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Topic: Chemical reactions  

Science

 Standard 8.  Understands the structure and properties of matter
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 8.Knows that substances react chemically in characteristic ways with other substances to form new substances (compounds) with different characteristic properties
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that chemical reactions may result in the formation of new substances
     2.Knows that compounds are made from two of more different substances
   Benchmark 9.Knows factors that influence reaction rates (e.g., types of substances involved, temperature, concentration of reactant molecules, amount of contact between reactant molecules)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the amount of contact between reactant molecules influences reaction rates
     2.Knows the types of substances involved in a reaction influence reaction rates
     3.Knows the temperature of substances involved in a reaction influences reaction rates
     4.Knows the concentration of reactant molecules influences reaction rates
   Benchmark 10.Knows that oxidation is the loss of electrons, and commonly involves the combining of oxygen with another substance (e.g., the processes of burning and rusting)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that rusting is an example of oxidation
     2.Knows that burning is an example of oxidation
     3.Knows that oxidation is the loss of electrons
     4.Knows that oxidation commonly involves the combining of oxygen with another substance
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 10.Understands that chemical reactions either release or consume energy (i.e., some changes of atomic or molecular configuration require an input of energy; others release energy)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that some changes of atomic configuration may release energy
     2.Understands that some changes of atomic configuration require an input of energy
     3.Understand that some changes of molecular configuration require an input of energy
     4.Understands that some changes of molecular configuration may release energy
   Benchmark 11.Knows that chemical reactions can take place at vastly different rates (e.g., from the few femtoseconds required for an atom to move a fraction of a chemical bond distance to geologic times scales of billions of years) and reaction rates depend on a variety of factors that influence the frequency of collision of reactant molecules (e.g., shape and surface area of the reacting species, temperature, pressure, the presence or absence of a catalyst)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that chemical reactions take place at different rates
     2.Knows that it takes a few femtoseconds for an atom to move a fraction of a chemical bond distance
     3.Knows that chemical reactions can take billions of years
     4.Knows that reaction rates depend on factors that influence the frequency of collision of reactant molecules
     5.Knows that reaction rates depend on the shape of the reacting species
     6.Knows that reaction rates depend on the surface area of the reacting species
     7.Knows that reaction rates depend on temperature
     8.Knows that reaction rates depend on pressure
     9.Knows that reaction rates depend on the presence of a catalyst
     10.Knows that reaction rates depend on the absence of a catalyst
   Benchmark 12.Knows that chemical reactions can be accelerated by catalysts (e.g., metallic surfaces, enzymes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that enzymes act as catalysts in chemical reactions
     2.Knows that metallic surfaces act as catalysts in chemical reactions
   Benchmark 14.Knows the variety of structures that may be formed from the bonding of carbon atoms (e.g., synthetic polymers, oils, the large molecules essential to life) and their roles in various chemical reactions, including those required for life processes
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows structures that are formed from the bonding of carbon atoms
     2.Knows that synthetic polymers form from bonding carbon atoms
     3.Knows that oils form from bonding carbon atoms
     4.Knows that large molecules essential to life form from bonding carbon atoms
     5.Knows the roles that structures formed from carbon atoms play in chemical reactions
     6.Knows the roles that structures formed from carbon atoms play in chemical reactions required for life
   Benchmark 15.Knows that a large number of important reactions involve the transfer of either electrons (oxidation/reduction reactions) or hydrogen ions (acid/base reactions) between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that oxidation/reduction reactions involve the transfer of electrons
     2.Knows that a large number of reactions involve the transfer of electrons between reacting ions
     3.Knows that a large number of reactions involve the transfer of electrons between molecules
     4.Knows that a large number of reactions involve the transfer of electrons between atoms
     5.Knows that acid/base reactions involve the transfer of hydrogen ions
     6.Knows that a large number of reactions involve the transfer of hydrogen ions between reacting ions
     7.Knows that a large number of reactions involve the transfer of hydrogen ions between molecules
     8.Knows that a large number of reactions involve the transfer of hydrogen ions between atoms
   Benchmark 16.Understands radical reactions and their role in natural and human processes (e.g., ozone and green house gases in the atmosphere; burning and processing of fossil fuels; formation of polymers; explosions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands radical reactions
     2.Understands the role of radical reactions in natural processes
     3.Understands the role of radical reactions in human processes
     4.Understands the role of radical reactions in ozone depletion and creation
     5.Understands the role of radical reactions in the presence of green house gases
     6.Understands the role of radical reactions in the burning of fossil fuels
     7.Understands the role of radical reactions in the processing of fossil fuels
     8.Understands the role of radical reactions in the formation of polymers
     9.Understands the role of radical reactions in explosions
 Standard 9.  Understands the sources and properties of energy
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 6.Knows that most chemical and nuclear reactions involve a transfer of energy (e.g., heat, light, mechanical motion, electricity)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that most chemical reactions involve a transfer of energy
     2.Knows that chemical reactions can involve a transfer of heat
     3.Knows that chemical reactions can involve a transfer of light
     4.Knows that chemical reactions can involve a transfer of mechanical motion
     5.Knows that chemical reactions can involve a transfer of electricity
     6.Knows that most nuclear reactions involve a transfer of energy
     7.Knows that nuclear reactions can involve a transfer of heat
     8.Knows that nuclear reactions can involve a transfer of light
     9.Knows that nuclear reactions can involve a transfer of mechanical motion
     10.Knows that nuclear reactions can involve a transfer of electricity