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Topic: Energy transfer and entropy 

Engineering Education

 Standard 1.  Understands scientific principles related to electricity
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the concepts of voltage, current, resistance, power, and energy
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of voltage
     2.Understands that alternating current is constantly changing in amplitude and direction
     3.Understands that direct current is constant in direction
     4.Understands the concept of resistance
     5.Understands the concept of power
     6.Understands the concept of energy
   Benchmark 6.Understands the electromagnetic fundamentals of generators, transformers, and motors
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the electromagnetic fundamentals of generators
     2.Understands the electromagnetic fundamentals of transformers
     3.Understands the electromagnetic fundamentals of motors
 Standard 2.  Knows principles of circuit analysis
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the fundamental differences between alternating and direct current
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that alternating current is constantly changing in amplitude and direction
     2.Understands some methods of generating alternating current
     3.Knows the advantages of alternating current power transmission
     4.Understands that direct current has a constant voltage and flows in only one direction
     5.Understands some methods of generating direct current
 Standard 5.  Understands energy and power types, sources, and conversions
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands energy conversion from electrical to mechanical and chemical forms
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands energy conversion from electrical to chemical forms
     2.Understands energy conversion from electrical to mechanical forms
   Benchmark 7.Understands energy source extraction processes as well as transmission, conservation, and storage systems
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands energy source extraction processes
     2.Understands energy transmission systems
     3.Understands energy conservation systems

Science

 Standard 9.  Understands the sources and properties of energy
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 3.Knows that electricity in circuits can produce light, heat, sound, and magnetic effects
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that electricity in circuits can produce light
     2.Knows that electricity in circuits can produce heat
     3.Knows that electricity in circuits can produce sound
     4.Knows that electricity in circuits can produce magnetic effects
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that heat is often produced as a byproduct when one form of energy is converted to another form (e.g., when machines and living organisms convert stored energy to motion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that heat is produced when living organisms convert stored energy to motion
     2.Knows that heat is produced when machines convert stored energy to motion
   Benchmark 2.Knows that heat can move from one object to another by conduction and that some materials conduct heat better than others
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows heat moves from one object to another by conduction
     2.Knows that some materials conduct heat better than others
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows that heat energy flows from warmer materials or regions to cooler ones through conduction, convection, and radiation
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that heat energy flows from warmer to cooler materials
     2.Knows that heat energy flows from warmer to cooler areas through conduction
     3.Knows that heat energy flows from warmer to cooler areas through convection
     4.Knows that heat energy flows from warmer to cooler areas through radiation
   Benchmark 5.Knows that electrical circuits provide a means of transferring electrical energy to produce heat, light, sound, and chemical changes
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that electrical circuits transfer electrical energy to produce heat
     2.Knows that electrical circuits transfer electrical energy to produce light
     3.Knows that electrical circuits transfer electrical energy to produce sound
     4.Knows that electrical circuits transfer electrical energy to produce chemical changes
   Benchmark 6.Knows that most chemical and nuclear reactions involve a transfer of energy (e.g., heat, light, mechanical motion, electricity)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that most chemical reactions involve a transfer of energy
     2.Knows that chemical reactions can involve a transfer of heat
     3.Knows that chemical reactions can involve a transfer of light
     4.Knows that chemical reactions can involve a transfer of mechanical motion
     5.Knows that chemical reactions can involve a transfer of electricity
     6.Knows that most nuclear reactions involve a transfer of energy
     7.Knows that nuclear reactions can involve a transfer of heat
     8.Knows that nuclear reactions can involve a transfer of light
     9.Knows that nuclear reactions can involve a transfer of mechanical motion
     10.Knows that nuclear reactions can involve a transfer of electricity
   Benchmark 8.Knows that waves (e.g., sound, seismic, water, light) have energy and interact with matter (e.g., light scattering) and can transfer energy (e.g., light absorption)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Knows that waves can transfer energy when they interact with matter
     8.Knows that sound waves can transfer energy when they interact with matter
     9.Knows that seismic waves can transfer energy when they interact with matter
     10.Knows that water waves can transfer energy when they interact with matter
     11.Knows that light waves can transfer energy when they interact with matter
     13.Knows that light interacts with matter by absorption
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the concept of entropy (e.g., although the total energy of the universe remains constant, matter tends to become steadily less ordered as various energy transfers occur; the energy tends to spread out uniformly, thereby decreasing the amount of useful energy)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that energy tends to spread out uniformly, decreasing the amount of useful energy
     2.Understands that the total energy in the universe remains constant
     3.Understands that matter tends to become steadily less ordered as energy transfers occur
   Benchmark 5.Knows that nuclear reactions convert a fraction of the mass of interacting particles into energy (fission involves the splitting of a large nucleus into smaller pieces; fusion is the joining of two nuclei at extremely high temperature and pressure) and release much greater amounts of energy than atomic interactions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that nuclear reactions convert a fraction of the mass of interacting particles into energy
     4.Knows that nuclear reactions release a much greater amount of energy than atomic interactions