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Topic: Significant scientists and inventors and their technological innovations 

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 8.  Understands major discoveries in science and technology, some of their social and economic effects, and the major scientists and inventors responsible for them
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the accomplishments of major scientists and inventors (e.g., George Washington Carver, Galileo, Marie Curie, Louis Pasteur, Alexander Graham Bell)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that George Washington Carver was an agricultural scientist who discovered many uses for the peanut
     2.Knows that Galileo was forced to renounce his belief that the earth revolved around the sun
     3.Knows that Marie Curie discovered the element radium
     4.Knows that Louis Pasteur developed pasteurization, a method of killing bacteria in fluids
     5.Knows that Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 3.Knows various technological developments to control fire, water, wind, and soil, and to utilize natural resources (e.g., trees, coal, oil, gas) in order to satisfy basic human needs for food, water, clothing, and shelter
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows technological developments for controlling fire
     2.Knows technological developments for controlling water
     3.Knows technological developments for controlling wind
     4.Knows technological developments for controlling soil
     5.Knows technological developments that aid in the use of natural resources
     6.Knows technological developments that aid in the use of trees as a natural resource
     7.Knows technological developments that aid in the use of coal as a natural resource
     8.Knows technological developments that aid in the use of oil and gas as natural resources
     9.Understands that some technological developments allow humans to control nature
     10.Understands that some technological developments allow humans to utilize natural resources to satisfy basic human needs
   Benchmark 4.Knows about technological inventions and developments that evolved during the 19th century and the influence of these changes on the lives of workers
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about 19th century technological inventions
     2.Knows about 19th century technological developments
     3.Knows about the influence of 19th century technological inventions on the lives of workers
     4.Knows about the influence of 19th century technological developments on the lives of workers
   Benchmark 10.Knows about people who have made significant contributions in the field of transportation (e.g., Henry Ford, Amelia Earhart, John Glenn, Sally Ride)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that Henry Ford made a significant contribution in the field of transportation by initiating the mass production of automobiles
     2.Knows that Amelia Earhart made a significant contribution in the field of transportation by being the first woman to fly an airplane across the Atlantic Ocean
     3.Knows that John Glenn made a significant contribution in the field of transportation by being the first American to orbit the Earth
     4.Knows that Sally Ride made a significant contribution in the field of transportation by being the first American woman astronaut
   Benchmark 13.Knows about people who have made significant contributions in the field of communications (e.g., the inventors of the telegraph, telephone, the Braille alphabet, radio, television, the computer, satellite communication)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the inventor of the telegraph
     2.Knows the inventor of the telephone
     3.Knows the inventor of the Braille alphabet
     4.Knows the inventor of the radio
     5.Knows the inventor of the television
     6.Knows the inventor of the computer
     7.Knows the inventor of satellite communication
   Benchmark 14.Knows the significant scientific and technological achievements of various historical societies (e.g., the invention of paper in China, Mayan calendars, mummification in Egypt, astronomical discoveries in the Moslem world, the invention of the steam engine in England)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the invention of paper in China was a significant technological achievement
     2.Knows that the Mayan calendar was a significant scientific achievement
     3.Knows that mummification in Egypt was a significant scientific achievement
     4.Knows that astronomical discoveries in the Moslem world were a significant scientific achievement
     5.Knows that the invention of the steam engine in England was a significant technological achievement