Topic: Data organization and display |
Mathematics |
| Standard 6. Understands and applies basic and advanced concepts of statistics and data analysis |
| | Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K) |
| | | Benchmark 1. | Knows that concrete and pictorial graphs represent information |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Knows that concrete graphs represent information |
| | | | | 2. | Knows that pictorial graphs represent information |
| | Level I (Grade K-2) |
| | | Benchmark 1. | Collects and represents information about objects or events in simple graphs |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Understands the basic concept of a graph |
| | | | | 2. | Understands that information can be represented in graphs |
| | | | | 3. | Understands that information about objects or events can be collected |
| | Level II (Grade 3-5) |
| | | Benchmark 2. | Understands that spreading data out on a number line helps to see what the extremes are, where the data points pile up, and where the gaps are |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Understands the concept of gaps in data |
| | | | | 2. | Understands the concept of extremes in data |
| | | | | 3. | Understands the concept of clusters in data |
| | | | | 4. | Uses a number line to see gaps in data |
| | | | | 5. | Uses a number line to see extremes in data |
| | | | | 6. | Uses a number line to see clusters in data |
| | | Benchmark 3. | Understands that a summary of data should include where the middle is and how much spread there is around it |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Understands the concept of the middle of the data distribution |
| | | | | 2. | Understands the concept of the spread of data |
| | | | | 3. | Understands the concept of summarizing data |
| | | Benchmark 4. | Organizes and displays data in simple bar graphs, pie charts, and line graphs |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Constructs circle (pie) graphs using data |
| | | | | 2. | Constructs bar graphs using data |
| | | | | 3. | Constructs line graphs using data |
| | | Benchmark 5. | Reads and interprets simple bar graphs, pie charts, and line graphs |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Interprets bar graphs |
| | | | | 2. | Interprets circle (pie) graphs |
| | | | | 3. | Interprets line graphs |
| | | | | 4. | Reads bar graphs |
| | | | | 5. | Reads circle (pie) graphs |
| | | | | 6. | Reads line graphs |
| | | Benchmark 6. | Understands that data come in many different forms and that collecting, organizing, and displaying data can be done in many ways |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Understands that data can be organized in many ways |
| | | | | 2. | Understands that data can be collected in many ways |
| | | | | 3. | Understands that data can be displayed in many ways |
| | | | | 4. | Understands that data comes in different forms |
| | Level III (Grade 6-8) |
| | | Benchmark 4. | Reads and interprets data in charts, tables, and plots (e.g., stem-and-leaf, box-and-whiskers, scatter) |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Reads scatter plots |
| | | | | 2. | Interprets box-and-whisker plots |
| | | | | 3. | Reads box-and-whisker plots |
| | | | | 4. | Interprets stem-and-leaf plots |
| | | | | 5. | Reads stem-and-leaf plots |
| | | | | 6. | Interprets data in tables |
| | | Benchmark 6. | Organizes and displays data using tables, graphs (e.g., line, circle, bar), frequency distributions, and plots (e.g., stem-and-leaf, box-and-whiskers, scatter) |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Constructs scatter plots using data |
| | | | | 2. | Constructs box-and-whisker plots using data |
| | | | | 3. | Constructs stem-and-leaf plots using data |
| | | | | 4. | Constructs frequency distributions using data |
| | | | | 5. | Organizes data in tables |
| | | | | 6. | Organizes data in graphs |
| | | | | 7. | Organizes data in frequency distributions |
| | | | | 8. | Organizes data in box-and-whisker plots |
| | | | | 9. | Organizes data in scatter plots |
| | | Benchmark 7. | Understands faulty arguments, common errors, and misleading presentations of data |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Understands faulty arguments from data |
| | | | | 2. | Understands misleading presentations of data |
| | | | | 3. | Understands common errors with data |
| | | Benchmark 8. | Understands that the same set of data can be represented using a variety of tables, graphs, and symbols and that different modes of representation often convey different messages (e.g., variation in scale can alter a visual message) |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Understands the same data set can be displayed in different ways |
| | | | | 2. | Understands the influence of scale on a data display |
| | | | | 3. | Understands that the manner in which data is displayed affects interpretation |
| | | | | 4. | Understands that data can be represented in tables |
| | | | | 5. | Understands that data can be represented in graphs |
| | | | | 6. | Understands that data can be represented using symbols |
| | Level IV (Grade 9-12) |
| | | Benchmark 1. | Selects and uses the best method of representing and describing a set of data (e.g., scatter plot, line graph, two-way table) |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Understands the concept of two-way tables |
| | | | | 2. | Interprets two-way tables |
| | | | | 3. | Constructs two-way tables using data |
| | | | | 4. | Selects the best method for representing data |
| | | Benchmark 3. | Understands the concept of correlation (e.g., the difference between a "true" correlation and a "believable" correlation; when two variables are correlated) |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Understands the relationship between causality and correlation |
| | | | | 2. | Understands the concept of spurious correlation |
| | | | | 3. | Understands the concept of correlation |
| | | Benchmark 4. | Understands different methods of curve-fitting (e.g., median-fit line, regression line) and various applications (e.g., making predictions) |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Understands the median-fit method of curve fitting |
| | | | | 2. | Understands the least squares method of curve fitting |
| | | | | 3. | Understands prediction as it relates to curve fitting |
| | | | | 4. | Understands the concept of curve fitting |
| | | Benchmark 5. | Understands how outliers may affect various representations of data (e.g., a regression line might be strongly influenced by a few aberrant points, whereas the scatter plot for the same data might suggest that the aberrant points represent mistakes) |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Understands how outliers can affect a regression line |
| | | | | 2. | Understands how a scatter plot helps identify outliers |
| | | Benchmark 6. | Understands how the reader’s bias, measurement error, and display distortion can affect the interpretation of data |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Understands how reader bias can affect data interpretation |
| | | | | 2. | Understands how measurement errors can affect data interpretation |
| | | | | 3. | Understands how display errors can affect data interpretation |
| | Level V (Grade (College Readiness)) |
| | | Benchmark 2. | Evaluates reports in the media in terms of the sources of the data and the design of the study |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Evaluates reports in the media based on the sources of the data |
Business Education |
| Standard 13. Analyzes and interprets data using common statistical procedures, charts, and graphs |
| | Level IV (Grade 9-12) |
| | | Benchmark 2. | Uses tables, graphs, diagrams, and charts to obtain or convey quantitative information (e.g., manual or electronic representations) |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Uses tables to obtain quantitative information |
| | | | | 2. | Uses graphs to obtain quantitative information |
| | | | | 3. | Uses diagrams to obtain quantitative information |
| | | | | 4. | Uses charts to obtain quantitative information |
| | | | | 5. | Uses tables to convey quantitative information |
| | | | | 6. | Uses graphs to convey quantitative information |
| | | | | 7. | Uses diagrams to convey quantitative information |
| | | | | 8. | Uses charts to convey quantitative information |
| | | | | 9. | Uses manual representations to obtain quantitative information |
| | | | | 10. | Uses manual representations to convey quantitative information |
| | | | | 11. | Uses electronic representations to obtain quantitative information |
| | | | | 12. | Uses electronic representations to convey quantitative information |
| | | Benchmark 4. | Understands how outliers may affect various representations of data (e.g., a regression line might be strongly influenced by a few aberrant points, whereas the scatter plot for the same data might suggest that the aberrant points represent mistakes) |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Understands that a regression line might be strongly influenced by a few aberrant points |
| | | | | 2. | Understands that a scatter plot might suggest that aberrant points represent mistakes |
| | | Benchmark 5. | Understands how the reader’s bias, measurement error, and display distortion can affect the interpretation of data |
| | | | Knowledge/skill statements |
| | | | | 1. | Understands how the reader’s bias can affect the interpretation of data |
| | | | | 3. | Understands how the display distortion can affect the interpretation of data |