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Topic: Interdependence of organisms 

Science

 Standard 6.  Understands relationships among organisms and their physical environment
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the organization of simple food chains and food webs (e.g., green plants make their own food with sunlight, water, and air; some animals eat the plants; some animals eat the animals that eat the plants)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the organization of food chains
     2.Knows the organization of food webs
     3.Knows that green plants make their own food with sunlight, water, and air
     4.Knows that some animals eat plants
     5.Knows that some animals eat the animals that eat the plants
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows ways in which organisms interact and depend on one another through food chains and food webs in an ecosystem (e.g., producer/consumer, predator/prey, parasite/host, relationships that are mutually beneficial or competitive)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways that organisms interact with one another through food chains
     2.Knows ways that organisms interact with one another through food webs
     3.Knows that organisms depend on one another through food chains in ecosystems
     4.Knows that organisms depend on one another through food webs in ecosystems
     5.Knows producer/consumer interactions
     6.Knows predator/prey interactions
     7.Knows parasite/host interactions
     8.Knows relationships that are mutually beneficial in an ecosystem
     9.Knows relationships that are competitive in an ecosystem
   Benchmark 4.Knows how energy is transferred through food webs in an ecosystem (e.g., energy enters ecosystems as sunlight, and green plants transfer this energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis; this chemical energy is passed from organism to organism; animals get energy from oxidizing their food, releasing some of this energy as heat)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that animals release some energy as heat
     2.Knows that energy enters the ecosystem as sunlight
     3.Knows that green plants transfer light energy through photosynthesis
     4.Knows that the chemical energy from photosynthesis is passed from organism to organism
     5.Knows that animals get energy by oxidizing their food
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Knows how the interrelationships and interdependencies among organisms generate stable ecosystems that fluctuate around a state of rough equilibrium for hundreds or thousands of years (e.g., growth of a population is held in check by environmental factors such as depletion of food or nesting sites, increased loss due to larger numbers of predators or parasites)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that interrelationships among organisms generate stable ecosystems
     2.Knows that interdependencies among organisms generate stable ecosystems
     3.Knows that stable ecosystems fluctuate around a state of equilibrium for hundreds of years
     4.Knows that population growth is held in check by environmental factors
     5.Knows that population growth is held in check by the depletion of food
     6.Knows that population growth is held in check by the depletion of nesting sites
     7.Knows that population growth is held in check by an increased number of predators
     8.Knows that population growth is held in check by an increased number of parasites