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Topic: Colonial economic life and labor systems 

United States History

 Standard 5.  Understands how the values and institutions of European economic life took root in the colonies and how slavery reshaped European and African life in the Americas
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the factors that shaped the economic system in the colonies and the Americas (e.g., labor systems, natural resources, relations with other countries and the home country)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how labor systems shaped the economic system in the colonies and the Americas
     2.Understands how natural resources shaped the economic system in the colonies and the Americas
     3.Understands how relations with other countries shaped the economic system in the colonies and the Americas
     4.Understands how relations with the home country shaped the economic system in the colonies and the Americas
   Benchmark 2.Understands economic life in the New England, Chesapeake, and southern colonies (e.g., environmental and human factors; the work people did; the crops that plantation, yeoman, and family farmers grew; the New England merchant’s trading triangle)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands economic life in the New England colonies
     2.Understands economic life in the Chesapeake colonies
     3.Understands economic life in the southern colonies
     4.Understands environmental factors contributing to economic life in the colonies
     5.Understands human factors contributing to economic life in the colonies
     6.Understands the work people did in the colonies
     7.Knows about the crops that plantation farmers grew (colonial America)
     8.Knows about the crops that yeoman farmers grew (colonial America)
     9.Knows about the crops that family farmers grew (colonial America)
     10.Knows about the New England merchant’s trading triangle
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands mercantilism and how it influenced patterns of economic activity (e.g., the advantages and disadvantages of mercantilism for the mother country and its colonies; the value of the regions that produced sugar, rice, tobacco, timber, coffee, grains, fish and minerals to the mother country)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the advantages of mercantilism for the mother country
     2.Understands the disadvantages of mercantilism for the mother country
     3.Understands the advantages of mercantilism for the colonies
     4.Understands the disadvantages of mercantilism for the colonies
     5.Understands the value of the regions that produced sugar to the mother country
     6.Understands the value of the regions that produced rice to the mother country
     7.Understands the value of the regions that produced tobacco to the mother country
     8.Understands the value of the regions that produced timber to the mother country
     9.Understands the value of the regions that produced coffee to the mother country
     10.Understands the value of the regions that produced grains to the mother country
     11.Understands the value of the regions that produced fish to the mother country
     12.Understands the value of the regions that produced minerals to the mother country
   Benchmark 2.Understands the environmental and legislative impacts on economic growth in different regions of the English colonies (e.g., the connection between the Navigation Acts and mercantilism; the influence of climate, land fertility, water resources, access to markets)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the environmental impacts on economic growth in different regions of the English colonies
     2.Understands the legislative impacts on economic growth in different regions of the English colonies
     3.Understands the connection between the Navigation Acts and mercantilism
     4.Understands the influence of climate on economic growth in different regions of the English colonies
     5.Understands the influence of land fertility on economic growth in different regions of the English colonies
     6.Understands the influence of water resources on economic growth in different regions of the English colonies
     7.Understands the influence of access to markets on economic growth in different regions of the English colonies
   Benchmark 3.Understands patterns of indentured servitude and influences on slavery (e.g. why indentured servitude was prevalent in the mid-Atlantic, Chesapeake, and southern colonies; the Virginia and Massachusetts’ laws that institutionalized slavery)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands patterns of indentured servitude
     2.Understands influences on slavery
     3.Understands why indentured servitude was prevalent in the mid-Atlantic colonies
     4.Understands why indentured servitude was prevalent in the Chesapeake colonies
     5.Understands why indentured servitude was prevalent in the southern colonies
     6.Knows about the Virginia laws that institutionalized slavery
     7.Knows about the Massachusetts’ laws that institutionalized slavery
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the characteristics of mercantilism in colonial America (e.g., the Atlantic economy and triangular trade, overseas trade and the Navigation Acts, economic development in French, English, and Spanish colonies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the Atlantic economy
     2.Understands triangular trade
     3.Understands overseas trade (colonial period)
     4.Knows about the Navigation Acts
     5.Understands economic development in French colonies
     6.Understands economic development in English colonies
     7.Understands economic development in Spanish colonies
   Benchmark 2.Understands factors that influenced economic life in the North American and West Indian colonies (e.g., the development of a consumer society and the imitation of English culture)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands factors that influenced economic life in the North American colonies
     2.Understands factors that influenced economic life in the West Indian colonies
     3.Understands the development of a consumer society (colonial period)
     4.Knows about the imitation of English culture (colonial period)
   Benchmark 3.Understands elements of slavery in the colonies in the 17th century (e.g., the emergence of chattel slavery in Virginia and Maryland, why free labor and chattel slavery did not provide an alternative for labor in the Chesapeake colonies before 1675)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about the emergence of chattel slavery in Virginia
     2.Knows about the emergence of chattel slavery in Maryland
     3.Understands why free labor did not provide an alternative for labor in the Chesapeake colonies before 1675

World History

 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Knows the dynamics of the encomienda system of colonial government and labor, and how this compares to European manorial systems
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows the dynamics of the encomienda system of labor
     3.Understands how the encomienda system compares to the European manorial systems
 Standard 29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands features of the labor system and economy in the Americas (e.g., why sugar, tobacco, coffee, tea, and other crops grown in the colonies became so important in the world economy; different jobs performed by indigenous peoples in the Americas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features of the labor system in the Americas
     2.Understands features of the economy in the Americas
     3.Understands why sugar, tobacco, coffee, tea, and other crops grown in the colonies became so important in the world economy
     4.Knows different jobs performed by indigenous peoples in the Americas
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands features of and participants in the slave trade (e.g., ways in which entrepreneurs and colonial governments exploited American Indian labor, and the use of African slave labor for commercial agriculture; the treatment of slaves in the Western Hemisphere as opposed to those in the Islamic lands, Christian Europe, and West Africa; the organization of long-distance trade in West and Central Africa and circumstances under which African governments, elites, and merchants participated in the sale of slaves to Europeans; treatment of slaves and forms of resistance used in the "middle passage")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows ways in which entrepreneurs and colonial governments exploited American Indian labor
     3.Understands ways in which entrepreneurs and colonial governments used African slave labor for commercial agriculture
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the development of different colonial labor systems and their impact on indigenous populations (e.g., the evolution of labor systems from the encomienda to the hacienda in North and South America from the 16th to the 17th centuries, the impact of the encomienda system on indigenous peoples and how it compares to slavery)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the development of different colonial labor systems
     2.Understands the impact of colonial labor systems on indigenous populations
     3.Understands the evolution of labor systems from the encomienda to the hacienda in North and South America from the 16th to the 17th centuries
     4.Understands the impact of the encomienda system on indigenous peoples and how it compares to slavery
   Benchmark 9.Understands how the African slave trade influenced the lives of slaves in the Western Hemisphere (e.g., the institutions, beliefs, and practices of slaves working on plantations in the Western Hemisphere; the history of open slave rebellion and resistance in the Western Hemisphere; how the English and Spanish subdued slave rebellion in their colonies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the institutions, beliefs, and practices of slaves working on plantations in the Western Hemisphere