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Topic: Urban growth and development 

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 7.  Understands selected attributes and historical developments of societies in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 4.Knows about life in urban areas and communities of various cultures of the world at various times in their history (e.g., Rome, Tenochtitl n, Timbuktu, a medieval European city)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about life in Rome at various times in its history
     2.Knows about life in Tenochtitlan at various times in its history
     3.Knows about life in Timbuktu at various times in its history

Geography

 Standard 9.  Understands the nature, distribution and migration of human populations on Earth's surface
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the factors that influence patterns of rural-urban migration (e.g., urban commuting, effects of technology on transportation, communication and people's mobility, barriers that impede the flow of people, goods, and ideas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that urban commuting influences patterns of rural-urban migration
     2.Knows that transportation technology influences patterns of rural-urban migration
     3.Knows that communication influences patterns of rural-urban migration
     4.Knows that people’s mobility influences patterns of rural-urban migration
     5.Knows that barriers impeding the flow of people influence patterns of rural-urban migration
     6.Knows that barriers impeding the flow of goods influence patterns of rural-urban migration
     7.Knows that barriers impeding the flow of ideas influence patterns of rural-urban migration
 Standard 12.  Understands the patterns of human settlement and their causes
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the similarities and differences in housing and land use in urban and suburban areas (e.g., where people live, where services are provided, where products are made, types of housing, yard size, population density, transportation facilities, presence of infrastructure elements such as sidewalks and street lights)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how housing in urban and suburban areas is similar
     2.Knows how housing in urban and suburban areas is different
     3.Knows how land use in urban and suburban areas is similar
     4.Knows how land use in urban and suburban areas is different
     5.Knows similarities and differences in where people live in urban areas compared to suburban areas
     6.Knows similarities and differences in where services are provided in urban areas compared to suburban areas
     7.Knows similarities and differences in where products are made urban areas compared to suburban areas
     8.Knows how housing types in urban areas compare to those of suburban areas
     9.Knows how yard size in urban areas compares to that of suburban areas
     10.Knows how population density in urban areas compares to that of suburban areas
     11.Knows how transportation facilities in urban areas compare to those of suburban areas
     12.Knows how the presences of infrastructure elements in urban areas compare to those of suburban areas
     13.Knows how sidewalks in urban areas compare to those of suburban areas
     14.Knows how street lights in urban areas compare to those of suburban areas
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the causes and consequences of urbanization (e.g., industrial development; cultural activities such as entertainment, religious facilities, higher education; economic attractions such as business and entrepreneurial opportunities; access to information and other resources)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the causes of urbanization
     2.Knows the consequences of urbanization
     3.Understands the relationship between industrial development and urbanization
     4.Knows that cultural activities contribute to urbanization
     5.Knows that the availability of entertainment contributes to urbanization
     6.Knows that the availability of religious facilities contributes to urbanization
     7.Knows that opportunities for higher education contributes to urbanization
     8.Knows that economic attractions contribute to urbanization
     9.Knows that business opportunities contribute to urbanization
     10.Knows that entrepreneurial opportunities contribute to urbanization
     11.Knows that access to information contributes to urbanization
     12.Knows that resource accessibility contributes to urbanization
   Benchmark 3.Knows ways in which both the landscape and society change as a consequence of shifting from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form (e.g., a larger marketplace, the need for an agricultural surplus to provide for the urban population, the loss of some rural workers as people decide to move into the city, changes in the transportation system)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways in the landscape changes as a consequence of shifting from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form
     2.Knows ways in which society changes as a consequence of shifting from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form
     3.Understands a larger marketplace as a consequence of the shift from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form
     4.Understands the need for an agricultural surplus to provide for the urban population as a consequence of the shift from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form
     5.Understands the loss of some rural workers as people decide to move into the city as a consequence of the shift from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form
     6.Understands changes in the transportation system as a consequence of the shift from a dispersed to a concentrated settlement form
   Benchmark 4.Knows the factors involved in the development of cities (e.g., geographic factors for location such as transportation and food supply; the need for a marketplace, religious needs, or for military protection)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the geographic factors involved in the development of cities
     2.Understands transportation as a geographic factor involved in the development of cities
     3.Understands the food supply as a geographic factor involved in the development of cities
     4.Understands the need for a marketplace as a factor involved in the development of cities
     5.Understands that religious needs are factors in involved in the development of cities
     6.Understands that the need for military protection is a factor involved in the development of cities
   Benchmark 5.Knows the internal spatial structures of cities (e.g., the concentric zone model and the sector model of cities; the impact of different transportation systems on the spatial arrangement of business, industry, and residence in a city)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the impact of different transportation systems on the spatial arrangement of business in a city
     4.Understands the impact of different transportation systems on the spatial arrangement of industry in a city
     5.Understands the impact of different transportation systems on the spatial arrangement of residence in a city
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the functions of cities today differ from those of towns and villages and cities in earlier times (e.g., more specialized economic and social activities, greater concentration of services, greater availability of the same services)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the more specialized economic activities in cities of today versus those of earlier times
     2.Understands the more specialized social activities in cities of today versus those of earlier times
     3.Understands the greater concentration of services in cities of today versus those of earlier times
     4.Understands the greater availability of the same service in cities of today versus those of earlier times
   Benchmark 2.Knows the shape of cities in the United States and factors that influence urban morphology (e.g., transportation routes, physical barriers, zoning regulations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the shape of cities in the United States
     2.Knows the factors that influence urban morphology
     3.Knows that transportation routes influence urban morphology
     4.Knows that physical barriers influence urban morphology
     5.Knows that zoning regulations influence urban morphology
   Benchmark 5.Understands the physical and human impact of emerging urban forms in the present-day world (e.g., the rise of megalopoli, edge cities, and metropolitan corridors; increasing numbers of ethnic enclaves in urban areas and the development of legislation to protect the rights of ethnic and racial minorities; improved light-rail systems within cities providing ease of access to ex-urban areas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the physical impact of emerging urban forms in the present-day world
     2.Understands the human impact of emerging urban forms in the present-day world
     3.Understands the impact of the rise of megalopoli
     4.Understands the impact of the rise of edge cities
     5.Understands the impact of the rise of metropolitan corridors
     6.Understands the increasing numbers of ethnic enclaves in urban areas
     7.Understands the development of legislation to protect the rights of ethnic and racial minorities
     8.Understands improved light-rail systems within cities providing ease of access to ex-urban areas
 Standard 17.  Understands how geography is used to interpret the past
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Knows how areas of a community have changed over time (in terms of, e.g., size and style of homes; how people earn their living; changes in the plant and animal population)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how areas of a community have changed over time in terms of size and style of homes
     2.Knows how areas of a community have changed over time in terms of how people earn their living
     3.Knows how areas of a community have changed over time in terms of changes in the plant and animal population
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the factors that have contributed to changing land use in a community (e.g., street and road development, population shifts, regulations governing land use)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that street and road development has contributed to changing land use in communities
     2.Knows that population shifts have contributed to changing land use in communities
     3.Knows that regulations governing land use has contributed to changing land use in communities
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows the ways in which the spatial organization of society changes over time (e.g., process of urban growth in the United States; changes in the internal structure, form, and function of urban areas in different regions of the world at different times)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the process of urban growth in the United States as a change in the spatial organization of society
     2.Knows that the spatial organization of society changes when the internal structure of urban areas change
     3.Knows that the spatial organization of society changes when urban areas change in form
     4.Knows that the spatial organization of society changes when the functions of urban areas change
 Standard 18.  Understands global development and environmental issues
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows how the quality of environments in large cities can be improved (e.g., greenways, transportation corridors, pedestrian walkways, bicycle lanes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that greenways improve the quality of environment in large cities
     2.Knows that transportation corridors improve the quality of environment in large cities
     3.Knows that pedestrian walkways improve the quality of environment in large cities
     4.Knows that bicycle lanes improve the quality of environment in large cities

United States History

 Standard 10.  Understands how the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed American lives and led to regional tensions
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands social and economic elements of urban and rural life in the early and mid-19th centuries (e.g., the impact of the factory system on gender roles and the daily life of men, women, and children; factors that caused rapid urbanization; city life in the 1840s; differences in urban and rural childrens’ lives, life in New England mill towns in the early 1800s, the impact of the canal and railroad on the locations and size of cities after 1820)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social elements of urban life in the early and mid-19th century
     3.Understands the economic elements of urban life in the early and mid-19th century
     5.Understands the impact of the factory system on gender roles
     6.Understands the impact of the factory system on the daily life of men
     7.Understands the impact of the factory system on the daily life of women
     8.Understands the impact of the factory system on the daily life of children
     9.Understands the factors that caused rapid urbanization in the early and mid-19th century
     10.Understands city life in the 1840’s
     11.Understands differences in urban and rural childrens’ lives in the early and mid-19th century
     12.Understands life in New England mill towns in the early 1800’s
     13.Understands the impact of the canal on the locations of cities after 1820
     14.Understands the impact of the canal on the size of cities after 1820
     15.Understands the impact of the railroad on the locations of cities after 1820
     16.Understands the impact of the railroad on the size of cities after 1820
   Benchmark 4.Understands popular and high culture in growing urban areas during the 19th century (e.g., novels, theater, minstrel shows, P.T. Barnum's "American Museum")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands popular culture in growing urban areas during the 19th century
     2.Understands high culture in growing urban areas during the 19th century
     3.Understands the role of novels in growing urban areas during the 19th century
     4.Understands the role of theater in growing urban areas during the 19th century
     5.Understands the role of minstrel shows in growing urban areas during the 19th century
     6.Understands the role of P.T. Barnum’s "American Museum" in growing urban areas during the 19th century
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands influences on urban life in the early and late 19th century (e.g., how rapid urbanization, immigration, and industrialization affected the social fabric of cities; individuals who contributed to the development of free black communities in the cities; the rise of racial hostility)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands influences on urban life in the early 19th century
     2.Understands influences on urban life in the late 19th century
     3.Understands how rapid urbanization affected the social fabric of cities
     4.Understands how immigration affected the social fabric of cities
     5.Understands how industrialization affected the social fabric of cities
     6.Knows about individuals who contributed to the development of free black communities in the cities
     7.Understands the rise of racial hostility
 Standard 16.  Understands how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed American society
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the economic and social changes that occurred in late 19th century American cities (e.g., where industries and transportation expanded; geographic reasons for building factories, commercial centers, and transportation hubs; why different groups moved from the farms to the big cities and how they adjusted; living conditions in the growing cities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the economic changes that occurred in late 19th century American cities
     2.Understands the social changes that occurred in late 19th century American cities
     3.Understands where industries expanded in late 19th century American cities
     4.Understands where transportation expanded in late 19th century American cities
     5.Understands geographic reasons for building factories in late 19th century American cities
     6.Understands geographic reasons for building commercial centers in late 19th century American cities
     7.Understands geographic reasons for building transportation hubs in late 19th century American cities
     8.Understands why different groups moved from the farms to the big cities in the late 19th century
     9.Understands how groups that moved from the farms to the big cities adjusted in the late 19th century
     10.Knows about the living conditions in the growing cities of late 19th century America
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands responses to the challenges of rapid urbanization in the late 19th century (e.g., how urban political machines gained power; the response of urban leaders, such as architects and philanthropists)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands show urban political machines gained power in the late 19th century
     2.Understands the response of urban leaders to the challenges of rapid urbanization in the late 19th century
     3.Understands how architects responded to the challenges of rapid urbanization in the late 19th century
     4.Understands how philanthropists responded to the challenges of rapid urbanization in the late 19th century
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands issues associated with urban growth in the late 19th century (e.g., how city residents dealt with urban problems; demographic, economic, and spatial expansion of cities; how urban bosses won the support of immigrants)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how city residents dealt with urban problems in the late 19th century
     2.Understands how city residents dealt with demographic problems in the late 19th century
     3.Understands how city residents dealt with economic problems in the late 19th century
     4.Understands how city residents dealt with spatial expansion of cities in the late 19th century
     5.Understands how urban bosses won the support of immigrants in the late 19th century
 Standard 22.  Understands how the United States changed between the post-World War I years and the eve of the Great Depression
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how urban life changed in the 1920s (e.g., how scientific management and technological innovations, including assembly lines, rapid transit, household appliances, and radio, transformed production, work and daily life; how improvements in steel construction and elevators contributed to the changes; why people prized home ownership; why people left the cities for the suburbs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     10.Understands how rapid transit transformed production in the 1920s
     11.Understands how rapid transit transformed work in the 1920s
     12.Understands how rapid transit transformed daily life in the 1920s
     13.Understands how household appliances transformed production in the 1920s
     14.Understands how household appliances transformed work in the 1920s
     15.Understands how household appliances transformed daily life in the 1920s
     16.Understands how radio transformed production in the 1920s
     17.Understands how radio transformed work in the 1920s
     18.Understands how radio transformed daily life in the 1920s
     19.Understands how improvements in steel constructions contributed to changes in the 1920s
     20.Understands how elevators contributed to changes in the 1920s
     21.Understands why people prized home ownership in the 1920s
     22.Understands why people left the cities for the suburbs in the 1920s
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands influences on urban life in America during the 1920s (e.g., new downtown business areas, suburbs, transportation, architecture, the idea of the "civic center")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of new downtown business areas on urban life in America during the 1920s
     2.Understands the influence of suburbs on urban life in America during the 1920s
     3.Understands the influence of new transportation on urban life in America during the 1920s
     4.Understands the influence of new architecture on urban life in America during the 1920s
     5.Understands the influence of the idea of the "civic center" on urban life in America during the 1920s

World History

 Standard 20.  Understands the redefinition of European society and culture from 1000 to 1300 CE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the effects of urbanization in Europe and the Mediterranean region (e.g., urban growth in the Mediterranean region and Northern Europe, and causes for expansion of manufacturing, interregional trade, and a money economy in Europe; the growth in economy, population, and urbanization in Europe in global context)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effects of urbanization in Europe
     2.Understands the effects of urbanization in the Mediterranean region
     3.Understands urban growth in the Mediterranean region
     4.Understands urban growth in Northern Europe
     6.Understands the growth in economy, population, and urbanization in Europe in its global context
 Standard 31.  Understands major global trends from 1450 to 1770
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands major shifts in world demography and urbanization between 1450 and 1770 and reasons for these changes
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major shifts in world demography and urbanization between 1450 and 1770
     2.Understands reasons for major shifts in world demography and urbanization between 1450 and 1770
 Standard 33.  Understands the causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions from 1700 to 1850
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the impact of the industrial revolution in Europe and the Atlantic Basin (e.g., connections between population growth, industrialization, and urbanization; the quality of life in early 19-century cities; the effects of urbanization on the development of class distinctions, family life, and the daily working lives of men, women, and children; advances made in communication and transportation; effects upon the political and economic status of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands connections between population growth, industrialization, and urbanization
     3.Understands the effects of urbanization on the development of class distinctions
     4.Understands the effects of urbanization on family life
     5.Understands the effects of urbanization on the daily working lives of men, women, and children
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understand causes of large-scale population movements from rural areas to cities in continental Europe and how these movements affected the domestic and working lives of men and women
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands causes of large scale population movements from rural areas to cities in continental Europe
     2.Understands how large-scale population movements from rural areas to cities in continental Europe affected the domestic and working lives of men and women
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the factors that transformed the character of cities in various parts of the world
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands ways in which science and technology changed cities between 1800-1914
     2.Understands the impact of industrialization on city life 1800-1914
 Standard 37.  Understand major global trends from 1750 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands major shifts in world population and urbanization in this era and how factors such as industrialization, migration, changing diets, and scientific and medical advances affected worldwide demographic trends (e.g., the changes large cities around the world went through during this period, such as Guangzhou [Canton], Cairo, Tokyo, Buenos Aires, Bombay, San Francisco, and London)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands major shifts in urbanization in the era from 1750 to 1914
     7.Understands the changes large cities around the world went through during the period from 1750 to 1914, such as Guangzhou (Canton), Cairo, Tokyo, Buenos Aires, Bombay, San Francisco, and London
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands trends in world population between 1500 and 1900, where the greatest increases occurred, and possible factors for this growth
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands where the greatest increases in world population occurred between 1500 and 1900
     3.Knows possible factors for population growth in different parts of the world between 1500 and 1900
 Standard 43.  Understands how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the impact of independence movements in various countries and whether they were successful (e.g., the connections between the rise of independence movements in Africa and Southeast Asia and social transformations such as accelerated population growth, urbanization, and new Western-educated elites; the chronology of the Algerian struggle for independence, the role of domestic and international public opinion in the actions of the government, and how the French presence influenced the outcome; how diverse independence movements in Asia and Africa succeeded)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the connections between the rise of independence movements in Africa and Southeast Asia and social transformations such as accelerated population growth, urbanization, and new Western educated elites
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands global influences on the environment (e.g., how population growth, urbanization, industrialization, warfare, and the global market economy have contributed to environmental alterations; how effective governments and citizens' groups have been at protecting the global natural environment)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how urbanization has contributed to environmental alterations
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the causes and effects of population growth and urbanization (e.g., why population growth rate is accelerating around the world, and connections between population growth and economic and social development in many countries; the global proliferation of cities and the rise of the megalopolis, as well as the impact of urbanization on family life, standards of living, class relations, and ethnic identity; why scientific, technological, and medical advances have improved living standards but have failed to eradicate hunger, poverty, and epidemic disease)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the causes of population growth and urbanization
     2.Understands the effects of population growth and urbanization
     5.Understands the global proliferation of cities and the rise of the megalopolis
     6.Understands the impact of urbanization on family life
     7.Understands the impact of urbanization on standards of living
     8.Understands the impact of urbanization on class relations
     9.Understands the impact of urbanization on ethnic identity
 Standard 46.  Understands long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands why humans have built cities and how the character, function, and number of cities have changed over time
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands why humans have built cities
     2.Understands how the character of cities has changed over time
     3.Understands how the function of cities has changed over time
     4.Understands how the number of cities have changed over time