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Topic: Role of individuals in history 

Arts and Communication

 Standard 5.  Knows a range of arts and communication works from various historical and cultural periods
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Knows similarities and differences among the lives, works, and influence of representative individuals in various art forms from different cultures and historical periods (e.g., composers in music, artists, dancers, actors and actresses)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows similarities among the lives of representative individuals in various art forms from different cultures and historical periods
     2.Knows differences among the lives of representative individuals in various art forms from different cultures and historical periods
     3.Knows similarities among the works of representative individuals in various art forms from different cultures and historical periods
     4.Knows differences among the works of representative individuals in various art forms from different cultures and historical periods
     5.Knows similarities among the influence of representative individuals in various art forms from different cultures and historical periods
     6.Knows differences among the influence of representative individuals in various art forms from different cultures and historical periods
     7.Knows the similarities among different composers in music from different cultures and historical periods
     8.Knows the differences among different composers in music from different cultures and historical periods
     9.Knows the similarities among different artists from different cultures and historical periods
     10.Knows the differences among different artists from different cultures and historical periods
     11.Knows the similarities among different dancers from different cultures and historical periods
     12.Knows the differences among different dancers from different cultures and historical periods
     13.Knows the similarities among different actors from different cultures and historical periods
     14.Knows the differences among different actors from different cultures and historical periods
     15.Knows the similarities among different actresses from different cultures and historical periods

Engineering Education

 Standard 19.  Understands the interrelationship of manufacturing and society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Knows the historical contributions of men and women of different cultures in the advancement of manufacturing
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the historical contributions of men of different cultures in the advancement of manufacturing
     2.Knows the historical contributions of women of different cultures in the advancement of manufacturing

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 2.  Understands the history of a local community and how communities in North America varied long ago
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the contributions and significance of historical figures of the community
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows historical figures of the community
     2.Knows the contributions of historical figures of the community
     3.Knows the significance of historical figures of the community
 Standard 3.  Understands the people, events, problems, and ideas that were significant in creating the history of their state
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 10.Understands how the ideas of significant people affected the history of the state
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows significant people in the state’s history
     2.Knows the ideas of significant people in the state’s history
     3.Knows that the ideas of significant people affected the state’s history
 Standard 4.  Understands how democratic values came to be, and how they have been exemplified by people, events, and symbols
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the English colonists who became revolutionary leaders and fought for independence from England (e.g., George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows that the leaders of the American Revolution were English colonists
     3.Knows that George Washington was the general who won the American Revolution
     4.Knows that Thomas Jefferson was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence
     5.Knows that Benjamin Franklin was one of the authors of the Declaration of Independence
   Benchmark 2.Understands how individuals have worked to achieve the liberties and equality promised in the principles of American democracy and to improve the lives of people from many groups (e.g., Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Jr.;Soujourner Truth; Cesar Chavez)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows that Rosa Park’s refusal to give up her bus seat to a white person led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott
     3.Knows that Martin Luther King, Jr. was a leader of the civil rights movement
     4.Knows that Cesar Chavez helped migrant farm workers gain better pay and better working conditions
   Benchmark 5.Understands how important figures reacted to their times and why they were significant to the history of our democracy (e.g., George Washington; Thomas Jefferson; Abraham Lincoln; Soujourner Truth; Susan B. Anthony; Mary McLeod Bethune; Eleanor Roosevelt; Martin Luther King, Jr.)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that George Washington is a significant figure in American history because he was the first president of the United States
     2.Knows that Thomas Jefferson is a significant figure in American history because he was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence
     3.Knows that Abraham Lincoln is a significant figure in American history because he was the president of the United States during the Civil War and declared the end of slavery in the Emancipation Proclamation
     4.Knows that Sojourner Truth is a significant figure in American history because she fought for the abolition of slavery and for women’s rights
     5.Knows that Susan B. Anthony is a significant figure in American history because she advocated the right of women to vote
     6.Knows that Mary McLeod Bethune is a significant figure in American history because she was an early African American educator and civil rights leader
     7.Knows that Eleanor Roosevelt is a significant figure in American democracy because she advocated many social causes, such as women’s rights and civil rights for African Americans
     8.Knows that Martin Luther King, Jr. is a significant figure in American history because he was a leader of the civil rights movement
   Benchmark 6.Understands the ways in which people in a variety of fields have advanced the cause of human rights, equality, and the common good (e.g., Frederick Douglass, Clara Barton, Elizabeth Blackwell, Jackie Robinson, Rosa Parks, Jonas Salk, Cesar Chavez)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that Frederick Douglass advanced the cause of human rights, equality, and the common good by advocating the abolition of slavery
     2.Knows that Clara Barton advanced the cause of human rights, equality, and the common good by founding the American Red Cross
     3.Knows that Elizabeth Blackwell advanced the cause of human rights, equality, and the common good by becoming the first female doctor in the United States
     4.Knows that Jackie Robinson advanced the cause of human rights, equality, and the common good by becoming the first African American to play baseball in the major leagues
     5.Knows that Rosa Parks advanced the cause of human rights, equality, and the common good by refusing to give up her bus seat to a white person, an act that led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott
     6.Knows that Jonas Salk advanced the cause of human rights, equality, and the common good by discovering a vaccine for polio
     7.Knows that Cesar Chavez advanced the cause of human rights, equality, and the common good by helping migrant farm workers gain better pay and working conditions
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how people over the last 200 years have continued to struggle to bring to all groups in American society the liberties and equality promised in the basic principles of American democracy (e.g., Sojourner Truth; Harriet Tubman; Frederick Douglass; W.E.B. DuBois; Booker T. Washington; Susan B. Anthony; Martin Luther King, Jr.; Rosa Parks; Cesar Chavez)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that Sojourner Truth fought for the abolition of slavery and for women’s rights
     2.Knows that Harriet Tubman helped slaves escape to freedom through the underground railroad
     3.Knows that Frederick Douglass was the leading 19th century African American spokesman for the abolition of slavery
     4.Knows that W.E.B. Dubois was an African American leader who advocated higher education for African Americans
     5.Knows that Booker T. Washington was a former slave who founded an educational institution for African Americans
     6.Knows that Susan B. Anthony advocated the right of women to vote
     7.Knows that Martin Luther King, Jr. was a leader of the civil rights movement
     8.Knows that Rosa Parks’ refusal to give up her bus seat to a white person led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott
     9.Knows that Cesar Chavez organized the United Farm Workers to help migrant farm workers obtain better pay and working conditions
   Benchmark 4.Understands the accomplishments of ordinary people in historical situations and how each struggled for individual rights or for the common good (e.g., James Armistead, Sybil Ludington, Nathan Beman, Lydia Darragh, Betty Zane)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows that ordinary Americans have struggled for individual rights
     3.Knows that ordinary Americans have struggled for the common good
     4.Knows that James Armistead was a slave who served as a spy during the American Revolution
     5.Knows that Sybil Ludington alerted American militiamen of the approach of the British during the American Revolution
     6.Knows that Nathan Beman guided Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys at Fort Ticonderoga
     7.Knows that Lydia Darragh warned American troops of an impending British attack during the American Revolution
     8.Knows that Betty Zane crossed through enemy fire to bring gunpowder to American settlers who were under attack from Indians and British soldiers
   Benchmark 7.Understands how historical figures in the U.S. and in other parts of the world have advanced the rights of individuals and promoted the common good, and the character traits that made them successful (e.g., persistence, problem solving, moral responsibility, respect for others)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that historical figures in the United States have advanced the rights of individuals
     2.Knows that historical figures in the United States have promoted the common good
     3.Knows that historical figures around the world have advanced the rights of individuals
     4.Knows that historical figures around the world have promoted the common good
     5.Knows that historical figures often possess certain character traits that make them successful in their mission
     6.Knows that persistence is a character trait possessed by many historical figures
     7.Knows that problem solving ability is a skill possessed by many historical figures
     8.Knows that a sense of moral responsibility is a character trait possessed by many historical figures
     9.Knows that many historical figures have shown respect for others
   Benchmark 12.Understands why Americans and those who led them (e.g., George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson) went to war to win independence from England
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows that George Washington was the general who led American forces to victory in the American Revolution
     3.Knows that Benjamin Franklin was one of the authors of the Declaration of Independence
     4.Knows that Thomas Jefferson was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence
 Standard 6.  Understands the folklore and other cultural contributions from various regions of the United States and how they helped to form a national heritage
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how regional folk heroes and other popular figures have contributed to the cultural history of the U.S. (e.g., frontiersmen such as Daniel Boone, cowboys, mountain men such as Jedediah Smith, American Indian Chiefs including Geronimo, and outlaws such as Billy the Kid)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the tales of regional folk heroes and other popular figures have contributed to the cultural history of the United States
     2.Understands how tales of frontiersmen such as Daniel Boone have contributed to the cultural history of the United States
     3.Understands how tales of cowboys have contributed to the cultural history of the United States
     4.Understands how tales of mountain men such as Jedediah Smith have contributed to the cultural history of the United States
     5.Understands how tales of American Indian Chiefs such as Geronimo have contributed to the cultural history of the United States
     6.Understands how tales of outlaws such as Billy the Kid have contributed to the cultural history of the United States

Historical Understanding

 Standard 2.  Understands the historical perspective
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands that specific individuals had a great impact on history
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows examples of specific individuals who had a great impact on history
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands that specific individuals and the values those individuals held had an impact on history
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that individuals act in ways that reflect the values they hold
     2.Knows examples of how an individual’s values had an impact on history
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Analyzes the values held by specific people who influenced history and the role their values played in influencing history
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows a specific person whose impact on history resulted from the values that person held

United States History

 Standard 6.  Understands the causes of the American Revolution, the ideas and interests involved in shaping the revolutionary movement, and reasons for the American victory
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the major developments and chronology of the Revolutionary War and the roles of its political, military, and diplomatic leaders (e.g., George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Samuel Adams, John Hancock, Richard Henry Lee)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the role of political leaders in the Revolutionary War
     4.Understands the role of military leaders in the Revolutionary War
     5.Understands the role of diplomatic leaders in the Revolutionary War
     6.Understands the role of George Washington in the Revolutionary War
     7.Understands the role of Benjamin Franklin in the Revolutionary War
     8.Understands the role of Thomas Jefferson in the Revolutionary War
     9.Understands the role of John Adams in the Revolutionary War
     10.Understands the role of Samuel Adams in the Revolutionary War
     11.Understands the role of John Hancock in the Revolutionary War
     12.Understands the role of Richard Henry Lee in the Revolutionary War
 Standard 8.  Understands the institutions and practices of government created during the Revolution and how these elements were revised between 1787 and 1815 to create the foundation of the American political system based on the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the differences in leaders (e.g., George Washington, Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson) and the social and economic composition of each political party in the 1790s
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the differences in political leaders in the 1790’s
     4.Knows about Alexander Hamilton
     5.Knows about Thomas Jefferson
     6.Understands differences between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson
 Standard 14.  Understands the course and character of the Civil War and its effects on the American people
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands military events that influenced the outcome of the Civil War (e.g., the "hammering campaigns" of Generals Grant and Sherman, the wartime leadership of Jefferson Davis and Abraham Lincoln)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the "hammering campaigns" of General Grant
     2.Understands the "hammering campaigns" of General Sherman
     3.Understands the wartime leadership of Jefferson Davis
     4.Understands the wartime leadership of Abraham Lincoln
   Benchmark 2.Understands the influence of Abraham Lincoln's ideas on the Civil War (e.g., the Gettysburg Address, how the Emancipation Proclamation transformed the goals of the Civil War)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of the Gettysburg Address on the Civil War
     2.Understands how the Emancipation Proclamation transformed the goals of the Civil War
 Standard 15.  Understands how various reconstruction plans succeeded or failed
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands military, political, and social factors affecting the post Civil War period (e.g., the basic provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, and the political and social forces that opposed and supported them, how the lives of African Americans were changed by these amendments; demobilization of the Union and Confederate armies; how the leadership of Presidents Lincoln and Johnson affected reconstruction)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     14.Understands how the leadership of President Lincoln affected reconstruction
     15.Understands how the leadership of President Johnson affected reconstruction
   Benchmark 3.Understands the lives of African Americans during the Reconstruction era (e.g., the progress of "Black Reconstruction" and the impact of legislative reform programs, contributions of individual African Americans who served as teachers and political leaders, why some abolition leaders voiced opposition to the 15th amendment)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the contributions of individual African Americans who served as teachers
     4.Understands the contributions of individual African Americans who served as political leaders
     5.Understands why some abolition leaders voiced opposition to the 15th amendment
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the effect of differing Reconstruction policies and how they were perceived (e.g., plans advocated by President Lincoln, Congressional leaders, and President Johnson; the Compromise of 1877; different perspectives on the effectiveness of the Reconstruction amendments)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands plans advocated by President Lincoln
     4.Understands plans advocated by Congressional leaders
     5.Understands plans advocated by President Johnson
 Standard 16.  Understands how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed American society
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the impact of significant achievements and individuals of the late 19th century (e.g., the effects of major technological, transportation, and communication changes that occurred after 1870; careers of industrial and financial leaders of the late 19th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the impact of significant individuals of the late 19th century
     6.Understands the impact of careers of industrial leader of the late 19th century
     7.Understands the impact of careers of financial leader of the late 19th century
 Standard 18.  Understands the rise of the American labor movement and how political issues reflected social and economic changes
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the goals of political parties and individuals in the late 19th century (e.g., how Democrats and Republicans responded to civil service reform, monetary policy, tariffs, and business regulations; political, social, and economic roots of Populism; successes and failures of Populism; goals of the Socialist and Populist parties and their leaders; importance of individuals in promoting political reform)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the goals of political individuals in the late 19th century
     18.Understands the goals of the Socialist leaders in the late 19th century
     19.Understands the goals of the Populist leaders in the late 19th century
     20.Understands the importance of individuals in promoting political reform in the late 19th century
 Standard 20.  Understands how Progressives and others addressed problems of industrial capitalism, urbanization, and political corruption
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the influence of events and individuals on the Progressive Movement (e.g., results of the election of 1912; movements that led to the 16th, 17th, and 18th amendments; how Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson were popularly portrayed as leaders of reform)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the influence of individuals on the Progressive Movement
     7.Understands how Roosevelt was popularly portrayed as a leader of reform
     8.Understands how Taft was popularly portrayed as a leader of reform
     9.Understands how Wilson was popularly portrayed as a leader of reform
 Standard 24.  Understands how the New Deal addressed the Great Depression, transformed American federalism, and initiated the welfare state
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the personal and political reasons for Herbert Hoover's and Franklin D. Roosevelt's responses to the depression
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the personal reasons for Herbert Hoover’s response to the depression
     2.Understands the political reasons for Herbert Hoover’s response to the depression
     3.Understands the personal reasons for Franklin D. Roosevelt’s response to the depression
     4.Understands the political reasons for Franklin D. Roosevelt’s response to the depression
   Benchmark 7.Understands the contributions of Eleanor Roosevelt to the New Deal (e.g., specific efforts the First Lady made in response to the crisis)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands specific efforts Eleanor Roosevelt made in response to the depression
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the significance and ideology of FDR and the New Deal (e.g., whether the New Deal was able to solve the problems of depression, who the New Deal helped the most and the least; how the New Deal changed the relationship between state and federal government)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significance of FDR
     3.Understands the ideology of FDR
   Benchmark 6.Understands the proposals of Upton Sinclair's EPIC campaign in California (e.g., groups that opposed it, why it failed, the reasons for the growth of the American Communist Party during the 1930s, to whom the party most appealed)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands groups the opposed Upton Sinclair’s EPIC campaign in California
     2.Understands why Upton Sinclair’s EPIC campaign in California failed
     3.Understands the reasons for the growth of the American Communist party during the 1930s
     4.Understands to whom the American Communist party most appealed during the 1930s
 Standard 25.  Understands the causes and course of World War II, the character of the war at home and abroad, and its reshaping of the U.S. role in world affairs
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands President Roosevelt’s ideas and policies during World War II (e.g., Roosevelt’s administration’s wartime diplomacy among the Allied powers, the ideas presented in his Four Freedoms speech)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands President Roosevelt’s ideas during World War II
     2.Understands President Roosevelt’s policies during World War II
     4.Understands President Roosevelt’s ideas presented in his Four Freedoms speech

World History

 Standard 5.  Understands the political, social, and cultural consequences of population movements and militarization in Eurasia in the second millennium BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands significant individuals and events in Egyptian civilization (e.g., the extent of Egyptian expansion during the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms, and some of the factors that made this expansion possible; major political and cultural achievements of Thutmose III, Ramses II, and Queen Hatshepsut in Egypt)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows significant individuals and their roles in Egyptian civilization
     5.Knows major political and cultural achievements of Thutmose III in Egypt
     6.Knows major political and cultural achievements of Ramses II in Egypt
     7.Knows major political and cultural achievements of Queen Hatshepsut in Egypt
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the beliefs and accomplishments of Mesopotamian and Egyptian rulers (e.g., the religious ideas of Akenaton [Amenhotep IV] and the viewpoint that Atonism was an early form of monotheism, the accomplishments of Sargon and Akenaton [Amenhotep IV])
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the beliefs of Mesopotamian and Egyptian rulers
     2.Understands the accomplishments of Mesopotamian and Egyptian rulers
     3.Knows the religious ideas of Akenaton (Amenhotep IV)
     5.Knows the accomplishments of Sargon
     6.Knows the accomplishments of Akenaton (Amenhotep IV)
 Standard 9.  Understand how major religious and large-scale empires arose in the Mediterranean Basin, China, and India from 500 BCE to 300 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the significance of Jesus of Nazareth (e.g., the story of the life of Jesus, the messages of Jesus' prominent parables)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the story of the life of Jesus
     2.Knows the messages of Jesus’ prominent parables
   Benchmark 4.Understands events in the rise of Christianity (e.g., the life of Paul the Apostle and his contribution to the spread of Christian beliefs, how Christianity spread widely in the Roman Empire, how the New Testament illustrates early Christian beliefs)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the life of Paul the Apostle and his contribution to the spread of Christian beliefs
   Benchmark 7.Understands the origins of Buddhism and fundamental Buddhist beliefs (e.g., the life story of Buddha and his essential teachings; how the Buddhist teachings were a response to the Brahmanic system; the contributions of the emperor Ashoka to the expansion of Buddhism in India; how Indian epic stories reflect social values, and how the Jakata tales reveal Buddhist teachings)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows the life story of Buddha
     4.Knows Buddha’s essential teachings
     6.Knows the contributions of the emperor Ashoka to the expansion of Buddhism in India
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the significant individuals and achievements of Roman society (e.g., the major legal, artistic, architectural, technological, and literary achievements of the Roman Republic; the influence of Hellenistic cultural traditions; the accomplishments of different, famous Roman citizens [Cincinnatus, the Gracchi, Cicero, Constantine, Nero, Marcus Aurelius])
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the significant individuals of Roman society
     9.Knows the accomplishments of different, famous Roman citizens (Cincinnatus, the Gracchi, Cicero, Constantine, Nero, Marcus Aurelius)
 Standard 13.  Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands significant aspects of Abbasid culture (e.g., sources of Abbasid wealth and the economic and political importance of various forms of slavery; why the Abbasid state became a center of Afro-Eurasian commercial exchange; how the Abbasids promoted and preserved Greek learning and contributed to science, mathematics, and medicine; the contributions of specific individuals to the Abbasid advancement of scientific knowledge)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Knows the contributions of specific individuals to the Abbasid advancement of scientific knowledge
 Standard 15.  Understands the political, social, and cultural redefinitions in Europe from 500 to 1000 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the significance of Charlemagne (e.g., his government, laws, conquests, personal values)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands features and significance of Charlemagne’s government
     2.Understands features and significance of Charlemagne’s laws
     3.Understands features and significance of Charlemagne’s conquests
     4.Understands features and significance of Charlemagne’s values
   Benchmark 5.Knows the life story and major achievements of King Alfred of England, and understands how he earned the title "Alfred the Great"
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the life story of King Alfred of England
     2.Knows the major achievements of King Alfred of England
     3.Understands how King Alfred of England earned the title "Alfred the Great"
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the significance of Clovis (e.g., the major conquests of Clovis, how his conversion to Christianity was influenced by his wife, Clothilde; how his conversion affected the Frankish and Saxon peoples)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the major conquests of Clovis
     2.Understands how Clovis’ conversion to Christianity was influenced by his wife, Clothilde
     3.Understands how Clovis’ conversion to Christianity affected the Frankish and Saxon peoples
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands significant religious events that shaped medieval society (e.g., the successes of the Latin Catholic and Byzantine churches in introducing Christianity and Christian culture to Eastern Europe; similarities and differences in governance and worship in the Latin Catholic and Byzantine churches; how the Anglo-Saxon Boniface was an exemplar for other missionaries, and how he represented the "romanization of Europe")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands how the Anglo Saxon Boniface was an exemplar for other missionaries
     4.Understands how the Anglo-Saxon Boniface represented the "romanization of Europe"
 Standard 21.  Understands the rise of the Mongol Empire and its consequences for Eurasian peoples from 1200 to 1350
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the significance of Chinggis Khan (e.g., the major achievements of Chinggis Khan, the geographical extent of Chinggis Khan's conquests, the role military technology may have played in the success of Mongol military campaigns)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the major achievements of Chinggis Khan
     2.Knows the geographical extent of Chinggis Khan’s conquests
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands factors that contributed to the division and eventual decline of the Mongol Empire after the death of Chinggis Kahn (e.g., disputes over succession, the absence of a bureaucracy, conflicts between nomadic traditions and the ideas of conquered urban cultures)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands factors that contributed to the division of the Mongol Empire after the death of Chinggis Kahn
     2.Understands factors that contributed to the eventual decline of the Mongol Empire after the death of Chinggis Kahn
     3.Understands disputes over succession to Chinggis Kahn in the Mongol empire
 Standard 23.  Understands patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia between 1300 and 1450
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands major changes in the social, political, and cultural characteristics of European society after the 14th century (e.g., the effect of population decline on European agrarian and commercial economies; causes of and major figures in the Hundred Years War; the causes of peasant rebellions in Europe between 1300 and 1500; how the techniques of painting, sculpting, and architecture changed in this period)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Knows major figures in the Hundred Years War
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the significance of Timur the Lame (Tamerlane) (e.g., the impact of conquests in Southwest Asia, India, and Central Asia; how Timur's rule encouraged a flourishing of cultural life in Samarkand and the role his government played in the support of arts and sciences)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of Timur’s conquests in Southwest Asia, India, and Central Asia
     2.Understands how Timur’s rule encouraged a flourishing of cultural life in Samarkand
     3.Knows the role Timur’s government played in the support of arts and sciences
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Understands the significance of Joan of Arc (e.g., her role in the Hundred Years War; her subsequent trial and execution; the Church's review of her trial 25 years later, and her revered image as a patron saint of France)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows Joan of Arc’s role in the Hundred Years War
     2.Understands Joan of Arc’s trial and execution subsequent to the Hundred Year’s War
     3.Understands the Church’s review of Joan of Arc’s trial 25 years later
     4.Understands Joan of Arc’s revered image as a patron saint of France
   Benchmark 10.Understands Timur the Lame's patronage of scholars, artists, and scientists at Samarkand; the extent to which the "Republic of Letters" was a widespread phenomenon; and evidence of cross-cultural communication among scholars and artists
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands Timur the Lame’s patronage of scholars, artists, and scientists at Samarkand
 Standard 26.  Understands how the transoceanic interlinking of all major regions of the world between 1450 and 1600 led to global transformations
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the character and impact of Portuguese maritime expansion to Africa, India, and Southeast Asia upon local populations (e.g., relations between King Affonso II of the Kongo and Portuguese, why Bartholomew de las Casas was considered the "defender of the Indians")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands why Bartholomew de las Casas was considered the "defender of the Indians"
   Benchmark 6.Knows the major accomplishments of Columbus (e.g., his voyages off the coast of Africa and to North America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows features of Christopher Columbus’ voyages off the coast of Africa
     2.Knows features of Christopher Columbus’ voyages to North America
 Standard 27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands significant contributions of the Renaissance and Reformation to European society (e.g., major achievements in literature, music, painting, sculpture, and architecture in 16th-century Europe; the life and accomplishments of select figures from the Renaissance to the Reformation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     8.Understands the lives and accomplishments of select figures from the Renaissance to the Reformation
   Benchmark 4.Understands the significance of the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment (e.g., the impact of astronomical discoveries from Copernicus to Newton; principal ideas of the Enlightenment, from rationalism to theories of education; the word "revolution" and what is meant by the term "Scientific Revolution"; the lives and achievements of significant figures of the Scientific Revolution; how Diderot's encyclopedia contributed to the Age of Enlightenment)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows the impact of astronomical discoveries from Copernicus to Newton
     8.Understands the lives and achievements of significant figures of the Scientific Revolution
     9.Understands how Diderot’s encyclopedia contributed to the Age of Enlightenment
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the emergence of strong individual leaders, monarchies, and states in Europe between the 16th and 18th centuries (e.g., the character, development, and sources of wealth of strong bureaucratic monarchies; the significance of Peter the Great's westernizing reforms; the emergence of the Dutch Republic as a powerful European state; the reign of Elizabeth I and her efficacy as a leader and builder of a strong nation-state; the governmental policies of Catherine the Great; why St. Petersburg was called the "window on the West")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the emergence of strong individual leaders and monarchies in Europe between the 16th and 18th centuries
     3.Understands the character of strong bureaucratic monarchies
     4.Understands the development of strong bureaucratic monarchies
     5.Knows the sources of wealth of strong bureaucratic monarchies
     6.Knows the significance of Peter the Great’s westernizing reforms
     8.Understands the reign of Elizabeth I and her efficacy as a leader and builder of a strong nation state
     9.Knows the governmental policies of Catherine the Great
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the accomplishments of significant European leaders between the 16th and 18th centuries (e.g., the success of Russian expansion in the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Siberia, and the success of the tsars in transforming the Duchy of Moscow into a Eurasian empire; the life and achievements of Louis XIV, and elements of absolutist power during this period; how Peter the Great and Catherine the Great expanded Russian territory; major achievements in the reigns of Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great, and Joseph II, and which of these leaders displayed the features of an "Enlightened Despot")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the success of the tsars in transforming the Duchy of Moscow into a Eurasian empire
     3.Understands the life and achievements of Louis XIV
     4.Knows elements of absolutist power between the 16th and 18th centuries
     5.Understands how Peter the Great and Catherine the Great expanded Russian territory
     6.Knows major achievements in the reign of Frederick the Great
     7.Knows major achievements in the reign of Catherine the Great
     8.Knows major achievements in the reign of Joseph II
     9.Knows which leaders, among Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great, and Joseph II, displayed the features of an "Enlightened Despot"
   Benchmark 7.Understands significant individuals and ideologies that emerged during the Renaissance and Reformation (e.g., the basic arguments in The Prince by Machiavelli; works of Renaissance writers and elements of Humanism in these works; individuals and factors that contributed to the revival of Greco-Roman art, architecture, and scholarship; differing ideas on women's roles in the Protestant household; social oppression and conflict in Europe during the Renaissance, as contrasted with humanist principles of the time)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows significant individuals that emerged during the Renaissance
     2.Knows significant individuals that emerged during the Reformation
     5.Knows the basic arguments in The Prince by Machiavelli
     7.Knows individuals and factors that contributed to the revival of Greco Roman art, architecture, and scholarship
 Standard 28.  Understands how large territorial empires dominated much of Eurasia between the 16th and 18th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands political and cultural achievements of the Ottoman Empire (e.g., the significance of the capture of Constantinople for Christians and Ottomans; how the Ottoman military succeeded against various enemies; artistic, architectural, and literary achievements of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries; achievements of Sulieman the Magnificent; the extent of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires in the 14th and 15th centuries)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     9.Knows the achievements of Sulieman the Magnificent
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the origins and development of the Safavid Empire (e.g., how Ismail created the Safavid Empire with the support of Qizilbash nomadic tribesmen; the evolution of Safavid social and political system from the nomadic-warrior years of Ismail to the golden age of Shah Abbas I)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows how Ismail created the Safavid Empire with the support of Qizilbash nomadic tribesmen
   Benchmark 7.Knows similarities and differences between major empires and leaders (e.g., comparisons between the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires; differences and similarities in government, military, and religious patterns of the six major Mughal emperors)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows similarities between leaders of major empires
     4.Knows differences between leaders of major empires
     6.Knows similarities in government, military, and religious patterns of the six major Mughal emperors
     7.Knows differences in government, military, and religious patterns of the six major Mughal emperors
 Standard 32.  Understands the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands the political and ideological objectives of Latin American independence movements (e.g., knows who supported Father Miguel Hidalgo, his role in the Mexican Revolution of 1810; knows the role of Agust­n de Iturbide in the Creole-dominated revolt of 1821)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands Father Miguel Hidalgo’s role in the Mexican Revolution of 1810
   Benchmark 6.Knows the leading figures and issues of the Congress of Vienna
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the leading figures of the Congress of Vienna
   Benchmark 7.Understands elements of the Haitian revolution (e.g., the role of Touissant L'Overture, Haiti's social and economic conditions under French rule)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of Touissant L’Overture in the Haitian Revolution
 Standard 33.  Understands the causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions from 1700 to 1850
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the emergence and impact of industrialism in 18th-century England (e.g., the effects of the agricultural revolution on population growth, industrialization, and patterns of land-holding; major characteristics of industrialization; how the industrial revolution affected population shifts; how the industrial revolution in the textile industry changed the way people worked; how figures such as John Kay, James Hargreaves, James Watt, Edmund Cartwright, and Richard Arkwright contributed to industrialization in England)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Understands how figures such as John Kay, James Hargreaves, James Watt, Edmund Cartwright, and Richard Arkwright contributed to industrialization in England
   Benchmark 3.Understands aspects of the abolition movement in the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., the organization and arguments of movements in Europe and the Americas that sought to end slavery, and how the trans-Atlantic slave trade was suppressed; why and how the slave trade continued after it had been outlawed; major accomplishments of the American abolitionist Frederick Douglass)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Knows major accomplishments of the American abolitionist Frederick Douglass
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 8.Understands significant individuals in the abolition movement (e.g., prominent women from the abolitionist movement in America and their major accomplishments, including Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, the Grimké sisters, Lucretia Mott; the story of Olaudah Equiana [Gustavus Vasa], his experience during the "middle passage," and his efforts to bring an end to the slave trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows prominent women from the abolitionist movement in America and their major accomplishments, including Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, the Grimké sisters, Lucretia Mott
     2.Knows the story of Olaudah Equiana (Gustavus Vasa), his experience during the "middle passage," and his efforts to bring an end to the slave trade
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands how Western culture influenced Asian societies (e.g., British policies in India compared to Dutch colonial practices in the East Indies; the lives of indigenous elites under these regimes; aspects of indigenous cultures that were embraced by Europeans; the major accomplishments of Ram Mohan Roy and his central ideas regarding Western influence in India)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the major accomplishments of Ram Mohan Roy and his central ideas regarding Western influence in India
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the emergence of nationalist movements in Italy and Germany (e.g., the major leaders of unification and nationalism in Italy and Germany, and why these movements succeeded; the appeal of Garibaldi's nationalist Redshirts to Italians)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows the major leaders of unification and nationalism in Italy
     4.Knows the major leaders of unification and nationalism in Germany
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands movements and ideas that contributed to social change in 19th-century North America and Europe (e.g., the leading ideas of Karl Marx and the impact of Marxist beliefs and programs on politics, industry, and labor relations in Europe; the origins of women's suffrage in North America and Europe, leading figures on both continents, and their success until World War I)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows the leading ideas of Karl Marx
     4.Understands the impact of Marxist beliefs and programs on politics, industry, and labor relations in Europe
     7.Knows leading figures in the women’s suffrage movement in North America
     8.Knows leading figures in the women’s suffrage movement in Europe
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the causes and results of the revolutions of 1848 (e.g., why these revolutions failed to achieve nationalist and democratic objectives; where revolutions occurred in 1848, how they were a chain reaction, and the goals and motivating spirit of each; the major accomplishments of prominent figures in the revolutionary era)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Knows the major accomplishments of prominent figures in the revolutionary era
   Benchmark 4.Understands the status of different groups in 19th-century Europe (e.g., the changing roles and status of European Jews and the rise of new forms of anti-Semitism; the goals of the women's movement in the 19th century, and the essential ideas outlined by Mary Wollstonecraft in Vindication of the Rights of Women; support for and opposition to women's suffrage in the late 19th century)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Knows the essential ideas outlined by Mary Wollstonecraft in Vindication of the Rights of Women
     5.Understands support for and opposition to women’s suffrage in the late 19th century
   Benchmark 9.Understands the definition of realpolitik and how Cavour and Bismarck exemplified this political philosophy
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how Cavour exemplified the political philosophy of realpolitik
     3.Understands how Bismarck exemplified the political philosophy of realpolitik
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the impact of new inventions and technological developments in various regions of the world (e.g., how new inventions transformed patterns of global communication, trade, and state power; how new machines, fertilizers, transport systems, and commercialization affected agricultural production; significant inventions and inventors in 19th-century Europe and America)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Knows significant inventions and inventors in 19th century Europe and America
   Benchmark 4.Understands political and economic changes in Japanese society in the 19th and 20th centuries (e.g., Japan's rapid industrialization, technological advancement, and national integration in the late 19th and 20th centuries; the death of the Meiji emperor in 1912 and the main achievements of Meiji Japan)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands the effects of the death of the Meiji emperor in 1912
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands major developments in science and the industrial economy (e.g., the social significance of the work of scientists, including Maxwell, Darwin, and Pasteur; how new forms of generative power contributed to Europe's "second industrial revolution;" the role of the state in different countries in directing or encouraging industrialization; the social, economic, and cultural impact of the railroad)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the social significance of the work of 19th century scientists, including Maxwell, Darwin, and Pasteur
   Benchmark 3.Understands European motives and ideology that justified extending imperial power into African and Asian countries (e.g., the motives that impelled several European powers to undertake imperial expansion against peoples of Africa, Southeast Asia, and China; achievements of Cecil Rhodes and his motives and goals in the "scramble for Africa")
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Knows the achievements of Cecil Rhodes
     5.Knows Cecil Rhode’s motives and goals in the "scramble for Africa"
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 13.Understands significant political events in 20th-century China (e.g., reasons for initial Chinese imperial support for the Boxer Rebellion, the major achievements of Sun Yatsen, the role overseas Chinese played in the 1911 revolution)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Knows the major achievements of Sun Yatsen
 Standard 38.  Understands reform, revolution, and social change in the world economy of the early 20th century
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the consequences of the significant revolutions of the early 20th century (e.g., the prominent figures in the Mexican Revolution and its significance as the first 20th century movement in which peasants played a prominent role)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the prominent figures in the Mexican Revolution
   Benchmark 3.Understands why Dr. Sun Yatsen is considered an important figure in the history of modern China
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the major works of Dr. Sun Yatsen
 Standard 39.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War I
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the roles of significant individuals, and the events that led to the Russian Revolution of 1917 (e.g., causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and how the revolutionary government progressed from moderate to radical; the historical importance of Russian leaders such as Tsar Nicholas II, Rasputin, and Lenin)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the roles of significant individuals who led the Russian Revolution of 1917
     5.Understands the historical importance of Russian leaders such as Tsar Nicholas II
     6.Understands the historical importance of Russian leaders such as Rasputin
     7.Understands the historical importance of Russian leaders such as Lenin
   Benchmark 4.Understands the rise of Joseph Stalin, and his impact on the Soviet Union (e.g., how Joseph Stalin came to and maintained power in the Soviet Union, and how his projects [collectivization, the first Five Year Plan] disrupted and transformed Soviet society in the 1920s and 1930s; what life was like for common people under Stalin's rule)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows about the rise of Joseph Stalin
     2.Understands the impact of Joseph Stalin on the Soviet Union
     3.Knows how Joseph Stalin came to power
     4.Understands how Joseph Stalin maintained power in the Soviet Union
     5.Understands how Joseph Stalin his project of collectivization disrupted Soviet society in the 1920s and 1930s
     6.Understands how Joseph Stalin his first Five Year Plan disrupted Soviet society in the 1920s and 1930s
     7.Understands what life was like for common people under Stalin’s rule
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 6.Understands the role of Tsar Nicholas II and Rasputin prior to and during the Russian Revolution of 1917 (e.g., the biography of Tsar Nicholas II and his family, including how they died; the role the monk Rasputin played in determining Russian policy, and his influence on the royal court)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of Tsar Nicholas II prior to and during the Russian Revolution of 1917
     2.Understands the role of Rasputin prior to and during the Russian Revolution of 1917
     3.Knows the biography of Tsar Nicholas II and his family
     4.Knows how Tsar Nicholas II and his family died
     5.Understands the role the monk Rasputin played in determining Russian policy
     6.Understands Rasputin’s influence on the royal court
 Standard 41.  Understands the causes and global consequences of World War II
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the rise of fascism and Nazism in Europe and Japan (e.g., the ideologies of fascism and Nazism, and how fascist regimes seized power and gained mass support in Germany, Italy, Spain, and Japan; German, Italian, and Japanese military conquests and drives for empires in the 1930's; how Hitler, Franco, and Mussolini rose to power; the causes of the Spanish Civil War and how this war coincided with the rise of fascism in Europe; what Nazi oppression in Germany was like)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     13.Understands how Hitler rose to power
     14.Understands how Franco rose to power
     15.Understands how Mussolini rose to power
   Benchmark 2.Understands influences on the outcome of World War II (e.g., the major turning points in the war; the principal theaters of conflict in Western Europe, Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union, North Africa, Asia, and the Pacific; the political and diplomatic leadership of individuals such as Churchill, Roosevelt, Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     8.Understands the political and diplomatic leadership of Churchill during World War II
     9.Understands the political and diplomatic leadership of Roosevelt during World War II
     10.Understands the political and diplomatic leadership of Hitler during World War II
     11.Understands the political and diplomatic leadership of Mussolini during World War II
     12.Understands the political and diplomatic leadership of Stalin during World War II
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands motives and consequences of the Soviet nonaggression pacts with Germany and Japan (e.g., the Munich Agreement in 1938, what it meant for Stalin, and how it lead to the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact of 1939)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands what the Munich Agreement in 1938 meant for Stalin