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Topic: Roles and experiences of diverse groups 

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 1.  Understands family life now and in the past, and family life in various places long ago
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the dreams and ideals that people from various groups have sought, some of the problems they encountered in realizing their dreams, and the sources of their strength and determination that families drew upon and shared (e.g., families arriving together in America and living together in rural or urban settings, traditions brought from their cultural past)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the kinds of dreams and ideals that immigrant families sought in America
     2.Knows the kinds of problems immigrant families encountered in America
     3.Knows sources of the strength and determination of immigrant families
     4.Knows that families sometimes arrived in America with other immigrant families
     5.Knows that families who came to America sometimes lived with other immigrant families in rural settings
     6.Knows that families who came to America sometimes lived with other immigrant families in urban settings
     7.Knows that immigrant families brought traditions from their cultural past to America
 Standard 4.  Understands how democratic values came to be, and how they have been exemplified by people, events, and symbols
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 14.Understands how people have helped make the community a better place to live (e.g., working to preserve the environment, helping the homeless, restoring houses in low-income areas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that community members work to improve their community
     2.Knows that community members work to preserve their community’s environment
     3.Knows that community members help homeless persons in their community
     4.Knows that community members restore houses in low-income areas of their community
 Standard 5.  Understands the causes and nature of movements of large groups of people into and within the United States, now and long ago
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 4.Knows the reasons why various groups (e.g., freed African Americans, Mexican and Puerto Rican migrant workers, Dust Bowl farm families) migrated to different parts of the U.S.
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows why freed African Americans migrated to certain parts of the United States
     2.Knows why Mexican migrant workers migrated to certain parts of the United States
     3.Knows why Puerto Rican migrant workers migrated to certain parts of the United States

United States History

 Standard 6.  Understands the causes of the American Revolution, the ideas and interests involved in shaping the revolutionary movement, and reasons for the American victory
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Understands perspectives of and the roles played in the American Revolution by various groups of people (e.g., men, women, white settlers, free and enslaved African-Americans, and Native Americans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the perspectives of various groups of people in the American Revolution
     2.Understands the roles played by various groups of people in the American Revolution
     3.Understands the perspective and role played by men in the American Revolution
     4.Understands the perspective and role played by white settlers in the American Revolution
     5.Understands the perspective and role played by free African-Americans in the American Revolution
     6.Understands the perspective and role played by enslaved African-Americans in the American Revolution
     7.Understands the perspective and role played by Native Americans in the American Revolution
 Standard 7.  Understands the impact of the American Revolution on politics, economy, and society
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the social, political, and economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on different groups (e.g., rural farmers, wealthy merchants, enslaved and free African Americans, abolitionists, women who contributed to the war effort)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social effects of the American revolutionary victory on different groups
     2.Understands the political effects of the American revolutionary victory on different groups
     3.Understands the economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on different groups
     4.Understands the social effects of the American revolutionary victory on rural farmers
     5.Understands the social effects of the American revolutionary victory on wealthy merchants
     6.Understands the social effects of the American revolutionary victory on enslaved African Americans
     7.Understands the social effects of the American revolutionary victory on free African Americans
     8.Understands the social effects of the American revolutionary victory on abolitionists
     9.Understands the social effects of the American revolutionary victory on women who contributed to the war effort
     10.Understands the political effects of the American revolutionary victory on rural farmers
     11.Understands the political effects of the American revolutionary victory on wealthy merchants
     12.Understands the political effects of the American revolutionary victory on enslaved African Americans
     13.Understands the political effects of the American revolutionary victory on free African Americans
     14.Understands the political effects of the American revolutionary victory on abolitionists
     15.Understands the political effects of the American revolutionary victory on women who contributed to the war effort
     16.Understands the economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on rural farmers
     17.Understands the economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on wealthy merchants
     18.Understands the economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on enslaved African Americans
     19.Understands the economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on free African Americans
     20.Understands the economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on abolitionists
     21.Understands the economic effects of the American revolutionary victory on women who contributed to the war effort
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of various groups of people during and after the war (e.g., African Americans, Native Americans, Loyalists, women, young people)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of African Americans during the war
     2.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of African Americans after the war
     3.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of Native Americans during the war
     4.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of Native Americans after the war
     5.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of Loyalists during the war
     6.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of Loyalists after the war
     9.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of young people during the war
     10.Understands how the ideals of the American Revolution influenced the goals of young people after the war
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the goals of different groups of people after the Revolution (e.g., the importance of African American leaders and institutions in shaping free black communities in the North, the influence of the American victory in advancing or retarding goals of different groups, the degree to which women were able to enter the public realm after 1776)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the importance of African American leaders in shaping free black communities in the North
     2.Understands the importance of African American institutions in shaping free black communities in the North
     3.Understands the influence of the American victory in advancing goals of certain groups
     4.Understands the influence of the American victory in retarding goals of certain groups
 Standard 9.  Understands the United States territorial expansion between 1801 and 1861, and how it affected relations with external powers and Native Americans
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands shifts in federal and state policy toward Native Americans in the first half of the 19th century (e.g., arguments for and against removal policy, changing policies from assimilation to removal and isolation after 1825)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands shifts in federal policy toward Native Americans in the first half of the 19th century
     2.Understands shifts in state policy toward Native Americans in the first half of the 19th century
     3.Understands arguments for the removal policy of Native Americans in the first half of the 19th century
     4.Understands arguments against the removal policy of Native Americans in the first half of the 19th century
     5.Understands the changing policies toward Native Americans from assimilation to removal and isolation after 1825
 Standard 10.  Understands how the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed American lives and led to regional tensions
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the social and cultural influence of former slaves in cities of the North (e.g., their leadership of African American communities, how they advanced the rights and interests of African Americans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the social influence of former slaves in the cities of the North
     2.Understands the cultural influence of former slaves in the cities of the North
     3.Understands the leadership of former slaves in African American communities in cities of the North
     4.Understands how former slaves advanced the rights and interests of African Americans
 Standard 12.  Understands the sources and character of cultural, religious, and social reform movements in the antebellum period
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands elements of slavery in both the North and South during the antebellum period (e.g., similarities and differences between African American and white abolitionists, defense of chattel slavery by slaveholders, growing hostility toward free blacks in the North, how African American leaders fought for rights)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands elements of slavery in the North during the antebellum period
     2.Understands elements of slavery in the South during the antebellum period
     3.Understands the similarities between African American and white abolitionists during the antebellum period
     4.Understands the differences between African Amerian and white abolitionists during the antebellum period
     5.Knows about the defense of chattel slavery by slaveholders during the antebellum period
     6.Knows about the growing hostility toward free blacks in the North during the antebellum period
     7.Understands how African American leaders fought for rights during the antebellum period
 Standard 14.  Understands the course and character of the Civil War and its effects on the American people
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how different groups of people shaped the Civil War (e.g., the motives and experiences of Confederate and white and African American Union soldiers, different perspectives on conscription, the effects of divided loyalties)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the motives of Confederate soldiers
     2.Understands the motives of white Union soldiers
     3.Understands the motives of African American Union soldiers
     4.Understands the experiences of Confederate soldiers
     5.Understands the experiences of white Union soldiers
     6.Understands the experiences of African American Union soldiers
     7.Understands different perspectives on conscription during the Civil War
     8.Understands the effects of divided loyalties during the Civil War
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the impact of the Civil War on Native Americans (e.g., the positions of major Indian nations during the Civil War and the effect of the war on these nations, the internal conflicts among the "Five Civilized Tribes" regarding their support for the Union or Confederacy, the long-term consequences for Native Americans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the positions of major Indian nations during the Civil War
     2.Understands the effect of the Civil War on major Indian nations
     3.Understands the internal conflicts among the "Five Civilized Tribes" regarding their support for the Union or Confederacy
     4.Understands the long-term consequences of the Civil War for Native Americans
 Standard 15.  Understands how various reconstruction plans succeeded or failed
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands attempts to improve African American lives during Reconstruction (e.g., African American attempts to improve their economic position, their quest for land ownership; how the Freedmen’s Bureau proposed to deal with abandoned lands in the South)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands African American attempts to improve their economic position during Reconstruction
     2.Understands African American’s quest for land ownership during Reconstruction
     3.Understands how the Freedmen’s Bureau proposed to deal with abandoned lands in the South
   Benchmark 5.Understands changes in the political and social structure in different regions during Reconstruction (e.g., changes in political and economic positions of African Americans in the North; changes in gender roles and status in the North, South and West; contributions of African Americans who served in state and national offices; personal challenges to Freedmen)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands changes in political positions of African Americans in the North during Reconstruction
     4.Understands changes in economic positions of African Americans in the North during Reconstruction
     5.Understands changes in gender roles in the North during Reconstruction
     6.Understands changes in gender roles in the South during Reconstruction
     7.Understands changes in gender roles in the West during Reconstruction
     8.Understands changes in gender status in the North during Reconstruction
     9.Understands changes in gender status in the South during Reconstruction
     10.Understands changes in gender status in the West during Reconstruction
     11.Understands the contributions of African Americans who served in state offices during Reconstruction
     12.Understands the contributions of African Americans who served in national offices during Reconstruction
     13.Understands personal challenges to Freedmen during Reconstruction
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands factors that inhibited and fostered African American attempts to improve their lives during Reconstruction (e.g., how foundations were laid for modern black communities, how traditional values inhibited the role of the Freedmen's Bureau, the struggle between former masters and former slaves, the role of black churches and schools in providing self-help within the African American community)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands factors that inhibited African American attempts to improve their lives during Reconstruction
     2.Understands factors that fostered African American attempts to improve their lives during Reconstruction
     3.Understands how foundations were laid for modern black communities during Reconstruction
     4.Understands how traditional values inhibited the role of the Freedmen’s Bureau
     5.Understands the struggle between former masters and former slaves
     6.Understands the role of black churches in providing self-help within the African American community
     7.Understands the role of black schools in providing self-help within the African American community
 Standard 17.  Understands massive immigration after 1870 and how new social patterns, conflicts, and ideas of national unity developed amid growing cultural diversity
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the experiences of diverse groups and minorities in different regions of the country (e.g., the experiences of African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Americans; the anti-Chinese movement in the West; the rise of lynching in the South; the impact of Jim Crow laws on African Americans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the experiences of diverse groups in different regions of the country
     2.Understands the experiences of minorities in different regions of the country
     3.Understands the experiences of African Americans in different regions of the country
     4.Understands the experiences of Asian Americans in different regions of the country
     5.Understands the experiences of Hispanic Americans in different regions of the country
     6.Knows about the anti-Chinese movement in the West
     7.Knows about the rise of lynching in the South
     8.Understands the impact of Jim Crow laws on African Americans
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands opposition to discrimination in the late 19th century (e.g., how Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans responded to discriminatory practices, leadership roles of those who spoke out against discrimination)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how Asian Americans responded to discriminatory practices in the late 19th century
     2.Understands how Hispanic Americans responded to discriminatory practices in the late 19th century
     3.Understands the leadership roles of those who spoke out against discrimination in the late 19th century
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the challenges diverse people encountered in late 19th century American society (e.g.,the role of new laws and the federal judiciary in instituting racial inequality; arguments and methods by which various minority groups sought to acquire equal rights and opportunities; experiences of African American families who migrated from the South to New York City in the 1890s)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of new laws in instituting racial inequity in the late 19th century
     2.Understands the role of the federal judiciary in instituting racial inequality in the late 19th century
     3.Understands the arguments by which various minority groups sought to acquire equal rights
     4.Understands the methods by which various minority groups sought to acquire equal rights in the late 19th century
     5.Understands the arguments by which various minority groups sought to acquire equal opportunities in the late 19th century
     6.Understands the methods by which various minority groups sought to acquire equal opportunities in the late 19th century
     7.Understands the experiences of African American families who migrated from the South to New York City in the 1890’s
 Standard 19.  Understands federal Indian policy and United States foreign policy after the Civil War
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands significant events for Native American tribes in the late 19th century and how they responded (e.g., survival strategies of Native American societies during the "second great removal," movement to reservations in western states, the effect of government policies on Native American nations and Native American land holdings between 1870 and 1900)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significant events for Native American tribes in the late 19th century
     2.Understands how Native American tribes responded to significant events in the late 19th century
     3.Knows the survival strategies of Native American societies during the "second great removal"
     4.Knows about the movement of Native American tribes to reservation in western states in the late 19th century
     5.Understands the effect of government policies on Native American nations in the late 19th century
     6.Understands the effect of government policies on Native American land holdings between 1870 and 1900
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands interaction between Native Americans and white society (e.g., the attitudes and policies of government officials, the U.S. Army, missionaries, and settlers toward Native Americans; the provisions and effects of the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 on tribal identity, land ownership and assimilation; the legacy of the 19th century federal Indian policy; Native American responses to increased white settlement, mining activities, and railroad construction)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the attitudes of government officials concerning Native Americans
     3.Understands the attitudes of the U.S. Army concerning Native Americans
     4.Understands the policies of the U.S. Army concerning Native Americans
     5.Understands the attitudes of missionaries toward Native Americans
     6.Understands the policies of missionaries toward Native Americans
     7.Understands the attitudes of settlers toward Native Americans
     8.Understands the policies of settlers toward Native Americans
     9.Understands the provisions of the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
     10.Understands the effects of the Dawes Deveralty Act of 1887 on tribal identity
     11.Understands interactions between Native Americans and White society concerning land ownership
     12.Understands interactions between Native Americans and White society concerning assimilation
     13.Understands the legacy of the 19th century federal Indian policy
     14.Understands Native American responses to increased white settlement
     15.Understands Native American responses to increased mining activities
     16.Understands Native American responses to increased railroad construction
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands influences on and perspectives of Native American life in the late 19th century (e.g., how the admission of new western states affected relations between the United States and Native American societies; leadership and values of Native American leaders; depiction of Native Americans and whites by 19th century artists)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands influences on Native American life in the late 19th century
     2.Understands perspectives of Native American life in the late 19th century
     3.Understands how the admission of new western states affected relations between the United States and Native American societies
     4.Understands the leadership of Native American tribes in the late 19th century
     5.Understands the values of Native American leaders in the late 19th century
     6.Knows about the depiction of Native Americans by 19th century artists
     7.Knows about the depiction of whites by 19th century artists
 Standard 20.  Understands how Progressives and others addressed problems of industrial capitalism, urbanization, and political corruption
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands issues and perspectives of different groups during the Progressive era (e.g., African Americans and their alternative programs; women, Native Americans, organized workers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands issues of different groups during the Progressive era
     2.Understands the perspectives of different groups during the Progressive era
     3.Understands African Americans and their alternative programs during the Progressive era
     4.Understands women’s groups during the Progressive era
     5.Understands Native American groups during the Progressive era
     6.Understands organized worker’s groups during the Progressive era
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the issues of those groups who supported and rejected the goals of Progressivism (e.g., how African Americans used Progressive tactics to attempt change, how the goals of the Industrial Workers of the World differed from Progressive programs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the issues of those groups who supported the goals of Progressivism
     2.Understands the issues of those groups who rejected the goals of Progressivism
     3.Understands how African American used progressive tactics to attempt change
     4.Understands how the goals of the Industrial Workers of the World differed from Progressive programs
 Standard 22.  Understands how the United States changed between the post-World War I years and the eve of the Great Depression
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands influences on African American culture during the 1920s (e.g., the Harlem Renaissance)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about the Harlem Renaissance
 Standard 24.  Understands how the New Deal addressed the Great Depression, transformed American federalism, and initiated the welfare state
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how the New Deal influenced the civil and political rights of diverse groups (e.g., the involvement of women and minorities in the New Deal and its impact upon them, FDR's commitment to advancing the civil and political rights of African Americans, how African Americans planted the seeds of a civil rights revolution during the 1930s, how the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 affected Native Americans, the role of John Collier in securing a "new deal" for Native Americans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the New Deal influenced the civil rights of diverse groups
     2.Understands how the New Deal influenced the political rights of diverse groups
     4.Understands the involvement of minorities in the New Deal
     6.Understands the impact of the New Deal on minorities
     7.Understands FDR’s commitment to advancing the civil rights of African Americans
     8.Understands FDR’s commitment to advancing the political rights of African Americans
     9.Understands how African Americans planted the seeds of a civil rights revolution during the 1930s
     10.Understands how the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 affected Native Americans
     11.Understands the role of John Collier in securing a "new deal" for Native Americans
 Standard 25.  Understands the causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 8.Understands how minority groups were affected by World War II (e.g., how minority groups organized to gain access to wartime jobs and discrimination they faced, factors that led to the internment of Japanese Americans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how minority groups organized to gain wartime jobs
     2.Understands the discrimination faced by minority groups during World War II
     3.Understands the factors that led to the internment of Japanese Americans
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how World War II influenced the home front (e.g., the impact on science, medicine, and technology; how Americans viewed their achievements and global responsibilities at the war’s end; how minorities contributed to the war effort and the contradiction between their treatment at home and the goals that they were fighting for in Europe; the effects of the relocation centers on Japanese American families)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands how minorities contributed to the war effort
     7.Understands the contradiction between the treatment of minorities at home and the goals that they were fighting for in Europe
     8.Understands the effects of the relocation centers on Japanese American families