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Topic: Data organization and display 

Mathematics

 Standard 6.  Understands and applies basic and advanced concepts of statistics and data analysis
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that concrete and pictorial graphs represent information
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that concrete graphs represent information
     2.Knows that pictorial graphs represent information
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Collects and represents information about objects or events in simple graphs
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the basic concept of a graph
     2. Understands that information can be represented in graphs
     3. Understands that information about objects or events can be collected
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Understands that spreading data out on a number line helps to see what the extremes are, where the data points pile up, and where the gaps are
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of gaps in data
     2.Understands the concept of extremes in data
     3.Understands the concept of clusters in data
     4.Uses a number line to see gaps in data
     5.Uses a number line to see extremes in data
     6.Uses a number line to see clusters in data
   Benchmark 3.Understands that a summary of data should include where the middle is and how much spread there is around it
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of the middle of the data distribution
     2.Understands the concept of the spread of data
     3.Understands the concept of summarizing data
   Benchmark 4.Organizes and displays data in simple bar graphs, pie charts, and line graphs
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Constructs circle (pie) graphs using data
     2.Constructs bar graphs using data
     3. Constructs line graphs using data
   Benchmark 5.Reads and interprets simple bar graphs, pie charts, and line graphs
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Interprets bar graphs
     2.Interprets circle (pie) graphs
     3.Interprets line graphs
     4.Reads bar graphs
     5.Reads circle (pie) graphs
     6.Reads line graphs
   Benchmark 6.Understands that data come in many different forms and that collecting, organizing, and displaying data can be done in many ways
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that data can be organized in many ways
     2.Understands that data can be collected in many ways
     3.Understands that data can be displayed in many ways
     4.Understands that data comes in different forms
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Reads and interprets data in charts, tables, and plots (e.g., stem-and-leaf, box-and-whiskers, scatter)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Reads scatter plots
     2.Interprets box-and-whisker plots
     3.Reads box-and-whisker plots
     4.Interprets stem-and-leaf plots
     5.Reads stem-and-leaf plots
     6.Interprets data in tables
   Benchmark 6.Organizes and displays data using tables, graphs (e.g., line, circle, bar), frequency distributions, and plots (e.g., stem-and-leaf, box-and-whiskers, scatter)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1. Constructs scatter plots using data
     2.Constructs box-and-whisker plots using data
     3.Constructs stem-and-leaf plots using data
     4. Constructs frequency distributions using data
     5. Organizes data in tables
     6.Organizes data in graphs
     7.Organizes data in frequency distributions
     8.Organizes data in box-and-whisker plots
     9.Organizes data in scatter plots
   Benchmark 7.Understands faulty arguments, common errors, and misleading presentations of data
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands faulty arguments from data
     2.Understands misleading presentations of data
     3.Understands common errors with data
   Benchmark 8.Understands that the same set of data can be represented using a variety of tables, graphs, and symbols and that different modes of representation often convey different messages (e.g., variation in scale can alter a visual message)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the same data set can be displayed in different ways
     2.Understands the influence of scale on a data display
     3.Understands that the manner in which data is displayed affects interpretation
     4.Understands that data can be represented in tables
     5.Understands that data can be represented in graphs
     6.Understands that data can be represented using symbols
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Selects and uses the best method of representing and describing a set of data (e.g., scatter plot, line graph, two-way table)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of two-way tables
     2.Interprets two-way tables
     3.Constructs two-way tables using data
     4. Selects the best method for representing data
   Benchmark 3.Understands the concept of correlation (e.g., the difference between a "true" correlation and a "believable" correlation; when two variables are correlated)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the relationship between causality and correlation
     2.Understands the concept of spurious correlation
     3. Understands the concept of correlation
   Benchmark 4.Understands different methods of curve-fitting (e.g., median-fit line, regression line) and various applications (e.g., making predictions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1. Understands the median-fit method of curve fitting
     2.Understands the least squares method of curve fitting
     3.Understands prediction as it relates to curve fitting
     4.Understands the concept of curve fitting
   Benchmark 5.Understands how outliers may affect various representations of data (e.g., a regression line might be strongly influenced by a few aberrant points, whereas the scatter plot for the same data might suggest that the aberrant points represent mistakes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how outliers can affect a regression line
     2.Understands how a scatter plot helps identify outliers
   Benchmark 6.Understands how the reader’s bias, measurement error, and display distortion can affect the interpretation of data
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how reader bias can affect data interpretation
     2.Understands how measurement errors can affect data interpretation
     3.Understands how display errors can affect data interpretation
  Level V (Grade (College Readiness))
   Benchmark 2.Evaluates reports in the media in terms of the sources of the data and the design of the study
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Evaluates reports in the media based on the sources of the data

Business Education

 Standard 13.  Analyzes and interprets data using common statistical procedures, charts, and graphs
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Uses tables, graphs, diagrams, and charts to obtain or convey quantitative information (e.g., manual or electronic representations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Uses tables to obtain quantitative information
     2.Uses graphs to obtain quantitative information
     3.Uses diagrams to obtain quantitative information
     4.Uses charts to obtain quantitative information
     5.Uses tables to convey quantitative information
     6.Uses graphs to convey quantitative information
     7.Uses diagrams to convey quantitative information
     8.Uses charts to convey quantitative information
     9.Uses manual representations to obtain quantitative information
     10.Uses manual representations to convey quantitative information
     11.Uses electronic representations to obtain quantitative information
     12.Uses electronic representations to convey quantitative information
   Benchmark 4.Understands how outliers may affect various representations of data (e.g., a regression line might be strongly influenced by a few aberrant points, whereas the scatter plot for the same data might suggest that the aberrant points represent mistakes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that a regression line might be strongly influenced by a few aberrant points
     2.Understands that a scatter plot might suggest that aberrant points represent mistakes
   Benchmark 5.Understands how the reader’s bias, measurement error, and display distortion can affect the interpretation of data
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the reader’s bias can affect the interpretation of data
     3.Understands how the display distortion can affect the interpretation of data