used to justify imperialism
     2.Understands how the German concept of Kultur was used to justify imperialism
     3.Understands British imperialism and its intellectual justification as reflected in Rudyard Kipling’s White Man’s Burden
   Benchmark 12.Knows the causes and impact of the Indian Uprising of 1857 (e.g., British imposed religious policies, the participants in the uprising, the varied reactions to the revolt on the part of Sikhs, Hindus, Muslims, and Indian royalty who had made alliances with the East India Company)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the causes of the Indian Uprising of 1857
     2.Knows the impact of the Indian Uprising of 1857
     3.Understands how British imposed religious policies led to the Indian Uprising of 1857
     4.Knows the participants in the Indian Uprising of 1857
     5.Knows the varied reactions to the Indian Uprising of 1857 on the part of Sikhs, Hindus, Muslims, and Indian royalty who had made alliances with the East India Company
   Benchmark 13.Understands significant political events in 20th-century China (e.g., reasons for initial Chinese imperial support for the Boxer Rebellion, the major achievements of Sun Yatsen, the role overseas Chinese played in the 1911 revolution)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows reasons for initial Chinese imperial support for the Boxer Rebellion
     2.Knows the major achievements of Sun Yatsen
     3.Knows the role overseas Chinese played in the 1911 revolution
 Standard 38.  Understands reform, revolution, and social change in the world economy of the early 20th century
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands why European colonial territories and Latin American countries continued to maintain largely agricultural and mining economies in the early 20th century (e.g., restrictive policies of the European countries regarding industrialization in the colonies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands why European colonial territories continued to maintain largely agricultural and mining economies in the early 20th century
     3.Knows restrictive policies of the European countries regarding industrialization in the colonies
 Standard 40.  Understands the search for peace and stability throughout the world in the 1920s and 1930s
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the goals and policies of European colonial rule in India, Africa, and Southeast Asia, and how these policies affected indigenous societies and economies (e.g., the response to the Moroccan resistance movement against the Spanish led by Abd al Quadir)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the goals of European colonial rule in India
     2.Understands the goals of European colonial rule in Africa
     3.Understands the goals of European colonial rule in Southeast Asia
     4.Understands the policies of European colonial rule in India
     5.Understands the policies of European colonial rule in Africa
     6.Understands the policies of European colonial rule in Southeast Asia
     7.Understands how European policies of colonial rule affected indigenous societies
     8.Understands how European policies of colonial rule affected indigenous economies
     9.Understands the response to the Moroccan resistance movement against the Spanish led by Abd al Quadir
 Standard 43.  Understands how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands political and social change in the developing countries of the Middle East, Africa, and Asia after World War II (e.g., how Israel was created, and why persistent conflict developed between Israel and both Arab Palestinians and neighboring states; the African experience under European colonial rule; major social and economic forces that compelled many Vietnamese to seek refuge in foreign countries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands political and social change in the developing countries of the Middle East after World War II
     3.Understands political and social change in the developing countries of Asia after World War II
     4.Understands how Israel was created, and why persistent conflict developed between Israel and both Arab Palestinians and neighboring states
     5.Understands the African experience under European colonial rule
     6.Knows major social and economic forces that compelled many Vietnamese to seek refuge in foreign countries
   Benchmark 4.Understands the position of women in developing countries (e.g., as compared to their position in industrialized countries, how change has occurred in different societies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the position of women in developing countries as compared to their position in industrialized countries
     2.Understands how change has occurred in the position of women in different societies
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands nationalist movements and other attempts by colonial countries to achieve independence after World War II (e.g., the impact of Indian nationalism on other movements in Africa and Asia, and reasons for the division of the subcontinent; how World War II and postwar global politics affected the mass nationalist movements in colonial Africa and Southeast Asia; factors that enabled some African and Asian countries to achieve independence through constitutional devolution of power, while others used armed revolution; the methods used by Indians to achieve independence from British rule and the effects of Mohandas Gandhi's call for nonviolent action)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of Indian nationalism on other movements in Africa and Asia, and reasons for the division of the subcontinent
     2.Understands how World War II and postwar global politics affected the mass nationalist movements in colonial Africa
     3.Understands how World War II and postwar global politics affected the mass nationalist movements in colonial Southeast Asia
     4.Knows factors that enabled some African and Asian countries to achieve independence through constitutional devolution of power, while others used armed revolution
     5.Knows the methods used by Indians to achieve independence from British rule
     6.Knows the effects of Mohandas Gandhi’s call for nonviolent action
   Benchmark 5.Understands political conditions in Africa after World War II (e.g., the moral, social, political, and economic implications of apartheid; the diverse leadership and governing styles of African regimes through the second half of the 20th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the moral, social, political, and economic implications of apartheid
     2.Knows the diverse leadership and governing styles of African regimes through the second half of the 20th century
   Benchmark 6.Understands important events in the struggle between Israelis and Palestinians since 1948 and the argument on each side for rights to the disputed land
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands important events in the struggle between Israelis and Palestinians since 1948
     2.Understands the argument on the side of the Israelis and the Palestinians for rights to the disputed land
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands reasons for the division of the Indian subcontinent (e.g., events that led to the dispute over Kashmir and the resulting partition of the Indian subcontinent, and the role of the United Nations in the mediation of the dispute; how the withdrawal of the British and the division between Muslims and Hindus affected the division of the Indian subcontinent into two nations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows events that led to the dispute over Kashmir and the resulting partition of the Indian subcontinent
     2.Knows the role of the United Nations in the mediation of the dispute over Kashmir
   Benchmark 4.Understands the impact of independence movements in various countries and whether they were successful (e.g., the connections between the rise of independence movements in Africa and Southeast Asia and social transformations such as accelerated population growth, urbanization, and new Western-educated elites; the chronology of the Algerian struggle for independence, the role of domestic and international public opinion in the actions of the government, and how the French presence influenced the outcome; how diverse independence movements in Asia and Africa succeeded)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of independence movements in various countries
     2.Understands whether independence movements in various countries were successful
     3.Understands the connections between the rise of independence movements in Africa and Southeast Asia and social transformations such as accelerated population growth, urbanization, and new Western educated elites
     4.Knows the chronology of the Algerian struggle for independence, the role of domestic and international public opinion in the actions of the government, and how the French presence influenced the outcome
     5.Understands how diverse independence movements in Asia succeeded
     6.Understands how diverse independence movements in Africa succeeded
   Benchmark 5.Understands reasons for the shift in government in Africa and how Africans responded (e.g., reasons for the replacement of parliamentary-style governments with military regimes and one-party states in much of Africa, how Africans survived and resisted apartheid)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands reasons for the shift in government in Africa
     2.Understands how Africans responded to the shift of government
     3.Knows reasons for the replacement of parliamentary style governments with military regimes and one party states in much of Africa
     4.Understands how Africans survived and resisted apartheid
   Benchmark 9.Understands how the Balfour Declaration affected British policy toward Palestine and the political goals of the Arab League and the Zionist Movement, and how the White Paper Reports affected Jewish and Arab inhabitants of Palestine
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the Balfour Declaration affected British policy toward Palestine
     2.Understands how the Balfour Declaration affected the political goals of the Arab League and the Zionist Movement
     3.Understands how the White Paper Reports affected Jewish inhabitants of Palestine
     4.Understands how the White Paper Reports affected Arab inhabitants of Palestine