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Topic: Genetic mutation and recombination 

Science

 Standard 4.  Understands the principles of heredity and related concepts
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows ways in which genes (segments of DNA molecules) may be altered and combined to create genetic variation within a species (e.g., recombination of genetic material; mutations; errors in copying genetic material during cell division)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways that genes may be altered to create genetic variation within a species
     2.Knows ways that genes may be combined to create genetic variation within a species
     3.Knows that recombination of genetic material can create genetic variation in a species
     4.Knows that genes are segments of DNA molecules
     5.Knows that mutations can occur when genes are altered and combined
     6.Knows that errors in copying genetic material during cell division can create genetic variation within a species
   Benchmark 3.Knows that new heritable characteristics can only result from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in an organism’s sex cells; other changes in an organism cannot be passed on
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that new heritable characteristics can result from new combinations of existing genes in sex cells
     2.Knows that new heritable characteristics can result from mutations of genes in sex cells
     3.Knows that only changes to genes in the sex cells can be passed on
   Benchmark 4.Knows that mutations and new gene combinations may have positive, negative, or no effects on the organism
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that mutations may have positive effects
     2.Knows that mutations may have negative effects
     3.Knows that mutations may have no effect
     4.Knows that new gene combinations may have positive effects
     5.Knows that new gene combinations may have negative effects
     6.Knows that new gene combinations may have no effect