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Topic: Causes and consequences of slavery 

World History

 Standard 11.  Understands major global trends from 1000 BCE to 300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the different forms of slavery or coerced labor in various empires (e.g., the Han empire, the Maurya empire, the Greek city-states, the Roman empire)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the forms of slavery or coerced labor used in the Han empire
     2.Knows the forms of slavery or coerced labor used in the Maurya empire
     3.Knows the forms of slavery or coerced labor used in the Greek city-states
     4.Knows the forms of slavery or coerced labor used in the Roman empire
 Standard 29.  Understands the economic, political, and cultural interrelations among peoples of Africa, Europe, and the Americas between 1500 and 1750
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands elements of the trans-Atlantic African slave trade (e.g., how slaves were transported to the Americas via the "middle passage"; how European firms and governments organized and financed the slave trade; conditions of slave life on plantations in the Caribbean, Brazil, and British North America; how slaves resisted servitude and preserved their African heritage)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how slaves were transported to the Americas via the "middle passage"
     2.Understands how European firms and governments organized and financed the slave trade
     3.Knows conditions of slave life on plantations in the Caribbean
     4.Knows conditions of slave life on plantations in Brazil
     5.Knows conditions of slave life on plantations in British North America
     6.Knows how slaves resisted servitude
     7.Knows how slaves preserved their African heritage
   Benchmark 4.Understands elements of the slave trade in Africa (e.g., how the Atlantic slave trade affected population, economic systems, family life, polygynous marriage, and the use of male and female slave labor in West and Central Africa; what narratives reveal about the experience of Africans sold into slavery)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the Atlantic slave trade affected population levels in West and Central Africa
     2.Understands how the Atlantic slave trade affected economic systems in West and Central Africa
     3.Understands how the Atlantic slave trade affected polygynous marriage in West and Central Africa
     4.Understands how the Atlantic slave trade affected the use of male and female slave labor in West and Central Africa
     5.Knows what narratives reveal about the experience of Africans sold into slavery
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands features of and participants in the slave trade (e.g., ways in which entrepreneurs and colonial governments exploited American Indian labor, and the use of African slave labor for commercial agriculture; the treatment of slaves in the Western Hemisphere as opposed to those in the Islamic lands, Christian Europe, and West Africa; the organization of long-distance trade in West and Central Africa and circumstances under which African governments, elites, and merchants participated in the sale of slaves to Europeans; treatment of slaves and forms of resistance used in the "middle passage")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows participants in the slave trade
     2.Knows ways in which entrepreneurs and colonial governments exploited American Indian labor
     3.Understands ways in which entrepreneurs and colonial governments used African slave labor for commercial agriculture
     4.Understands the treatment of slaves in the Western Hemisphere as opposed to those in the Islamic lands, Christian Europe, and West Africa
     5.Understands the organization of long distance trade in West and Central Africa
     6.Knows circumstances under which African governments, elites, and merchants participated in the sale of slaves to Europeans
     7.Understands the treatment of slaves in the "middle passage"
     8.Knows forms of resistance used by slaves in the "middle passage"
   Benchmark 3.Understands factors that contributed to the development of various African societies (e.g., the importance of trade, slavery, and an expanding world economy to the development of such African states as Ashanti, Dahomey, Benin, Lunda, and Kongo; different forms of slave resistance and the founding of Maroon societies; how Ashanti concepts of monarchical power compare to those of Europeans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of trade, slavery, and an expanding world economy to the development of such African states as Ashanti, Dahomey, Benin, Lunda, and Kongo
     2.Understands different forms of slave resistance and the founding of Maroon societies
     3.Understands how Ashanti concepts of monarchical power compare to those of Europeans
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Understands how slavery was defined by different groups of people (e.g., key differences between the understanding of "slavery" by Africans and by European settlers in the Americas; how slavery was practiced in ancient, medieval, and early modern societies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows key differences between the understanding of "slavery" by Africans and by European settlers in the Americas
     2.Understands how slavery was practiced in ancient societies
     3.Understands how slavery was practiced in medieval societies
     4.Understands how slavery was practiced in early modern societies
 Standard 33.  Understands the causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions from 1700 to 1850
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands aspects of the abolition movement in the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., the organization and arguments of movements in Europe and the Americas that sought to end slavery, and how the trans-Atlantic slave trade was suppressed; why and how the slave trade continued after it had been outlawed; major accomplishments of the American abolitionist Frederick Douglass)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the organization of movements in Europe and the Americas that sought to end slavery
     2.Understands the arguments of movements in Europe and the Americas that sought to end slavery
     3.Understands how the trans Atlantic slave trade was suppressed
     4.Understands why and how the slave trade continued after it had been outlawed
     5.Knows major accomplishments of the American abolitionist Frederick Douglass
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the status of slavery and slaves throughout the 19th century (e.g., how contract labor migration and other forms of coerced labor compare with slavery as methods of organizing commercial agriculture in the Americas in the later 19th century; the degree to which emancipated slaves and their descendants achieved social equality and economic advancement in various countries of the Western Hemisphere; locations of legal slavery around the world in 1800, 1830, and 1880, and how changes in the legal status could be linked to revolution ideology and economics)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how contract labor migration and other forms of coerced labor compare with slavery as methods of organizing commercial agriculture in the Americas in the later 19th century
     2.Understands the degree to which emancipated slaves and their descendants achieved social equality and economic advancement in various countries of the Western Hemisphere
     3.Knows locations of legal slavery around the world in 1800, 1830, and 1880
     4.Understands how changes in the legal status of slaves could be linked to revolution ideology and economics
   Benchmark 7.Understands the discourse surrounding the abolition of slavery (e.g., the debate over abolition of slavery in the context of the French Revolution, the different strategies to resist slavery employed by peoples in the Americas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the debate over abolition of slavery in the context of the French Revolution
     2.Knows the different strategies to resist slavery employed by peoples in the Americas
   Benchmark 8.Understands significant individuals in the abolition movement (e.g., prominent women from the abolitionist movement in America and their major accomplishments, including Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, the Grimk√© sisters, Lucretia Mott; the story of Olaudah Equiana [Gustavus Vasa], his experience during the "middle passage," and his efforts to bring an end to the slave trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows prominent women from the abolitionist movement in America and their major accomplishments, including Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, the Grimk√© sisters, Lucretia Mott
     2.Knows the story of Olaudah Equiana (Gustavus Vasa), his experience during the "middle passage," and his efforts to bring an end to the slave trade
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands reasons why various countries abolished slavery (e.g., the importance of Enlightenment thought, Christian piety, democratic revolutions, slave resistance, and changes in the world economy in bringing about the abolition of the slave trade and emancipation of the slaves in the Americas; evangelical arguments against slavery, and the economic, evangelical, and "Enlightened" reasons for Britain's abolition of slavery; why Brazil was the last nation to abolish slavery and the slave trade; the consequences of the Haitian Revolution for the slave trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of Enlightenment thought in bringing about the abolition of the slave trade and emancipation of the slaves in the Americas
     2.Understands the importance of Christian piety in bringing about the abolition of the slave trade and emancipation of the slaves in the Americas
     3.Understands the importance of democratic revolutions in bringing about the abolition of the slave trade and emancipation of the slaves in the Americas
     4.Understands the importance of slave resistance in bringing about the abolition of the slave trade and emancipation of the slaves in the Americas
     5.Understands the importance of changes in the world economy in bringing about the abolition of the slave trade and emancipation of the slaves in the Americas
     6.Knows evangelical arguments against slavery,
     7.Understands the economic, evangelical, and "Enlightened" reasons for Britain’s abolition of slavery
     8.Knows why Brazil was the last nation to abolish slavery and the slave trade
     9.Understands the consequences of the Haitian Revolution for the slave trade
   Benchmark 8.Understands different perspectives regarding the nature of the African slave trade (e.g., how the African slave trade might be compared to the migration of Chinese workers to North and South America, and Indian workers to the Caribbean in the 19th century; the significance of the book The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vasa, Written by Himself about the slave trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the African slave trade might be compared to the migration of Chinese workers to North and South America
     2.Understands how the African slave trade might be compared to the migration of Indian workers to the Caribbean in the 19th century
     3.Knows the significance of the book The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vasa, Written by Himself about the slave trade
   Benchmark 9.Knows the extent of slave imports to Brazil, Spanish America, the British West Indies, the French West Indies, British North America, and the U.S. and how the influx of slaves differed in the periods 1701 to 1810 and 1811 to 1871
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the extent of slave imports to Brazil
     2.Knows the extent of slave imports to Spanish America
     3.Knows the extent of slave imports to the British West Indies
     4.Knows the extent of slave imports to the French West Indies
     5.Knows the extent of slave imports to British North America
     6.Knows the extent of slave imports to the United States
     7.Knows how the influx of slaves to various countries differed in the periods 1701 to 1810 and 1811 to 1871
 Standard 46.  Understands long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the economic and social importance of slavery and other forms of coerced labor in various societies
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the economic importance of slavery and other forms of coerced labor in various societies

United States History

 Standard 5.  Understands how the values and institutions of European economic life took root in the colonies and how slavery reshaped European and African life in the Americas
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands elements of African slavery during the colonial period in North America (e.g., relocation of enslaved Africans to the Caribbean and North America, the slave trade and "the middle passage")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about the relocation of enslaved Africans to the Caribbean
     2.Knows about the relocation of enslaved Africans to North America
     3.Knows about the slave trade (colonial period)
     4.Knows about "the middle passage"
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands patterns of indentured servitude and influences on slavery (e.g. why indentured servitude was prevalent in the mid-Atlantic, Chesapeake, and southern colonies; the Virginia and Massachusetts’ laws that institutionalized slavery)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands patterns of indentured servitude
     2.Understands influences on slavery
     3.Understands why indentured servitude was prevalent in the mid-Atlantic colonies
     4.Understands why indentured servitude was prevalent in the Chesapeake colonies
     5.Understands why indentured servitude was prevalent in the southern colonies
     6.Knows about the Virginia laws that institutionalized slavery
     7.Knows about the Massachusetts’ laws that institutionalized slavery
   Benchmark 4.Understands the social, cultural, and political events that shaped African slavery in colonial America (e.g., how slavery in African societies differed from chattel racial slavery in English colonies, influence of African heritage on efforts to develop a new African American culture, incidents of resistance to slavery, the introduction of crops by African slaves)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands social events that shaped African slavery in colonial America
     2.Understands cultural events that shaped African slavery in colonial America
     3.Understands political events that shaped the African slavery in colonial America
     4.Understands how slavery in African societies differed from chattel racial slavery in English colonies
     5.Understands the influence of African heritage on efforts to develop a new African American culture
     6.Knows about incidents of resistance to slavery
     7.Knows about introduction of crops by African slaves
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands elements of slavery in the colonies in the 17th century (e.g., the emergence of chattel slavery in Virginia and Maryland, why free labor and chattel slavery did not provide an alternative for labor in the Chesapeake colonies before 1675)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about the emergence of chattel slavery in Virginia
     2.Knows about the emergence of chattel slavery in Maryland
     3.Understands why free labor did not provide an alternative for labor in the Chesapeake colonies before 1675
     4.Understands why chattel slavery did not provide an alternative for labor in the Chesapeake colonies before 1675
 Standard 10.  Understands how the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed American lives and led to regional tensions
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Understands how slavery shaped social and economic life in the South after 1800 (e.g., how the cotton gin and the opening of new lands in the South and West led to increased demands for slaves; differences in the lives of plantation owners, poor free black and white families, and slaves; methods of passive and active resistance to slavery; escaped slaves and the Underground Railroad)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how slavery shaped social life in the South after 1800
     2.Understands how slavery shaped economic life in the South after 1800
     3.Understands how the cotton gin led to increased demands for slaves
     4.Understands how the opening of new lands in the South led to increased demands for slaves
     5.Understands how the opening of new lands in the West led to increased demands for slaves
     6.Understands the lives of plantation owners in the South after 1800
     7.Understands the lives of poor free black families in the South after 1800
     8.Understands the lives of poor free white families in the South after 1800
     9.Understands the lives of slaves in the South after 1800
     10.Understands methods of passive resistance to slavery after 1800
     11.Understands methods of active resistance to slavery after 1800
     12.Knows about escaped slaves after 1800
     13.Knows about the Underground Railroad after 1800
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands different economic, cultural, and social characteristics of slavery after 1800 (e.g., the influence of the Haitian Revolution and the ending of the Atlantic slave trade, how slaves forged their own culture in the face of oppression, the role of the plantation system in shaping slaveholders and the enslaved, the experiences of escaped slaves)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands different economic characteristics of slavery after 1800
     2.Understands different cultural characteristics of slavery after 1800
     3.Understands different social characteristics of slavery after 1800
     4.Understands the influence of the Haitian Revolution
     5.Knows about the end of the Atlantic slave trade
     6.Understands how slaves forged their own culture in the face of oppression
     7.Understands the role of the plantation system in shaping slaveholders
     8.Understands the role of the plantation system in shaping the enslaved
     9.Understands the experiences of escaped slaves
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how slavery influenced economic and social elements of Southern society (e.g., how slavery hindered the emergence of capitalist institutions and values, the influence of slavery on the development of the middle class, the influence of slave revolts on the lives of slaves and freed slaves)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how slavery influenced economic elements of southern society
     2.Understands how slavery influenced social elements of southern society
     3.Understands how slavery hindered the emergence of capitalist institutions
     4.Understands how slavery hindered the emergence of capitalist values
     5.Understands the influence of slavery on the development of the middle class
     6.Understands the influence of slave revolts on the lives of slaves
     7.Understands the influence of slave revolts on the lives of freed slaves
 Standard 12.  Understands the sources and character of cultural, religious, and social reform movements in the antebellum period
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands elements of slavery in both the North and South during the antebellum period (e.g., similarities and differences between African American and white abolitionists, defense of chattel slavery by slaveholders, growing hostility toward free blacks in the North, how African American leaders fought for rights)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands elements of slavery in the North during the antebellum period
     2.Understands elements of slavery in the South during the antebellum period
     3.Understands the similarities between African American and white abolitionists during the antebellum period
     4.Understands the differences between African Amerian and white abolitionists during the antebellum period
     5.Knows about the defense of chattel slavery by slaveholders during the antebellum period
     6.Knows about the growing hostility toward free blacks in the North during the antebellum period
     7.Understands how African American leaders fought for rights during the antebellum period