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Topic: Molecular basis of heredity 

Agricultural Education

 Standard 6.  Understands basic principles of life science
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands concepts of heredity and genealogy (e.g., chromosomes, DNA, Punnett squares, diversity, inheritance, genotype/phenotype, dominant/recessive traits)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands basic concepts of heredity
     2.Understands basic concepts of genealogy
     3.Understands the concept of a chromosome
     4.Understands the concept of DNA
     5.Understands the concept of a Punnett square
     6.Understands the concept of genetic diversity
     7.Understands the concept of genetic inheritance
     8.Understands the concept of genotype and phenotype

Science

 Standard 4.  Understands the principles of heredity and related concepts
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Knows that hereditary information is contained in genes (located in the chromosomes of each cell), each of which carries a single unit of information; an inherited trait of an individual can be determined by either one or many genes, and a single gene can influence more than one trait
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that hereditary information is contained in genes
     2.Knows that genes are located on the chromosomes of each cell
     3.Knows that each gene carries a single unit of information
     4.Knows that inherited traits can be determined by one or many genes
     5.Knows that a single gene can influence more than one trait
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the chemical and structural properties of DNA and its role in specifying the characteristics of an organism (e.g., DNA is a large polymer formed from four kinds of subunits; genetic information is encoded in genes as a string of these subunits; each DNA molecule in a cell forms a single chromosome and is replicated by a templating mechanism)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the chemical properties of DNA
     2.Knows the structural properties of DNA
     3.Knows the role of DNA in specifying characteristics of an organism
     4.Knows that DNA is a large polymer formed from four kinds of subunits
     5.Knows that genetic information is encoded in genes as strings of subunits
     6.Knows that DNA is replicated by a templating mechanism
     7.Knows that each DNA molecule in a cell forms a single chromosome
   Benchmark 2.Knows ways in which genes (segments of DNA molecules) may be altered and combined to create genetic variation within a species (e.g., recombination of genetic material; mutations; errors in copying genetic material during cell division)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways that genes may be altered to create genetic variation within a species
     2.Knows ways that genes may be combined to create genetic variation within a species
     3.Knows that recombination of genetic material can create genetic variation in a species
     4.Knows that genes are segments of DNA molecules
     5.Knows that mutations can occur when genes are altered and combined
     6.Knows that errors in copying genetic material during cell division can create genetic variation within a species
   Benchmark 5.Understands the concepts of Mendelian genetics (e.g., segregation, independent assortment, dominant and recessive traits, sex-linked traits)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands sex-linked traits as a concept of Mendelian genetics
     2.Understands segregation as a concept of Medelian genetics
     3.Understands independent assortment as a concept of Mendelian genetics
     4.Understands dominant traits as a concept of Mendelian genetics
     5.Understands recessive traits as a concept of Mendelian genetics
   Benchmark 6.Knows features of human genetics (e.g., most of the cells in a human contain two copies of each of 22 chromosomes; in addition, one pair of chromosomes determines sex [XX or XY]; transmission of genetic information to offspring occurs through egg and sperm cells that contain only one representative from each chromosome pair; dominant and recessive traits explain how variations that are hidden in one generation can be expressed in the next)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that dominant and recessive traits explain how variations hidden in one generation can show up in the next
     2.Knows that cells in humans contain two copies of each of 22 chromosomes
     3.Knows that one pair of chromosomes determines sex (XX or XY)
     4.Knows that transmission of genetic information to offspring occurs through egg and sperm cells
     5.Knows that each egg or sperm cell contains only one representative from each chromosome pair