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Topic: Gravity  

Science

 Standard 3.  Understands the composition and structure of the universe and the Earth's place in it
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Knows that gravitational force keeps planets in orbit around the Sun and moons in orbit around the planets
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that gravitational forces keep the planets in orbit around the Sun
     2.Knows that gravitational forces keep moons in orbit around the planets
 Standard 10.  Understands forces and motion
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 2.Knows that things near the Earth fall to the ground unless something holds them up
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that things can fall to the ground
     2.Knows that things can be stopped from falling to the ground
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Knows that the Earth’s gravity pulls any object toward it without touching it
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that gravity is not a physical object, but affects physical objects
     2.Knows that gravity is a property of the Earth
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands general concepts related to gravitational force (e.g., every object exerts gravitational force on every other object; this force depends on the mass of the objects and their distance from one another; gravitational force is hard to detect unless at least one of the objects, such as the Earth, has a lot of mass)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that gravitational force is hard to detect unless one of the objects has a lot of mass
     2.Understands that every object exerts a gravitational force on every other object
     3.Understands that gravitational force depends on the mass of the objects
     4.Understands that gravitational force depends on the distance between the objects
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows that nuclear forces are much stronger than electromagnetic forces, which are vastly stronger than gravitational forces; the strength of nuclear forces explains why great amounts of energy are released from the nuclear reactions in atomic or hydrogen bombs, and in the Sun and other stars
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that nuclear forces are stronger than electromagnetic forces
     2.Knows that electromagnetic forces are stronger than gravitational forces
     3.Knows that the strength of nuclear force explains the great amounts of energy released from nuclear reactions in atomic bombs
     4.Knows that the strength of nuclear force explains the great amounts of energy released from nuclear reactions in hydrogen bombs
     5.Knows that the strength of nuclear force explains the release of energy from nuclear reactions in the Sun
     6.Knows that the strength of nuclear force explains the release of energy from nuclear reactions in the stars
   Benchmark 3.Knows that the strength of the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the strength of the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the masses
     2.Knows that the strength of the gravitational force between two masses is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them