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Topic: Formulating/testing hypotheses 

Mathematics

 Standard 6.  Understands and applies basic and advanced concepts of statistics and data analysis
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Reads and interprets data in charts, tables, and plots (e.g., stem-and-leaf, box-and-whiskers, scatter)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Reads scatter plots
     2.Interprets box-and-whisker plots
     3.Reads box-and-whisker plots
     4.Interprets stem-and-leaf plots
     5.Reads stem-and-leaf plots
     6.Interprets data in tables
   Benchmark 5.Uses data and statistical measures for a variety of purposes (e.g., formulating hypotheses, making predictions, testing conjectures)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Test conjectures using data
     2. Makes predictions using data
     3. Formulates hypotheses using data
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands how the reader’s bias, measurement error, and display distortion can affect the interpretation of data
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how reader bias can affect data interpretation
     2.Understands how measurement errors can affect data interpretation
     3.Understands how display errors can affect data interpretation
   Benchmark 9.Understands that making an inference about a population from a sample always involves uncertainty and the role of statistics is to estimate the size of that uncertainty
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1. Understands the concept of statistical inference