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Topic: Matter and energy in living systems 

Agricultural Education

 Standard 8.  Understands basic principles of ecology
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how nutrients/energy cycles within ecosystems (e.g., energy enters ecosystems as sunlight, and green plants transfer this energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis; this chemical energy is passed from organism to organism; animals get energy from oxidizing their food, releasing some of this energy as heat)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how nutrients cycle in ecosystems
     2.Understands how energy cycles in ecosystems
     3.Knows that energy enters ecosystems as sunlight and green plants transfer this energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis
     4.Knows that chemical energy produced through photosynthesis is passed from organism to organism

Science

 Standard 5.  Understands the structure and function of cells and organisms
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 9.Knows that cells use inorganic compounds (e.g., vitamins, minerals, water) to make materials that the cell or organism needs
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that cells need inorganic compounds to make materials that an organism needs
     3.Knows that cells need vitamins to make materials that a cell or organism needs
 Standard 6.  Understands relationships among organisms and their physical environment
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   Benchmark 1.Understands that living things have similar needs (e.g., water, food)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that living things need water
     2.Knows that living things need food
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that plants and animals need certain resources for energy and growth (e.g., food, water, light, air)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that plants need certain resources for energy
     2.Knows that plants need certain resources for growth
     3.Knows that plants need food for energy and growth
     4.Knows that plants need water for energy and growth
     5.Knows that plants need light for energy and growth
     6.Knows that plants need air for energy and growth
     7.Knows that animals need food for energy and growth
     8.Knows that animals need water for energy and growth
     9.Knows that animals need light for energy and growth
     10.Knows that animals need air for energy and growth
     11.Knows that animals need certain resources for growth
     12.Knows that animals need certain resources for energy
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Knows that the transfer of energy (e.g., through the consumption of food) is essential to all living organisms
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that energy is transferred through the consumption of food
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Knows how energy is transferred through food webs in an ecosystem (e.g., energy enters ecosystems as sunlight, and green plants transfer this energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis; this chemical energy is passed from organism to organism; animals get energy from oxidizing their food, releasing some of this energy as heat)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that animals release some energy as heat
     2.Knows that energy enters the ecosystem as sunlight
     3.Knows that green plants transfer light energy through photosynthesis
     4.Knows that the chemical energy from photosynthesis is passed from organism to organism
     5.Knows that animals get energy by oxidizing their food
   Benchmark 5.Knows how matter is recycled within ecosystems (e.g., matter is transferred from one organism to another repeatedly, and between organisms and their physical environment; the total amount of matter remains constant, even though its form and location change)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the total amount of matter remains constant even if its location changes
     2.Knows that matter is transferred from one organism to another repeatedly
     3.Knows that matter is transferred between organisms and the physical environment
     4.Knows that the total amount of matter remains constant even if its form changes
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows how the amount of life an environment can support is limited by the availability of matter and energy and the ability of the ecosystem to recycle materials
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the amount of life an environment can support is limited by the availability of matter
     2.Knows that the amount of life an environment can support is limited by the availability of energy
     3.Knows that the amount of life an environment can support is limited by the ability of that ecosystem to recycle material
   Benchmark 3.Knows that as matter and energy flow through different levels of organization in living systems and between living systems and the physical environment, chemical elements (e.g., carbon, nitrogen) are recombined in different ways
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that matter flows through different levels of organization in living systems
     2.Knows that matter flows through different levels of organization between living systems and the physical environment
     3.Knows that energy flows through different levels of organization in living systems
     4.Knows that energy flows through different levels of organization between living systems and the physical environment
     5.Knows that in the flow of matter and energy through different levels of organization, chemical elements are recombined in different ways
     6.Knows that carbon and nitrogen are recombined in different ways as matter and energy flow through different levels of organization
   Benchmark 4.Knows that because all matter tends toward more disorganized states, living systems require a continuous input of energy to maintain their chemical and physical organizations
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that all matter tends towards disorganized states
     2.Knows that living systems require a continuous input of energy to maintain chemical organization
     3.Knows that living systems require a continuous input of energy to maintain physical organization