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Topic: Science, technology, and society 

Science

 Standard 13.  Understands the scientific enterprise
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 6.Knows ways in which science and society influence one another (e.g., scientific knowledge and the procedures used by scientists influence the way many individuals think about themselves, others, and the environment; societal challenges often inspire questions for scientific research; social and economic forces strongly influence which science research programs are pursued and funded)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that scientific procedures influence the way individuals think about the environment
     2.Knows that scientific knowledge influences the way individuals think about themselves
     3.Knows that scientific knowledge influences the way individuals think about others
     4.Knows that scientific knowledge influences the way individuals think about the environment
     5.Knows that societal challenges inspire questions for scientific research
     6.Knows that social forces influence which science research programs are pursued
     7.Knows that social forces influence which science research programs are funded
     8.Knows that economic forces influence which science research programs are pursued
     9.Knows that economic forces influence which science research programs are funded
     10.Knows that scientific procedures influence the way individuals think about themselves
     11.Knows that scientific procedures influence the way individuals think about others
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that, throughout history, diverse cultures have developed scientific ideas and solved human problems through technology
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that throughout history, diverse cultures have developed scientific ideas through technology
     2.Knows that throughout history, diverse cultures have solved human problems through technology
   Benchmark 4.Knows that science and technology are essential social enterprises, but alone they can only indicate what can happen, not what should happen
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that science is essentially a social enterprise
     2.Knows that technology is essentially a social enterprise
     3.Knows that science alone can only indicate what can happen, not what should happen

Geography

 Standard 4.  Understands the physical and human characteristics of place
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows how technology shapes the human and physical characteristics of places (e.g., satellite dishes, computers, road construction)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how technology shapes the human characteristics of places
     2.Knows how technology shapes the physical characteristics of places
     3.Knows that satellite dishes shape places
     4.Knows that computer technology shapes places
     5.Knows that road construction shapes places
 Standard 6.  Understands that culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places and regions
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows how technology affects the ways in which culture groups perceive and use places and regions (e.g., impact of technology such as air conditioning and irrigation on the human use of arid lands; changes in perception of environment by culture groups, such as the snowmobile's impact on the lives of Inuit people or the swamp buggy's impact on tourist travel in the Everglades)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how technology affects the ways in which culture groups perceive places
     2.Knows how technology affects the ways in which culture groups use places
     3.Knows how technology affects the ways in which culture groups perceive regions
     4.Knows how technology affects the ways in which culture groups use regions
     5.Understands the impact of air conditioning on the human use of arid lands
     6.Understands the impact of irrigation on the human use of arid lands
     7.Understands the impact of the snowmobile on the lives of Inuit people
     8.Understands the impact of the swamp buggy on tourist travel in the Everglades
 Standard 9.  Understands the nature, distribution and migration of human populations on Earth's surface
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows how human mobility and city/region interdependence can be increased and regional integration can be facilitated by improved transportation systems (e.g., the national interstate highway system in the United States, the network of global air routes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how human mobility can be increased by improved transportation systems
     2.Knows how city/region interdependence can be increased by improved transportation systems
     3.Knows how regional integration can be facilitated by improved transportation systems
     4.Understands how national interstate highway system in the United States increases human mobility
     5.Understands how national interstate highway system in the United States increases city/region interdependence
     6.Understands how national interstate highway system in the United States increases regional integration
     7.Understands how the network of global air routes increases human mobility
     8.Understands how the network of global air routes increases city/region interdependence
     9.Understands how the network of global air routes increases regional integration
 Standard 14.  Understands how human actions modify the physical environment
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the ways in which technology influences the human capacity to modify the physical environment (e.g., effects of the introduction of fire, steam power, diesel machinery, electricity, work animals, explosives, chemical fertilizers and pesticides, hybridization of crops)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the human capacity to modify the physical environment has been affected by the introduction of work animals
     2.Understands how the human capacity to modify the physical environment has been affected by the introduction of steam power
     3.Understands how the human capacity to modify the physical environment has been affected by the introduction of diesel machinery
     4.Understands how the human capacity to modify the physical environment has been affected by the introduction of electricity
     5.Understands how the human capacity to modify the physical environment has been affected by the introduction of fire
     6.Understands how the human capacity to modify the physical environment has been affected by the introduction of explosives
     7.Understands how the human capacity to modify the physical environment has been affected by the introduction of chemical fertilizers and pesticides
     8.Understands how the human capacity to modify the physical environment has been affected by the introduction of crop hybridization
   Benchmark 4.Understands the environmental consequences of both the unintended and intended outcomes of major technological changes in human history (e.g., the effects of automobiles using fossil fuels, nuclear power plants creating the problem of nuclear-waste storage, the use of steel-tipped plows or the expansion of the amount of land brought into agriculture)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the environmental consequences of the unintended outcomes of major technological changes in human history
     2.Understands the environmental consequences of the intended outcomes of major technological changes in human history
     3.Understands the environmental consequences of automobiles using fossil fuels
     4.Understands the environmental consequences of nuclear power plants creating the problem of nuclear-waste storage
     5.Understands the environmental consequences of the use of steel-tipped plows
     6.Understands the environmental consequences of the expansion of the amount of land brought into agriculture
 Standard 15.  Understands how physical systems affect human systems
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows how humans overcome "limits to growth" imposed by physical systems (e.g., technology, human adaptation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that humans have used technology to overcome “limits to growth” imposed by physical systems
     2.Knows that human adaptation has allowed for humans to overcome “limits to growth” imposed by physical systems
 Standard 16.  Understands the changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution and importance of resources
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the role of technology in resource acquisition and use, and its impact on the environment (e.g., the use of giant earth-moving machinery in strip-mining, the use of satellite imagery technology in the search for petroleum, rates of resource consumption among countries of high or low levels of technological development)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of technology in resource acquisition
     2.Understands the role of technology in resource use
     3.Understands the impact of resource technology on the environment
     4.Understands the use of giant earth-moving machinery in strip-mining
     5.Understands the use of satellite imagery technology in the search for petroleum
     6.Understands the rate of resource consumption among countries of low levels of technological development
     7.Understands the rate of resource consumption among countries of high levels of technological development
   Benchmark 6.Understands how energy resources contribute to the development and functioning of human societies (e.g., by providing power for transportation, manufacturing, the heating and cooling of buildings)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how energy resources contribute to the development of human societies
     2.Understands how energy resources contribute to the functioning of human societies
     3.Understands that energy resources provide power for transportation
     4.Understands that energy resources provide power for manufacturing
     5.Understands that energy resources provide power for the heating and cooling of buildings
   Benchmark 7.Understands how the development and widespread use of alternative energy sources (e.g., solar, wind, thermal) might have an impact on societies (in terms of, e.g., air and water quality, existing energy industries, and current manufacturing practices)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the development and widespread use of solar power might impact societies in terms of air quality
     2.Understands how the development and widespread use of solar power might impact societies in terms of water quality
     3.Understands how the development and widespread use of solar power might impact societies in terms of existing energy industries
     4.Understands how the development and widespread use of solar power might impact societies in terms of current manufacturing practices
     5.Understands how the development and widespread use of wind power might impact societies in terms of air quality
     6.Understands how the development and widespread use of wind power might impact societies in terms of water quality
     7.Understands how the development and widespread use of wind power might impact societies in terms of existing energy industries
     8.Understands how the development and widespread use of wind power might impact societies in terms of current manufacturing practices
     9.Understands how the development and widespread use of thermal energy might impact societies in terms of air quality
     10.Understands how the development and widespread use of thermal energy might impact societies in terms of water quality
     11.Understands how the development and widespread use of thermal energy might impact societies in terms of existing energy industries
     12.Understands how the development and widespread use of thermal energy might impact societies in terms of current manufacturing practices
 Standard 17.  Understands how geography is used to interpret the past
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how people's changing perceptions of geographic features have led to changes in human societies (e.g., the effects of religion on world economic development patterns, cultural conflict, social integration, resource use; the effects of technology on human control over nature, such as large-scale agriculture in Ukraine and northern China, strip-mining in Russia, and center-pivot irrigation in the southwestern United States)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the effects of technology on human control over nature, such as large-scale agriculture in Ukraine and northern China
     6.Understands the effects of technology on human control over nature, such as strip-mining in Russia
     7.Understands the effects of technology on human control over nature, such as center-pivot irrigation in the southwestern United States

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 1.  Understands family life now and in the past, and family life in various places long ago
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 3.Knows the cultural similarities and differences in clothes, homes, food, communication, technology, and cultural traditions between families now and in the past
    Knowledge/skill statements
     10.Knows means of communication used by families today
     11.Knows means of communication used by families in the past
     12.Knows similarities and differences in means of communication used by families now and in the past
     13.Knows types of technology used by families today
     14.Knows types of technology used by families in the past
     15.Knows similarities and differences in types of technology used by families now and in the past
 Standard 7.  Understands selected attributes and historical developments of societies in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 5.Knows significant historical achievements of various cultures of the world (e.g., the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Taj Mahal in India, pyramids in Egypt, temples in ancient Greece, bridges and aqueducts in ancient Rome)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon was a significant historical achievement
     2.Knows that the construction of the Taj Mahal in India was a significant historical accomplishment
     3.Knows that the construction of the pyramids in Egypt was a significant historical accomplishment
     4.Knows that the construction of temples in ancient Greece was a significant historical accomplishment
     5.Knows that the construction of bridges and aqueducts in ancient Rome was a significant historical accomplishment
 Standard 8.  Understands major discoveries in science and technology, some of their social and economic effects, and the major scientists and inventors responsible for them
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the accomplishments of major scientists and inventors (e.g., George Washington Carver, Galileo, Marie Curie, Louis Pasteur, Alexander Graham Bell)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that George Washington Carver was an agricultural scientist who discovered many uses for the peanut
     2.Knows that Galileo was forced to renounce his belief that the earth revolved around the sun
     3.Knows that Marie Curie discovered the element radium
     4.Knows that Louis Pasteur developed pasteurization, a method of killing bacteria in fluids
     5.Knows that Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone
   Benchmark 3.Knows basic information about marine transportation (e.g., the technology and activities of people along the Erie Canal)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the technology of the Erie Canal
     2.Understands the activities of people along the Erie Canal
   Benchmark 4.Knows the ways people communicate with each other now and long ago, and the technological developments that facilitated communication (e.g., speaking by gestures, transmitting stories orally, pictographs, hieroglyphics, different alphabets, writing by hand, printing techniques, the invention of the telegraph and telephone, satellite transmission of messages)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     11.Knows that the invention of the telegraph facilitated communication between people
     12.Knows that the invention of the telephone facilitated communication between people
   Benchmark 5.Knows various systems of long-distance communication and their effects (e.g., runners, the "talking drums" of Africa, smoke signals of Native Americans, the pony express, the telegraph, telephones, satellite systems)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     9.Knows that the telegraph is a system of long-distance communication
     10.Knows the effects of using the telegraph as a system of long-distance communication
     11.Knows that telephones are used as a system of long-distance communication
     12.Knows the effects of using telephones as a system of long-distance communication
     13.Knows that satellite systems are systems of long-distance communication
     14.Knows the effects of the use of satellite systems as systems of long-distance communication
   Benchmark 6.Understands differences in the methods of travel from various times in human history and the advantages and disadvantages of each (e.g., the use of animals such as horses and camels; nonmotorized vehicles such as chariots and hot air balloons; motorized vehicles such as railroads, automobiles, and airplanes; modern space advancements)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows that nonmotorized vehicles such as chariots and hot air balloons have been used as a method of travel
     4.Understands the advantages and disadvantages of using nonmotorized vehicles such as chariots and hot air balloons as a method of travel
     5.Knows that motorized vehicles such as railroads, automobiles, and airplanes are used today as a method of travel
     6.Understands the advantages and disadvantages of using motorized vehicles such as railroads, automobiles, and airplanes as a method of travel
     7.Knows that modern space advancements have allowed travel in space
     8.Understands the advantages and disadvantages of space travel
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 1.Knows about the development of the wheel and its early uses in ancient societies
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how the wheel was developed
     2.Knows how ancient societies used the wheel
   Benchmark 2.Understands the development and the influence of basic tools on work and behavior
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the development of basic tools
     2.Understands the influence of basic tools on work
     3.Understands the influence of basic tools on behavior
   Benchmark 3.Knows various technological developments to control fire, water, wind, and soil, and to utilize natural resources (e.g., trees, coal, oil, gas) in order to satisfy basic human needs for food, water, clothing, and shelter
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows technological developments for controlling fire
     2.Knows technological developments for controlling water
     3.Knows technological developments for controlling wind
     4.Knows technological developments for controlling soil
     5.Knows technological developments that aid in the use of natural resources
     6.Knows technological developments that aid in the use of trees as a natural resource
     7.Knows technological developments that aid in the use of coal as a natural resource
     8.Knows technological developments that aid in the use of oil and gas as natural resources
     9.Understands that some technological developments allow humans to control nature
     10.Understands that some technological developments allow humans to utilize natural resources to satisfy basic human needs
   Benchmark 4.Knows about technological inventions and developments that evolved during the 19th century and the influence of these changes on the lives of workers
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about 19th century technological inventions
     2.Knows about 19th century technological developments
     3.Knows about the influence of 19th century technological inventions on the lives of workers
     4.Knows about the influence of 19th century technological developments on the lives of workers
   Benchmark 5.Knows the different forms of transportation and their developments over time
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that there are different forms of transportation
     2.Knows that different forms of transportation have developed over time
   Benchmark 6.Understands the development in marine vessels constructed by people from ancient times until today (e.g., early dugout Phoenician ships, Native American canoes, the Portuguese caravel, the Chinese vessels used by Zheng He, the Arab dhow, the Norse long ships, currachs used in the British Isles, square riggers, aircraft carriers, submarines, bathyscaphs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that marine vessels have developed over time
     2.Understands that early dugout Phoenician ships were a type of marine vessel
     3.Understands that the Native American canoe was a type of marine vessel
     4.Understands that the Portuguese caravel was a type of marine vessel
     5.Understands that the Chinese vessels used by Zheng He were a type of marine vessel
     6.Understands that the Arab dhow was a type of marine vessel
     7.Understands that the Norse long ships were a type of marine vessel
     8.Understands that currachs used in the British Isles are a type of marine vessel
     9.Understands that a square rigger is a type of marine vessel
     10.Understands that an aircraft carrier is a type of marine vessel
     11.Understands that a submarine is a type of marine vessel
     12.Understands that a bathyscaph is a type of marine vessel
   Benchmark 7.Understands the development of extensive road systems (e.g., the Roman system of roads; the trade routes by camel caravan linking East Asia, Southwest Asia, and Africa during the ancient and early Middle Ages; the network of roads and highways of the Inca in Peru; the interstate highway system), the travel and communication difficulties encountered by people over vast expanses of territory, and the social and economic effects of these developments
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the development of extensive road systems in different time periods
     2.Understands the development of the Roman system of roads
     4.Understands the development of the Incan network of roads and highways in Peru
     5.Understands the development of the modern interstate highway system
     6.Understands travel difficulties encountered by people over vast expanses of territory
     7.Understands communication difficulties encountered by people over vast expanses of territory
     8.Understands the social effects of the development of extensive road systems
     9.Understands the economic effects of the development of extensive road systems
   Benchmark 8.Knows the developments in rail transportation beginning in the 19th century and the effects of national systems of railroad transport on the lives of people
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that rail transportation was developed in the 19th century
     2.Knows the developments in rail transportation since its origin
     3.Understands the effects of national railroad systems on people’s lives
   Benchmark 9.Understands the design and development of aircraft and rocketry, and the people involved
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the design of aircraft
     2.Understands the development of aircraft
     3.Knows the people involved in the design and development of aircraft
     4.Understands the design of rocketry
     5.Understands the development of rocketry
     6.Knows the people involved in the design and development of rocketry
   Benchmark 10.Knows about people who have made significant contributions in the field of transportation (e.g., Henry Ford, Amelia Earhart, John Glenn, Sally Ride)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that Henry Ford made a significant contribution in the field of transportation by initiating the mass production of automobiles
     2.Knows that Amelia Earhart made a significant contribution in the field of transportation by being the first woman to fly an airplane across the Atlantic Ocean
     3.Knows that John Glenn made a significant contribution in the field of transportation by being the first American to orbit the Earth
     4.Knows that Sally Ride made a significant contribution in the field of transportation by being the first American woman astronaut
   Benchmark 11.Understands the origins and changes in methods of writing over time and how the changes made communications between people more effective (e.g., pictographs, cuneiform, hieroglyphics, alphabets)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of various methods of writing
     2.Understands that methods of writing have changed over time
     3.Understands how changes in methods of writing have made communications between people more effective
     4.Knows that pictographs are a method of writing
     5.Knows that cuneiform is a method of writing
     6.Knows that hieroglyphics are a method of writing
     7.Knows that alphabets are a method of writing
   Benchmark 12.Understands the significance of the printing press, the computer, and electronic developments in communication and their impact on the spread of ideas
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of the printing press
     2.Understands the impact of the printing press on the spread of ideas
     3.Understands the significance of the computer
     4.Understands the impact of the computer on the spread of ideas
     5.Understands the significance of electronic developments in communication
     6.Understands the impact of electronic developments in communication on the spread of ideas
   Benchmark 13.Knows about people who have made significant contributions in the field of communications (e.g., the inventors of the telegraph, telephone, the Braille alphabet, radio, television, the computer, satellite communication)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the inventor of the telegraph
     2.Knows the inventor of the telephone
     3.Knows the inventor of the Braille alphabet
     4.Knows the inventor of the radio
     5.Knows the inventor of the television
     6.Knows the inventor of the computer
     7.Knows the inventor of satellite communication
   Benchmark 14.Knows the significant scientific and technological achievements of various historical societies (e.g., the invention of paper in China, Mayan calendars, mummification in Egypt, astronomical discoveries in the Moslem world, the invention of the steam engine in England)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the invention of paper in China was a significant technological achievement
     2.Knows that the Mayan calendar was a significant scientific achievement
     3.Knows that mummification in Egypt was a significant scientific achievement
     4.Knows that astronomical discoveries in the Moslem world were a significant scientific achievement
     5.Knows that the invention of the steam engine in England was a significant technological achievement

Technology

 Standard 3.  Understands the relationships among science, technology, society, and the individual
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that scientific inquiry and technological design have similarities and differences (e.g., scientists propose explanations for questions about the natural world that are always tentative and evolving, and engineers propose solutions relating to human problems, needs, and aspirations; both science and technology depend on accurate scientific information and they cannot contravene scientific laws)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that scientific inquiry and technological design have similarities
     2.Knows that scientific inquiry and technological design have differences
     3.Knows that scientists propose explanations for questions about the natural world that are always tentative and evolving while engineers propose solutions for relating to human problems, needs, and aspirations
     4.Knows that both science technology depend on accurate scientific information and they cannot contravene scientific laws
   Benchmark 2.Knows that science cannot answer all questions and technology cannot solve all human problems or meet all human needs
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that science cannot answer all questions
     2.Knows that technology cannot solve all human problems or meet all human needs
   Benchmark 3.Knows ways in which technology has influenced the course of history (e.g., revolutions in agriculture, manufacturing, sanitation, medicine, warfare, transportation, information processing, communication)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that an agricultural revolution is one way in which technology has influenced the course of history
     2.Knows that a manufacturing revolution is one way in which technology has influenced the course of history
     3.Knows that a sanitation revolution is one way in which technology has influenced the course of history
     4.Knows that a revolution in medicine is one way in which technology has influenced the course of history
     5.Knows that a warfare revolution is one way in which technology has influenced the course of history
     6.Knows that a transportation revolution is one way in which technology has influenced the course of history
     7.Knows that an information revolution processing is one way in which technology has influenced the course of history
   Benchmark 4.Knows that technology and science have a reciprocal relationship (e.g., technology drives science, as it provides the means to access outer space and remote locations, collect and treat samples, collect, measure, store, and compute data, and communicate information; science drives technology, as it provides principles for better instrumentation and techniques, and the means to address questions that demand more sophisticated instruments)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that technology drives science
     2.Knows that science drives technology
     3.Knows that an example of technology driving science is that it provides the means to access outer space and remote locations, collect and treat samples, collect, measure, store, and compute data, and communicate information
     4.Knows that an example of science driving technology is that it provides principles for better instrumentation and techniques, and the means to address questions that demand more sophisticated instruments
   Benchmark 5.Knows ways in which technology and society influence one another (e.g., new products and processes for society are developed through technology; technological changes are often accompanied by social, political, and economic changes; technology is influenced by social needs, attitudes, values, and limitations, and cultural backgrounds and beliefs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways in which technology influences society
     2.Knows ways in which society influences technology
     3.Knows that new products and processes for society are developed through technology
     4.Knows that technological changes are often accompanied by social, political, and economic changes
     5.Knows that technology is influenced by social needs, attitudes, values, and limitations, and cultural backgrounds and beliefs
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Knows that science and technology are pursued for different purposes (e.g., scientific inquiry is driven by the desire to understand the natural world and seeks to answer questions that may or may not directly influence humans; technology is driven by the need to meet human needs and solve human problems)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the purpose for pursuing science
     2.Knows the purpose for pursuing technology
     3.Knows that scientific inquiry is driven by the desire to understand the natural world
     4.Knows that scientific inquiry seeks to answer questions that may or may not directly influence humans
     5.Knows that technology is driven by the need to meet human needs
     6.Knows that technology is driven by the need to solve human problems
   Benchmark 2.Knows ways in which social and economic forces influence which technologies will be developed and used (e.g., cultural and personal values, consumer acceptance, patent laws, availability of risk capital, the federal budget, local and national regulations, media attention, economic competition, tax incentives)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways in which social forces influence which technologies will be developed
     2.Knows ways in which social forces influence which technologies will be used
     3.Knows ways in which economic forces influence which technologies will be developed
     4.Knows ways in which economic forces influence which technologies will be used
     5.Knows that cultural and personal values may influence which technologies will be developed and used
     6.Knows that consumer acceptance may influence which technologies will be developed and used
     7.Knows that patent laws may influence which technologies will be developed and used
     8.Knows that the availability of risk capital may influence which technologies will be developed and used
     9.Knows that the federal budget may influence which technologies will be developed and used
     10.Knows that local and national regulations may influence which technologies will be developed and used
     11.Knows that media attention may influence which technologies will be developed and used
     12.Knows that economic competition may influence which technologies will be developed and used
     13.Knows that tax incentives may influence which technologies will be developed and used
   Benchmark 4.Knows that technological knowledge is often not made public because of patents and the financial potential of the idea or invention; scientific knowledge is made public through presentations at professional meetings and publications in scientific journals
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that technological knowledge is often not made public because of patents
     2.Knows that technological knowledge is often not made public because of the financial potential of the idea or invention
     3.Knows that scientific knowledge is made public through presentations at professional meetings
     4.Knows that scientific knowledge is made public through publications in scientific journals
 Standard 6.  Understands the nature and uses of different forms of technology
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 5.Knows that transportation systems affect society (e.g., where people live) and are affected by society and nature (e.g., activists may request more public transit, a severe thunderstorm may cause flights to be canceled)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that transportation systems affect society
     2.Knows that transportation systems affect where people live
     3.Knows that transportation systems are affected by society
     4.Knows that transportation systems might be affected by activists who request more public transit
     5.Knows that transportation systems are affected by nature
     6.Knows that transportation systems might be affected by a severe thunderstorm that causes flights to be canceled

United States History

 Standard 1.  Understands the characteristics of societies in the Americas, Western Europe, and Western Africa that increasingly interacted after 1450
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 8.Knows legends of pre-Columbus explorations and understands how they may have contributed to the age of exploration and settlement in the Americas
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how legends of pre-Columbus explorations contributed to the Age of Exploration
     3.Understands how legends of pre-Columbus explorations contributed to settlement in the Americas
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the scientific and technological factors (e.g., navigational knowledge, advances in shipbuilding) that contributed to the age of exploration and settlement in the Americas
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows a variety of scientific factors that led to the Age of Exploration in the Americas
     2.Knows a variety of technological factors that led to the Age of Exploration in the Americas
     3.Understands types of navigational knowledge that were factors that contributed to the Age of Exploration
     4.Knows general advances in shipbuilding that were factors that contributed to the Age of Exploration
 Standard 10.  Understands how the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed American lives and led to regional tensions
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the major technological developments that influenced land and water transportation, the economy, international markets, and the environment between 1801 and 1860 (e.g., the importance of the spinning jenny, steam locomotive, and telegraph; the development of the canal system after 1825 and railroad system after 1860)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the major technological developments that influenced land transportation between 1801 and 1860
     2.Understands the major technological developments that influenced water transportation between 1801 and 1860
     3.Understands the major technological developments that influenced the economy between 1801 and 1860
     4.Understands the major technological developments that influenced international markets between 1801 and 1860
     5.Understands the major technological developments that influenced the environment between 1801 and 1860
     6.Understands the importance of the spinning jenny
     7.Understands the importance of the steam locomotive
     8.Understands the importance of the telegraph
     9.Understands the importance of the development of the canal system after 1825
     10.Understands the importance of the development of the railroad system after 1860
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 7.Understands how major technological and economic developments influenced various groups (e.g., business owners, farmers, workers in different regions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how major technological developments influenced various groups
     2.Understands how major economic developments influenced various groups
     3.Understands the influence of technological developments on business owners
     4.Understands the influence of technological developments on farmers
     5.Understands the influence of technological developments on workers in different regions
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands policies affecting regional and national interests during the early 19th century (e.g., how expansion-based economic policies, including northern dominance of locomotive transportation, contributed to growing political and sectional differences; the cheap price for the sale of western lands to residents of the North, South, and West; Andrew Jackson's veto of the Bank Recharter Bill of 1832)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands policies affecting regional interests during the early 19th century
     2.Understands policies affecting national interests during the early 19th century
     4.Understands how expansion-based economic policies contributed to growing sectional differences
     5.Understands how northern dominance of locomotive transportation contributed to growing political differences
     6.Understands how northern dominance of locomotive transportation contributed to growing sectional differences
     10.Understands Andrew Jackson’s veto of the Bank Recharter Bill of 1832
 Standard 14.  Understands the course and character of the Civil War and its effects on the American people
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the technological, social, and strategic aspects of the Civil War (e.g., the impact of innovations in military technology; turning points of the war; leaders of the Confederacy and Union; conditions, characteristics, and armies of the Confederacy and Union; major areas of Civil War combat)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the technological aspects of the Civil War
     3.Understands the strategic aspects of the Civil War
     4.Understands the impact of innovations in military technology during the Civil War
     10.Understands the characteristics of the Confederacy
     11.Understands the characteristics of the Union
 Standard 16.  Understands how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed American society
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the impact of significant achievements and individuals of the late 19th century (e.g., the effects of major technological, transportation, and communication changes that occurred after 1870; careers of industrial and financial leaders of the late 19th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of significant achievements of the late 19th century
     3.Understands the effects of major technological changes that occurred after 1870
     4.Understands the effects of major transportation changes that occurred after 1870
     5.Understands the effects of major communication changes that occurred after 1870
     6.Understands the impact of careers of industrial leader of the late 19th century
     7.Understands the impact of careers of financial leader of the late 19th century
 Standard 21.  Understands the changing role of the United States in world affairs through World War I
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands World War I prior to U.S. intervention (e.g., the causes in 1914, reasons for declaration of U.S. neutrality, locations of Allied and Central Powers, the extent of war in Europe and the use of new weapons and technology)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the reasons the U.S. declared neutrality
     3.Understands the locations of Allied powers
     4.Understands the locations of the Central powers
     5.Understands the extent of war in Europe
     6.Understands the use of new weapons
     7.Understands the use of new technology
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the development of World War I (e.g., the influence of industrial research in aviation and chemical warfare on military strategy and the war’s outcome, how technological developments contributed to the war’s brutality, the system of alliances through which European nations sought to protect their interests, how nationalism and militarism contributed to the outbreak, how the war expanded to become a world war)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of industrial research in aviation on military strategy
     2.Understands the influence of chemical warfare on military strategy
     3.Understands the influence of chemical warfare on the war’s outcome
     4.Understands the influence of industrial research in aviation on the war’s outcome
     5.Understands how technological developments contributed to the war’s brutality
     6.Understands the system of alliances through which European nations sought to protect their interests
     9.Understands how the war expanded to become a world war
 Standard 22.  Understands how the United States changed between the post-World War I years and the eve of the Great Depression
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how urban life changed in the 1920s (e.g., how scientific management and technological innovations, including assembly lines, rapid transit, household appliances, and radio, transformed production, work and daily life; how improvements in steel construction and elevators contributed to the changes; why people prized home ownership; why people left the cities for the suburbs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how scientific management transformed production in the 1920s
     2.Understands how scientific management transformed work in the 1920s
     3.Understands how scientific management transformed daily life in the 1920s
     4.Understands how technological innovations transformed production in the 1920s
     5.Understands how technological innovations transformed work in the 1920s
     6.Understands how technological innovations transformed daily life in the 1920s
     7.Understands how assembly lines transformed production in the 1920s
     8.Understands how assembly lines transformed work in the 1920s
     9.Understands how assembly lines transformed daily life in the 1920s
     10.Understands how rapid transit transformed production in the 1920s
     11.Understands how rapid transit transformed work in the 1920s
     12.Understands how rapid transit transformed daily life in the 1920s
     13.Understands how household appliances transformed production in the 1920s
     14.Understands how household appliances transformed work in the 1920s
     15.Understands how household appliances transformed daily life in the 1920s
     16.Understands how radio transformed production in the 1920s
     17.Understands how radio transformed work in the 1920s
     18.Understands how radio transformed daily life in the 1920s
     19.Understands how improvements in steel constructions contributed to changes in the 1920s
     20.Understands how elevators contributed to changes in the 1920s
     22.Understands why people left the cities for the suburbs in the 1920s
   Benchmark 6.Understands how women's lives changed after World War I (e.g., their contributions in schools, hospitals, settlement houses, and social agencies; how the spread of electrification and household appliances improved the life of homemakers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands women’s contributions in hospitals after World War I
     5.Understands how the spread of electrification improved the life of homemakers
     6.Understands how the spread of household appliances improved the life of homemakers
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands elements that contributed to the rise of modern capitalist economy (e.g., changes in the modern corporation of the 1920s, including labor policies and the advent of mass advertising and sales techniques; the role of new technology and scientific research in the rise of agribusiness and agricultural productivity; the impact of advertisement on the desire for new products)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands changes from the advent of mass advertising in modern corporations of the 1920s
     5.Understands the role of new technology in the rise of agribusiness
     6.Understands the role of new technology in the rise of agricultural productivity
     7.Understands the role of new scientific research in the rise of agribusiness
     8.Understands the role of new scientific research in the rise of agricultural productivity
     9.Understands the impact of advertisement on the desire for new products
 Standard 25.  Understands the causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the legacy of World War II (e.g., the decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan during World War II, how military experiences fostered American identity and cross-cultural interaction, the purpose and organization of the United Nations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan during World War II
     3.Understands how military experiences fostered cross-cultural interaction
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how World War II influenced the home front (e.g., the impact on science, medicine, and technology; how Americans viewed their achievements and global responsibilities at the war’s end; how minorities contributed to the war effort and the contradiction between their treatment at home and the goals that they were fighting for in Europe; the effects of the relocation centers on Japanese American families)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of World War II on science
     2.Understands the impact of World War II on medicine
     3.Understands the impact of World War II on technology
 Standard 26.  Understands the economic boom and social transformation of post-World War II United States
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the impact of postwar scientific research on contemporary society (e.g., the work of pioneers in modern scientific research, the significance of research and scientific breakthroughs in promoting the U.S. space program)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the work of pioneers in modern scientific research
     2.Understands the significance of research breakthroughs in promoting the U.S. space program
     3.Understands the significance of scientific breakthroughs in promoting the U.S. space program
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands scientific and technological developments in America after World War II (e.g., the new system of scientific research and development, advances in medical science and how they improved the standard of living and changed demographic patterns, the global influence of the communications revolution ushered in by American technology)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands scientific developments in America after World War II
     2.Understands technological developments in America after World War II
     3.Understands the new system of scientific research after World War II
     4.Understands the new system of scientific development after World War II
     5.Understands advances in medical science after World War II
     6.Understands how advances in medical science after World War II improved the standard of living
     7.Understands how advances in medical science after World War II changed demographic patterns
     8.Understands the global influence of the communications revolution ushered in by American technology

World History

 Standard 2.  Understands the processes that contributed to the emergence of agricultural societies around the world
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands immediate and long-term impacts and influences of early agricultural communities (e.g., areas in Southwest Asia and the Nile valley where early farming communities first appeared, the effect of new tools and other objects on early farming settlements, whether fishing was considered a nomadic or agricultural way of life)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows the effect of new tools and other objects on early farming settlements
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how agricultural communities maintained their produce and livestock (e.g., methods used by scholars to reconstruct the early history of domestication and agricultural settlement, how and why human groups domesticated wild grains and animals after the last Ice Age, the importance of controlling food supplies and storing them in the "Neolithic revolution")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how early agricultural communities maintained their produce
     2.Understands how early agricultural communities maintained their livestock
     3.Knows methods used by scholars to reconstruct the early history of domestication and agricultural settlement
     4.Understands how and why human groups domesticated wild grains and animals after the last Ice Age
     5.Understands the importance of controlling food supplies and storing them in the "Neolithic revolution"
 Standard 3.  Understands the major characteristics of civilization and the development of civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the characteristics of writing forms in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley and how written records shaped political, legal, religious, and cultural life
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the characteristics of writing forms in Mesopotamia
     2.Understands the characteristics of writing forms in early Egypt
     3.Understands the characteristics of writing forms in the Indus Valley
     4.Understands how written records shaped political, legal, religious, and cultural life in Mesopotamia
     5.Understands how written records shaped political, legal, religious, and cultural life in early Egypt
     6.Understands how written records shaped political, legal, religious, and cultural life in the Indus Valley
 Standard 4.  Understands how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the development of different types of tools influenced Chinese civilization (e.g., the uses and significance of bronze tool-making technology, weapons, and luxury goods in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE; the unique nature of Chinese writing tools, surfaces, and styles in the 2nd millennia BCE)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows a variety of technologies, tools, and goods developed in China in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE
     2.Understands the uses of bronze tool making technology, weapons, and luxury goods in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE
     3.Understands the significance of bronze tool making technology, weapons, and luxury goods in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE
     4.Understands the unique nature of Chinese writing tools, surfaces, and styles in the 2nd millennium BCE
   Benchmark 3.Understands the role of technology in early agrarian societies (e.g., how the advent of the plow influenced new agrarian societies in Southwest Asia, the Mediterranean basin, and temperate Europe; how megalithic stone buildings, such as Stonehenge, indicate the emergence of complex agrarian societies in Europe; changes for humankind and civilization brought on by the bow and arrow and by pottery; what physical evidence indicated about the characteristics of the agrarian society of ancient Egypt and the life of the Pharaoh)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the advent of the plow influenced new agrarian societies in Southwest Asia, the Mediterranean basin, and temperate Europe
     2.Understands how megalithic stone buildings, such as Stonehenge, indicate the emergence of complex agrarian societies in Europe
     3.Knows changes for humankind and civilization brought on by the bow and arrow and by pottery
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the significance of advancements in tool and weapon technology (e.g., the technology of bronze casting and why bronze weapons were superior to those made of stone; how the development of the plow, bow and arrow, and pottery affected early man and led to changes in gender roles)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the technology of bronze casting and why bronze weapons were superior to those made of stone
     2.Understands how the development of the plow, bow and arrow, and pottery affected early man
     3.Understands how the development of the plow, bow and arrow, and pottery led to changes in gender roles
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the impact of various technologies (e.g., the wheel, pottery, the sail, weaving, bronze casting, the plow) upon social organization and the political and economic power of the groups that used them
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of various technologies (e.g., the wheel, pottery, the sail, weaving, bronze casting, the plow) upon social organization
     2.Understands the impact of various technologies (e.g., the wheel, pottery, the sail, weaving, bronze casting, the plow) upon the political power of the groups that used them
     3.Understands the impact of various technologies (e.g., the wheel, pottery, the sail, weaving, bronze casting, the plow) upon the economic power of the groups that used them
 Standard 5.  Understands the political, social, and cultural consequences of population movements and militarization in Eurasia in the second millennium BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how the invention of the chariot affected Southwest Asian societies (e.g., how the chariot changed transportation, the development of chariot warfare, how the chariot contributed to the spread of new ideas and technology)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the chariot changed transportation
     2.Understands the development of chariot warfare
     3.Understands how the chariot contributed to the spread of new ideas and technology
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the emergence and militarization of new kingdoms (e.g., what visual and written sources suggest about the impact of chariot warfare on the battlefield; the boundaries of major states in Southwest Asia, Egypt, and the Eastern Mediterranean in the later part of the 2nd millennium BCE and why wars and diplomatic relations among these states may have represented the first era of "internationalism" in world history)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands what visual and written sources suggest about the impact of chariot warfare on the battlefield
 Standard 6.  Understands major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how new ideas, products, techniques, and institutions spread from one region to another and the conditions under which people assimilated or rejected new ideas or adapted them to cultural traditions
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how new products spread from one region to another
     3.Understands how new techniques spread from one region to another
     4.Understands how new institutions spread from one region to another
     5.Understands the conditions under which people assimilated new ideas
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows the fundamental inventions, discoveries, techniques, and institutions that appeared from 4000 to 1000 BCE, and understands the significance of bronze technology for economic, cultural, and political life
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the fundamental inventions that appeared from 4000 to 1000 BCE
     2.Knows the fundamental discoveries from 4000 to 1000 BCE
     3.Knows the fundamental techniques that appeared from 4000 to 1000 BCE
     4.Knows the fundamental institutions that appeared from 4000 to 1000 BCE
     5.Understands the significance of bronze technology for economic life
     6.Understands the significance of bronze technology for cultural life
     7.Understands the significance of bronze technology for political life
 Standard 7.  Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands major technological, military, and political events in the development of Kushite society (e.g., the importance of Nile Valley trade and the decline of the New Kingdom as factors in the rise of the Kushite state in the 1st millennium BCE, how iron was used in Kushite society and which uses were most important to the kingdom)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major technological events in the development of Kushite society
     5.Understands how iron was used in Kushite society and which uses were most important to the kingdom
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the role of technology in societies of Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean region (e.g., the fundamentals of iron-making technology and consequences of iron tools and weapons to those societies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of technology in societies of Southwest Asia
     2.Knows the fundamentals of iron making technology
     3.Understands the consequences of iron tools and weapons to societies of Southwest Asia
     4.Understands the consequences of iron tools and weapons to societies of the Mediterranean basin
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the emergence of states south of the Sahara desert and the influence of metal technology in Sub-Saharan and West Africa (e.g., theories about the spread of iron technology in West and East Africa, whether iron technology was brought to West Africa or developed in this region independently, what archaeological evidence such as Nok terra cotta figures and metal implements illustrate about the society and culture of their West African creators)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the influence of metal technology in Sub Saharan and West Africa
     3.Understands theories about the spread of iron technology in West and East Africa
     4.Knows theories about whether iron technology was brought to West Africa or developed in this region independently
     5.Understands what archaeological evidence such as Nok terra cotta figures and metal implements illustrate about the society and culture of their West African creators
 Standard 9.  Understand how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands fundamental social, political, and cultural characteristics of Chinese society under early imperial dynasties (e.g., the importance of the "Mandate of Heaven" to the success of the Zhou Dynasty and its development of imperial rule; the literary and artistic achievements of early imperial dynasties; the development and consequences of iron technology and the family division of labor system; comparisons between the Shang, Zhou, Quin, and Han Empires in areas they controlled and methods of government; the composition and stratification of Chinese society, and factors that gave individuals status; imperial attitudes and actions toward nomadic peoples along the borders of the kingdom)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands the development and consequences of iron technology
 Standard 11.  Understands major global trends from 1000 BCE to 300 CE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the fundamentals of iron metallurgy and understands the economic, cultural, and political significance of iron technology in Eurasia and Africa
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the fundamentals of iron metallurgy
     2.Understands the economic significance of iron technology in Eurasia and Africa
     3.Understands the cultural significance of iron technology in Eurasia and Africa
     4.Understands the political significance of iron technology in Eurasia and Africa
 Standard 13.  Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the Byzantine state withstood attacks between the 8th and 10th centuries (e.g., military technology and the successful defense of Byzantium against Arab Muslim attacks)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows military technology of the Byzantine state
     2.Understands the role of military technology in the successful defense of Byzantium against Arab Muslim attacks
   Benchmark 6.Understands the impact of the invention of paper on various cultures (e.g., Chinese, Muslim, later European culture and its route from its source through Muslim lands to Europe)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of the invention of paper on Chinese culture
     2.Understands the impact of the invention of paper on Muslim culture
     3.Understands the impact of the invention of paper on later European culture
     4.Knows the route of the invention of paper from its source through Muslim lands to Europe
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands significant aspects of Abbasid culture (e.g., sources of Abbasid wealth and the economic and political importance of various forms of slavery; why the Abbasid state became a center of Afro-Eurasian commercial exchange; how the Abbasids promoted and preserved Greek learning and contributed to science, mathematics, and medicine; the contributions of specific individuals to the Abbasid advancement of scientific knowledge)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands how the Abbasids promoted and preserved Greek learning and contributed to science, mathematics, and medicine
     6.Knows the contributions of specific individuals to the Abbasid advancement of scientific knowledge
 Standard 14.  Understands major developments in East Asia and Southeast Asia in the era of the Tang Dynasty from 600 to 900 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the culture and technological achievements of Tang China (e.g., the ideals and values of everyday life expressed in the poetry, landscape, painting, and pottery of the Tang Dynasty; the system of roads and canals in Tang China; the extent of the Tang Empire, the trade routes used by the empire, and the products exchanged; major technologies developed under the Tang Dynasty, how these technologies influenced Tang society and spread to other regions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the technological achievements of Tang China
     4.Understands the system of roads and canals in Tang China as a technological achievement
     8.Knows major technologies developed under the Tang Dynasty
     9.Understands how technologies developed under the Tang Dynasty influenced Tang society
     10.Understands how technologies developed under the Tang Dynasty spread to other regions
 Standard 15.  Understands the political, social, and cultural redefinitions in Europe from 500 to 1000 CE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands central and peripheral reasons for the failure of the Carolingian Empire to endure after the death of Charlemagne (e.g., the independent power of nobles; the advantage of the Magyar cavalry and Viking longboat)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the advantage of the Magyar cavalry and Viking longboat and their role in the failure of the Carolingian Empire to endure after the death of Charlemagne
 Standard 16.  Understands the development of agricultural societies and new states in tropical Africa and Oceania
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the routes by which migrants settled the Pacific Islands and New Zealand and the navigational techniques they used on long distance voyages
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows the navigational techniques migrants to the Pacific Islands and New Zealand used on long distance voyages
 Standard 19.  Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the impact of urbanization and commercial expansion on Chinese society between the 10th and 13th centuries (e.g., the effects of major technological and scientific inventions in the Song era on Chinese life, China's trade with Southeast Asia and the lands rimming the Indian Ocean, how this trade affected China internally)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the effects of major technological and scientific inventions in the Song era on Chinese life
   Benchmark 3.Understands the cultural characteristics of Islamic society (e.g., the importance of scientific, literary, and artistic contributions made by the Islamic civilization between the 11th and 13th centuries; how these contributions helped communication between different Islamic peoples; the diverse, multiethnic character of the Islamic state)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of scientific contributions made by the Islamic civilization between the 11th and 13th centuries
     4.Knows how scientific, literary, and artistic contributions of Islamic civilization helped communication between different Islamic peoples
 Standard 20.  Understands the redefinition of European society and culture from 1000 to 1300 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the connection between agricultural technology and increased agricultural production and population growth in Europe between 1000 and 1300 CE
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the connection between agricultural technology and increased agricultural production in Europe between 1000 and 1300 CE
     2.Understands the connection between agricultural technology and population growth in Europe between 1000 and 1300 CE
 Standard 21.  Understands the rise of the Mongol Empire and its consequences for Eurasian peoples from 1200 to 1350
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the significance of Chinggis Khan (e.g., the major achievements of Chinggis Khan, the geographical extent of Chinggis Khan's conquests, the role military technology may have played in the success of Mongol military campaigns)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows the role military technology may have played in the success of Mongol military campaigns
 Standard 24.  Understands the expansion of states and civilizations in the Americas between 1000 and 1500
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Knows the technology (e.g., engineering of roads, bridges, irrigation systems) and urbanism of the Incas (in Cuzco), the Aztecs (in Tenochtitl n), and of North American mound-builders
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the engineering of roads and bridges by the Incas (in Cuzco), the Aztecs (in Tenochtitlán), and of North American mound builders
     2.Understands the use of irrigation systems by the Incas (in Cuzco), the Aztecs (in Tenochtitlán), and of North American mound builders
     3.Understands aspects of urbanism of the Incas (in Cuzco), the Aztecs (in Tenochtitlán), and of North American mound builders
 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands what contributed to increasing oceanic travel in the 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., major Spanish and Portuguese technological innovations in shipbuilding, navigation, and naval warfare; navigational inventions such as the compass, astrolabe, and quadrant; trade routes of prominent Asian and European explorers and how prevailing wind currents influenced these routes; the features of Chinese and Arab sailing vessels that made long-distance travel easier)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows major Spanish and Portuguese technological innovations in shipbuilding, navigation, and naval warfare that led to increased oceanic travel in the 15th and 16th centuries
     2.Knows navigational inventions such as the compass, astrolabe, and quadrant that led to increased oceanic travel in the 15th and 16th centuries
     5.Knows the features of Chinese and Arab sailing vessels that made long distance travel easier and led to increased oceanic travel in the 15th and 16th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the impact of the exploratory and commercial expeditions in the 15th and 16th centuries (e.g., the motives and short-term significance of the Portuguese and Spanish military and commercial expeditions to Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas; technologies that advanced international, seaborne trade in the latter part of the century; the connotations of the words "conquest," "exchange," and "discovery" used to describe Columbus' travels to North America and his encounters with indigenous populations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Knows technologies that advanced international, seaborne trade in the latter part of the century
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands features of Portuguese overseas trade and exploration (e.g., the goals of the Portuguese trading policy as established by King Jo o II, and his reasons for refusing to finance Columbus' expedition west; the impact of maritime technologies on the quality of Portuguese sailing in the 15th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the impact of maritime technologies on the quality of Portuguese sailing in the 15th century
   Benchmark 6.Knows the extent of Chinese naval and commercial activities in the Indian Ocean in the 15th century, and understands what these activities reveal about Chinese wealth, technology, and its use of tributes as a means of trade
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands what Chinese naval and commercial activities in the Indian Ocean reveal about Chinese technology
 Standard 27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the significance of the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment (e.g., the impact of astronomical discoveries from Copernicus to Newton; principal ideas of the Enlightenment, from rationalism to theories of education; the word "revolution" and what is meant by the term "Scientific Revolution"; the lives and achievements of significant figures of the Scientific Revolution; how Diderot's encyclopedia contributed to the Age of Enlightenment)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of the Scientific Revolution
     3.Knows the impact of astronomical discoveries from Copernicus to Newton
     7.Understands the word "revolution" and what is meant by the term "Scientific Revolution"
     8.Understands the lives and achievements of significant figures of the Scientific Revolution
   Benchmark 5.Understands the role of gunpowder in changing European warfare (e.g., through the necessary redesign of fortifications)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of gunpowder in changing European warfare through the necessary redesign of fortifications
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands contributions of the Scientific Revolution to European society (e.g., the importance of discoveries in mathematics, physics, biology, and chemistry to 17th-and 18th-century Europe; the significance of the principles of the scientific method advanced by Francis Bacon and Ren‚ Descartes; the trial of Galileo and arguments and evidence used to prove him "innocent" or "guilty"; the major features of the Scientific Revolution in major fields of endeavor)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the importance of discoveries in physics to 17th and 18th century Europe
     3.Understands the importance of discoveries in biology to 17th and 18th century Europe
     4.Understands the importance of discoveries in chemistry to 17th and 18th century Europe
     5.Understands the significance of the principles of the scientific method advanced by Francis Bacon and René Descartes
     7.Knows the major features of the Scientific Revolution in major fields of endeavor
   Benchmark 9.Understands the role of gunpowder in the development of strong European leadership (e.g., how gunpowder came to Europe from China, and how it helped establish and maintain the power of state leaders in Europe)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how gunpowder came to Europe from China
     2.Understands how gunpowder helped establish and maintain the power of state leaders in Europe
 Standard 31.  Understands major global trends from 1450 to 1770
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the acceleration of scientific and technological innovations in this era affected social, economic, and cultural life in various parts of the world (e.g., the broad effects of navigational and ship-building innovations such as astrolabe and lateen sails)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the acceleration of scientific and technological innovations in this era affected social life in various parts of the world
     2.Understands how the acceleration of scientific and technological innovations in this era affected economic life in various parts of the world
     3.Understands how the acceleration of scientific and technological innovations in this era affected cultural life in various parts of the world
     4.Understands the broad effects of navigational and ship building innovations such as astrolabe and lateen sails
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the influence of technological advancements on society (e.g., how innovations in military technology and tactics changed the balance of naval military power and affected empire building around the globe; countries that benefitted and suffered as a result of military innovations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how innovations in military technology and tactics changed the balance of naval military power and affected empire building around the globe
     2.Knows countries that benefited as a result of military innovations
     3.Knows countries that suffered as a result of military innovations
 Standard 33.  Understands the causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions from 1700 to 1850
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the impact of the industrial revolution in Europe and the Atlantic Basin (e.g., connections between population growth, industrialization, and urbanization; the quality of life in early 19-century cities; the effects of urbanization on the development of class distinctions, family life, and the daily working lives of men, women, and children; advances made in communication and transportation; effects upon the political and economic status of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Knows advances made in communication and transportation during the industrial revolution
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the importance and consequences of new technologies (e.g., seed drill, crop rotation, stock breeding, three piece iron) in the agricultural revolution
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of new technologies (e.g., seed drill, crop rotation, stock breeding, three piece iron) in the agricultural revolution
     2.Understands the consequences of new technologies (e.g., seed drill, crop rotation, stock breeding, three piece iron) in the agricultural revolution
   Benchmark 5.Understands the impact of new technology that emerged during the industrial revolution (e.g., technological innovations that propelled the textile industry to the forefront of the industrial revolution; the roles of interchangeable parts and mass production in the industrial revolution)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows technological innovations that propelled the textile industry to the forefront of the industrial revolution
     2.Knows the roles of interchangeable parts and mass production in the industrial revolution
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the emergence of new social thought in the 19th century (e.g., ways in which trends in philosophy and the new social sciences challenged and reshaped traditional patterns of thought, religious understanding, and understanding of social organization)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways in which trends in philosophy and the new social sciences challenged and reshaped traditional patterns of thought
     2.Understands ways in which trends in philosophy and the new social sciences challenged and reshaped religious understanding
     3.Knows ways in which trends in philosophy and the new social sciences challenged and reshaped traditional patterns of social organization
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the impact of new inventions and technological developments in various regions of the world (e.g., how new inventions transformed patterns of global communication, trade, and state power; how new machines, fertilizers, transport systems, and commercialization affected agricultural production; significant inventions and inventors in 19th-century Europe and America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how new inventions transformed patterns of global communication
     2.Understands how new inventions transformed patterns of global trade
     3.Understands how new inventions transformed patterns of state power
     4.Understands how new machines, fertilizers, transport systems, and commercialization affected agricultural production
     5.Knows significant inventions and inventors in 19th century Europe and America
   Benchmark 3.Understands factors that contributed to European imperialist expansion between 1850 and 1914 (e.g., advances in transportation, medicine, and weaponry that helped European imperial expansion in the late 19th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows advances in transportation that helped European imperial expansion in the late 19th century
     2.Knows advances in medicine that helped European imperial expansion in the late 19th century
     3.Knows advances in weaponry that helped European imperial expansion in the late 19th century
   Benchmark 4.Understands political and economic changes in Japanese society in the 19th and 20th centuries (e.g., Japan's rapid industrialization, technological advancement, and national integration in the late 19th and 20th centuries; the death of the Meiji emperor in 1912 and the main achievements of Meiji Japan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands Japan’s rapid industrialization in the late 19th and 20th centuries
     4.Understands Japan’s technological advancement in the late 19th and 20th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands major developments in science and the industrial economy (e.g., the social significance of the work of scientists, including Maxwell, Darwin, and Pasteur; how new forms of generative power contributed to Europe's "second industrial revolution;" the role of the state in different countries in directing or encouraging industrialization; the social, economic, and cultural impact of the railroad)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major developments in science in the 19th century
     2.Understands major developments in the industrial economy in the 19th century
     3.Understands the social significance of the work of 19th century scientists, including Maxwell, Darwin, and Pasteur
     4.Knows how new forms of generative power contributed to Europe’s "second industrial revolution
     5.Knows the role of the state in different countries in directing or encouraging industrialization in the 19th century
     6.Understands the social, economic, and cultural impact of the railroad
   Benchmark 2.Understands influences on European migration, immigration, and emigration patterns throughout the world between 1846 and 1932 (e.g., the geographical, political, economic, and epidemiological factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions; possible connections of the rise of the Zulu Empire in South Africa to European settlements in the Cape Region; relations between migrating European and African peoples that laid the foundation for the apartheid system in the 20th century; how technology such as the steamship and the railroad facilitated emigration)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Knows how technology such as the steamship and the railroad facilitated emigration
   Benchmark 8.Understands the diverse factors (e.g., variations in birth and death rates, infant mortality rates) that contributed to the peaking and then leveling off of European population growth from the 17th to the 20th centuries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how variations in birth and death rates contributed to the peaking and then leveling off of European population growth from the 17th to the 20th centuries
     2.Understands how infant mortality rates contributed to the peaking and then leveling off of European population growth from the 17th to the 20th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Understands the advantages and disadvantages of imperialism (e.g., the chief benefits and costs of the introduction of new political institutions, and advances in communication, technology, and medicine to countries under European imperialist rule; how medical advances, steam power, and military technology were used in European imperialism)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the chief benefits and costs of the advances in communication, technology, and medicine to countries under European imperialist rule
     5.Understands how medical advances, steam power, and military technology were used in European imperialism
   Benchmark 14.Understands Western influence on Japanese society in the 19th century (e.g., the chronology of major social, economic, and technological changes derived from the West in 19th-century Japan; the political and symbolic role of the emperor of Meiji Japan and how that role compared to those of British and other Western monarchs of the time)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the chronology of major social, economic, and technological changes derived from the West in 19th century Japan
 Standard 37.  Understand major global trends from 1750 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands major shifts in world population and urbanization in this era and how factors such as industrialization, migration, changing diets, and scientific and medical advances affected worldwide demographic trends (e.g., the changes large cities around the world went through during this period, such as Guangzhou [Canton], Cairo, Tokyo, Buenos Aires, Bombay, San Francisco, and London)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands how industrialization affected worldwide demographic trends
     6.Understands how scientific and medical advances affected worldwide demographic trends
 Standard 38.  Understands reform, revolution, and social change in the world economy of the early 20th century
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands factors that transformed American and European society in the early 20th century (e.g., how industrial development affected the culture and working lives of middle and working class people in the United States, Japan, and Europe; major scientific, medical, and technological advances in Europe and the United States at the turn of the century; popular attitudes regarding material progress and the West's global leadership)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands factors that transformed American society in the early 20th century
     2.Understands factors that transformed European society in the early 20th century
     3.Understands how industrial development affected the culture and working lives of middle and working class people in the United States
     4.Understands how industrial development affected the culture and working lives of middle and working class people in Japan
     5.Understands how industrial development affected the culture and working lives of middle and working class people in Europe
     6.Knows major scientific, medical, and technological advances in Europe at the turn of the century
     7.Knows major scientific, medical, and technological advances in the United States at the turn of the century
     8.Knows popular attitudes regarding material progress and the West’s global leadership
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the diverse factors that contributed to the industrialization of various countries (e.g., how entrepreneurs, scientists, technicians, and urban workers in Asia, Africa, and Latin America participated in world trade and industrialization; how changes in land ownership policy, new technology, and government subsidies encouraged industrial development in Japan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how changes in land ownership policy, new technology, and government subsidies encouraged industrial development in Japan
 Standard 39.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War I
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Understands how the homefront contributed to World War I (e.g., how massive industrial production and innovations in military technology affected strategy and tactics, and the scale, duration, brutality, and efficiency of the war)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how massive industrial production affected strategy and tactics
     2.Understands how innovations in military technology affected strategy and tactics
     6.Understands the efficiency of World War I
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands ways in which popular faith in science, technology, and material progress affected attitudes toward the possibility of war among European states
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands ways that popular faith in science affected attitudes toward the possibility of war among European states
     2.Understands ways that popular faith in technology affected attitudes toward the possibility of war among European states
     3.Understands ways that popular faith in material progress affected attitudes toward the possibility of war among European states
 Standard 40.  Understands the search for peace and stability throughout the world in the 1920s and 1930s
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands major discoveries in science and medicine in the first half of the 20th century (e.g., those made by Curie, Einstein, Freud) and how they affected the quality of life and traditional views of nature, the cosmos, and the psyche
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the major discoveries in science in the first half of the 20th century
     2.Understands the major discoveries in medicine in the first half of the 20th century
     3.Knows about discoveries made by Curie
     4.Knows about discoveries made by Einstein
     5.Knows about discoveries made by Freud
     6.Understands how major discoveries affected the quality of life
     7.Understands how major discoveries affected traditional views of nature
     8.Understands how major discoveries affected traditional views of the cosmos
     9.Understands how major discoveries affected traditional views of the psyche
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the impact of scientific and technological innovations on early 20th century society (e.g., major medical successes in the treatment of infectious diseases, the causes and social costs of the world influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, how new forms of communication affected the relationship of government to citizens and bolstered the power of new authoritarian regimes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of scientific innovations on early 20th century society
     2.Understands the impact of technological innovations on early 20th century society
     3.Understands major medical successes in the treatment of infectious diseases
     4.Understands the causes of the world influenza pandemic of 1918-1919
     5.Understands how new forms of communication affected the relationship of government to citizens
     6.Understands how new forms of communication bolstered the power of new authoritarian regimes
 Standard 41.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War II
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the overall effect of World War II on various facets of society (e.g., the impact on industrial production, political goals, communication, national mobilization, technological innovations, and scientific research, and how these in turn made an impact upon war strategies, tactics, and levels of destruction; the consequences of World War II as a "total war")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of World War II on industrial production
     3.Understands the impact of World War II on communication
     4.Understands the impact of World War II on national mobilization
     5.Understands the impact of World War II on technological innovations
     6.Understands the impact of World War II on scientific research,
     7.Understands influences on upon war strategies, tactics, and levels of destruction during World War II
     8.Understands the consequences of World War II as a "total war"
   Benchmark 8.Understands the climax and moral implications of World War II (e.g., the moral implications of military technologies and techniques used in the war, statistics of population displacement caused by the war, debates surrounding the use of the atomic bomb to end the war with Japan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the moral implications of military technologies and techniques used in World War II
     5.Understands debates surrounding the use of the atomic bomb to end the war with Japan
 Standard 42.  Understands major global trends from 1900 to the end of World War II
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how new technologies and scientific breakthroughs both benefited and imperiled humankind
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how new technologies and scientific breakthroughs benefited humankind in the period from 1900 to 1945
     2.Understands how new technologies and scientific breakthroughs imperiled humankind in the period from 1900 to 1945
 Standard 43.  Understands how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands post-war relations between the Soviet Union, Europe, and the United States (e.g., differences in the political ideologies and values of the Western democracies and the Soviet bloc; the impact of Soviet domination in Eastern Europe; interconnections between superpower rivalries and the development of new military, nuclear, and space technology)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands interconnections between superpower rivalries and the development of new military, nuclear, and space technology
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the impact of increasing economic interdependence in different regions of the world (e.g., how global communications and changing international labor demands have shaped new patterns of world migration since World War II, the effects of the European Economic Community and its growth on economic productivity and political integration in Europe, the emergence of the Pacific Rim economy and economic growth in South Korea and Singapore in recent decades, the effects of new transport and communications technology on patterns of world trade and finance)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands the effects of new transport and communications technology on patterns of world trade and finance
   Benchmark 5.Understands scientific and technological trends of the second half of the 20th century (e.g, worldwide implications of the revolution in nuclear, electronic, and computer technology; the social and cultural implications of medical successes such as the development of antibiotics and vaccines and the conquest of smallpox; the "consumer societies" of industrialized nations compared with those in predominantly agrarian nations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands scientific trends of the second half of the 20th century
     2.Understands technological trends of the second half of the 20th century
     3.Knows the worldwide implications of the revolution in nuclear, electronic, and computer technology
     4.Knows the social and cultural implications of medical successes such as the development of antibiotics and vaccines and the conquest of smallpox
     5.Understands aspects of the "consumer societies" of industrialized nations compared with those in predominantly agrarian nations
   Benchmark 6.Understands cultural trends of the second half of the 20th century (e.g., the influence of television, the Internet, and other forms of electronic communication on the creation and diffusion of cultural and political information worldwide; how the world's religions have responded to challenges and uncertainties in society and the world)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of television on the creation and diffusion of cultural and political information worldwide
     2.Understands the influence of the Internet on the creation and diffusion of cultural and political information worldwide
     3.Understands the influence of various forms of electronic communication on the creation and diffusion of cultural and political information worldwide
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the causes and effects of population growth and urbanization (e.g., why population growth rate is accelerating around the world, and connections between population growth and economic and social development in many countries; the global proliferation of cities and the rise of the megalopolis, as well as the impact of urbanization on family life, standards of living, class relations, and ethnic identity; why scientific, technological, and medical advances have improved living standards but have failed to eradicate hunger, poverty, and epidemic disease)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the effects of population growth and urbanization
     10.Understands why scientific, technological, and medical advances have improved living standards but have failed to eradicate hunger, poverty, and epidemic disease
   Benchmark 6.Understands the emergence of a global culture (e.g., connections between electronic communications, international marketing, and the rise of a popular "global culture" in the late 20th century; how modern arts have expressed and reflected social transformations, political changes, and how they have been internationalized)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands connections between electronic communications, international marketing, and the rise of a popular "global culture" in the late 20th century
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 8.Understands how trends in science have influenced society (e.g., interconnections between space exploration and developments since the 1950s in scientific research, agricultural productivity, consumer culture, intelligence gathering, and other aspects of contemporary life; the changing structure and organization of scientific and technological research, including the role of governments, corporations, international agencies, universities and scientific communities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands interconnections between space exploration and developments since the 1950s in scientific research, agricultural productivity, consumer culture, intelligence gathering, and other aspects of contemporary life
     2.Understands the changing structure and organization of scientific and technological research, including the role of governments, corporations, international agencies, universities and scientific communities
 Standard 45.  Understands major global trends since World War II
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the usefulness of the concept of "postindustrial society" in comparing the late 20th century with the period from the industrial revolution to 1950
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of "post-industrial society"
     2.Understands the concept of "post-industrial society" as applied to the late 20th century
     3.Understands the concept of "post-industrial society" as applied to the period from the industrial revolution to 1950
   Benchmark 3.Understands connections between globalizing trends in economy, technology, and culture and dynamic assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows globalizing trends in technology
     5.Understands connections between globalizing trends in technology and dynamic assertions of traditional cultural identity and distinctiveness
 Standard 46.  Understands long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the importance of the revolutions in tool-making, agriculture, and industrialization as major turning points in human history
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of the revolution in tool making as a major turning point in human history
     2.Understands the importance of agricultural revolution as a major turning point in human history
     3.Understands the importance of the industrial revolutions as major turning points in human history