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Topic: Forms of energy 

Science

 Standard 9.  Understands the sources and properties of energy
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 2.Knows that heat can be produced in many ways (e.g., burning, rubbing, mixing substances together)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that heat can be produced by mixing substances together
     2.Knows that heat can be produced by burning
     3.Knows that heat can be produced by rubbing things together
   Benchmark 4.Knows that sound is produced by vibrating objects
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that vibrating objects move back and forth rapidly
   Benchmark 5.Knows that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that light always travels from a source
     2.Knows that we see objects because light strikes them
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that heat is often produced as a byproduct when one form of energy is converted to another form (e.g., when machines and living organisms convert stored energy to motion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that heat is produced when living organisms convert stored energy to motion
     2.Knows that heat is produced when machines convert stored energy to motion
   Benchmark 2.Knows that heat can move from one object to another by conduction and that some materials conduct heat better than others
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows heat moves from one object to another by conduction
     2.Knows that some materials conduct heat better than others
   Benchmark 3.Knows that light can be reflected, refracted, or absorbed
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that light can be reflected
     2.Knows that light can be refracted
     3.Knows that light can be absorbed
   Benchmark 4.Knows that the pitch of a sound depends on the frequency of the vibration producing it
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that pitch is the highness or lowness of a sound
     2.Knows that high frequency vibrations produce high sounds
     3.Knows that low frequency vibrations produce low sounds
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that energy is a property of many substances (e.g., heat energy is in the disorderly motion of molecules and in radiation; chemical energy is in the arrangement of atoms; mechanical energy is in moving bodies or in elastically distorted shapes; electrical energy is in the attraction or repulsion between charges)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that electrical energy is in the repulsion between charges
     2.Knows that heat energy is in the disorderly motion of molecules
     3.Knows that heat energy is in radiation
     4.Knows that chemical energy is in the arrangement of atoms
     5.Knows that electrical energy is in the attraction between charges
     6.Knows that mechanical energy is in moving bodies
     7.Knows that mechanical energy is in elastically distorted shapes
   Benchmark 3.Knows that heat energy flows from warmer materials or regions to cooler ones through conduction, convection, and radiation
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that heat energy flows from warmer to cooler materials
     2.Knows that heat energy flows from warmer to cooler areas through conduction
     3.Knows that heat energy flows from warmer to cooler areas through convection
     4.Knows that heat energy flows from warmer to cooler areas through radiation
   Benchmark 8.Knows that waves (e.g., sound, seismic, water, light) have energy and interact with matter (e.g., light scattering) and can transfer energy (e.g., light absorption)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that waves have energy
     2.Knows that waves interact with matter
     3.Knows that sound waves have energy
     4.Knows that seismic waves have energy
     5.Knows that water waves have energy
     6.Knows that light waves have energy
     7.Knows that waves can transfer energy when they interact with matter
     8.Knows that sound waves can transfer energy when they interact with matter
     9.Knows that seismic waves can transfer energy when they interact with matter
     10.Knows that water waves can transfer energy when they interact with matter
     11.Knows that light waves can transfer energy when they interact with matter
     12.Knows that light interacts with matter by scattering
     13.Knows that light interacts with matter by absorption
   Benchmark 9.Knows that only a narrow range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation can be seen by the human eye; differences of wavelength within that range of visible light are perceived as differences in color
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that only a narrow range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation can be seen by the human eye
     2.Knows that differences in wavelength in the range of visible light are perceived as differences in color
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows that all energy can be considered to be either kinetic energy (energy of motion), potential energy (depends on relative position), or energy contained by a field (electromagnetic waves)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that energy can be kinetic energy
     2.Knows that energy can be potential energy
     3.Knows that energy can be energy contained by a field
     4.Knows that kinetic energy is the energy of motion
     5.Knows that potential energy depends on relative position
     6.Knows that energy contained by a field are electromagnetic waves
   Benchmark 3.Understands the relationship between heat and temperature (heat energy consists of the random motion and vibrations of atoms, molecules, and ions; the higher the temperature, the greater the atomic or molecular motion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that a higher temperature indicates greater molecular motion
     2.Understands that heat energy partly consists of the random motion of atoms
     3.Understands that heat energy partly consists of the random motion of molecules
     4.Understands that heat energy partly consists of the random motion of ions
     5.Understands that heat energy partly consists of the vibration of atoms
     6.Understands that heat energy partly consists of the vibrations of molecules
     7.Understands that heat energy partly consists of the vibrations of ions
     8.Understands that a higher temperature indicates greater atomic motion
   Benchmark 6.Understands that waves have characteristic properties (e.g., wavelength, frequency, amplitude, speed) and behaviors (e.g., reflection, refraction, transmission, interference)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that waves have characteristic properties
     2.Understands that wavelength is a characteristic property of a wave
     3.Understands that frequency is a characteristic property of a wave
     4.Understands that amplitude is a characteristic property of a wave
     5.Understands that speed is a characteristic property of a wave
     6.Understands that waves have characteristic behaviors
     7.Understands that reflection is a characteristic behavior of a wave
     8.Understands that refraction is a characteristic behavior of a wave
     9.Understands that transmission is a characteristic behavior of a wave
     10.Understands that interference is a characteristic behavior of a wave
   Benchmark 7.Knows the range of the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, gamma rays); electromagnetic waves result when a charged object is accelerated or decelerated, and the energy of electromagnetic waves is carried in packets whose magnitude is inversely proportional to the wavelength
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the range of the electromagnetic spectrum
     2.Knows the electromagnetic spectrum includes radio waves
     3.Knows the electromagnetic spectrum includes microwaves
     4.Knows the electromagnetic spectrum includes infrared radiation
     5.Knows the electromagnetic spectrum includes visible light
     6.Knows the electromagnetic spectrum includes ultraviolet radiation
     7.Knows the electromagnetic spectrum includes x-rays
     8.Knows the electromagnetic spectrum includes gamma-rays
     9.Knows that electromagnetic waves result when a charged object is accelerated
     10.Knows that electromagnetic waves result when a charged object is decelerated

Engineering Education

 Standard 5.  Understands energy and power types, sources, and conversions
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the properties of power and energy (e.g., conservation of energy; the relationships of power, work, and energy; different forms of energy)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the relationships among power, work, and energy
     3.Understands that all energy can be considered kinetic energy, potential energy, or energy contained by a field