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Topic: Population density, distribution, and growth rates 

Geography

 Standard 9.  Understands the nature, distribution and migration of human populations on Earth's surface
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the characteristics of populations at a variety of scales (e.g., ethnicity, age distribution, number of families and single households, number of employed and unemployed, males and females, life expectancy, infant mortality)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands ethnicity in a population
     2.Understands age distribution in a population
     3.Understands the number of families in a population
     4.Understands the number of single households in a population
     5.Understands the number of employed workers in a population
     6.Understands the number of unemployed workers in a population
     7.Understands gender distribution in a population
     8.Understands life expectancy in a population
     9.Understands infant mortality in a population
   Benchmark 2.Knows the spatial distribution of population (e.g., that population density is higher east of the Mississippi River than west of it, population density is higher on the East Coast and West Coast than in the mountains and deserts of the western part of the country, few people live where it is very dry or very cold)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that population density is higher east of the Mississippi River than west of it
     2.Knows that population density is higher on the East and West Coasts than in the mountains and deserts of the western part of the country
     3.Knows that few people live where it is very dry
     4.Knows that few people live where it is very cold
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands demographic concepts and how they are used to describe population characteristics of a country or region (e.g., rates of natural increase, crude birth and death rates, infant mortality, population growth rates, doubling time, life expectancy, average family size)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands demographic concepts
     2.Understands how demographic concepts are used to describe population characteristics of a country
     3.Understands how demographic concepts are used to describe population characteristics of a region
     4.Understands the concept of rate of natural increase
     5.Understands the concept of crude birth rate
     6.Understands the concept of crude death rate
     7.Understands the concept of infant mortality
     8.Understands the concept of population growth rates
     9.Understands the concept of doubling time
     10.Understands the concept of life expectancy
     11.Understands the concept of average family size
     12.Understands how the rate of natural increase is used to describe population characteristics of a country
     13.Understands how the rate of natural increase is used to describe population characteristics of a region
     14.Understands how the crude birth rate is used to describe population characteristics of a region
     15.Understands how the crude death rate is used to describe population characteristics of a country
     16.Understands how the crude death rate is used to describe population characteristics of a region
     17.Understands how infant mortality is used to describe population characteristics of a country
     18.Understands how infant mortality is used to describe population characteristics of a region
     19.Understands how the population growth rate is used to describe population characteristics of a country
     20.Understands how the population growth rate is used to describe population characteristics of a region
     21.Understands how doubling time is used to describe population characteristics of a country
     22.Understands how doubling time is used to describe population characteristics of a region
     23.Understands how life expectancy is used to describe population characteristics of a country
     24.Understands how life expectancy is used to describe population characteristics of a region
     25.Understands how the average family size is used to describe population characteristics of a country
     26.Understands how the average family size is used to describe population characteristics of a region
     27.Understands how the crude birth rate is used to describe population characteristics of a country
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands population issues (e.g., the ongoing policies to limit population growth, the policy in the former Soviet Union to encourage ethnic Russians to have large families, economic considerations such as a country's need for more or fewer workers)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the ongoing policies to limit population growth
     2.Understands the policy in the former Soviet Union to encourage ethnic Russians to have large families
     3.Understands the economic considerations of a country as they relate to population issues
     4.Understands as a country’s need for more workers and how this relates to population issues
     5.Understands as a country’s need for fewer workers and how this relates to population issues
 Standard 12.  Understands the patterns of human settlement and their causes
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows areas of dense human settlement and why they are densely populated (e.g., fertile soil, good transportation, and availability of water in the Ganges River Valley; availability of coal, iron, and other natural resources and river transportation in the Ruhr)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows areas of dense human settlement
     2.Knows why some areas are more densely populated than others
     3.Knows that the Ganges River Valley is an area of dense human settlement
     4.Knows that the fertile soil of the Ganges River Valley is one reason why it is so densely populated
     5.Knows that the good transportation of the Ganges River Valley is one reason why it is so densely populated
     6.Knows that the availability of water of the Ganges River Valley is one reason why it is so densely populated
     7.Knows that the Ruhr is an area of dense human settlement
     8.Knows that the availability of coal in the Ruhr is one reason why it is so densely populated
     9.Knows that the availability natural resources in the Ruhr is one reason why it is so densely populated
     10.Knows that the availability of iron in the Ruhr is one reason why it is so densely populated
     11.Knows that river transportation is one reason why the Ruhr is so densely populated
   Benchmark 2.Knows reasons for similarities and differences in the population size and density of different regions (e.g., length of settlement, environment and resources, cultural traditions, historic events, accessibility)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows reasons for similarities in the population size of different regions
     2.Knows reasons for similarities in the population density of different regions
     3.Knows reasons for differences in the population size of different regions
     4.Knows reasons for differences in the population density of different regions
     5.Knows that the length of settlement affects the population size of different regions
     6.Knows that the length of settlement affects the population density of different regions
     7.Knows that a region’s environment and resources affects its population size
     8.Knows that a region’s environment and resources affects its population density
     9.Knows that a region’s cultural traditions affects its population size
     10.Knows that a region’s cultural traditions affects its population density
     11.Knows that a region’s historic events affects its population size
     12.Knows that a region’s historic events affects its population density
     13.Knows that a region’s accessibility affects its population size
     14.Knows that a region’s accessibility affects its population density
 Standard 13.  Understands the forces of cooperation and conflict that shape the divisions of Earth's surface
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands why the boundaries of congressional districts change in the United States (e.g., the effects of statutory requirements, population shifts, ethnic and racial considerations, shifts in political power)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that boundaries of congressional districts in the United States change as a result of statutory requirements
     2.Understands that boundaries of congressional districts in the United States change as a result of population shifts
     3.Understands that boundaries of congressional districts in the United States change as a result of ethnic and racial considerations
     4.Understands that boundaries of congressional districts in the United States change as a results of shifts in political power
 Standard 15.  Understands how physical systems affect human systems
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands relationships between population density and environmental quality (e.g., resource distribution, rainfall, temperature, soil fertility, land form relief, carrying capacity)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the relationship between population density and resource distribution
     2.Understands the relationship between population density and rainfall
     3.Understands the relationship between population density and temperature changes
     4.Understands the relationship between population density and soil fertility
     5.Understands the relationship between population density and land form relief
     6.Understands the relationship between population density and carrying capacity
 Standard 18.  Understands global development and environmental issues
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the relationship between population growth and resource use
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that human population growth affects natural resources
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands contemporary issues in terms of Earth's physical and human systems (e.g., the processes of land degradation and desertification, the consequences of population growth or decline in a developed economy, the consequences of a world temperature increase)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands contemporary issues in terms of the Earth’s physical systems
     2.Understands contemporary issues in terms of the Earth’s human systems
     3.Understands the processes of land degradation and desertification
     4.Understands the consequences of population growth in a developed economy
     5.Understands the consequences of population decline in a developed economy

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 3.  Understands the people, events, problems, and ideas that were significant in creating the history of their state
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 6.Understands patterns and changes in population over a period of time in a city or town in the state or region
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the population of a city is the number of people who live in that city
     2.Knows that the population of a town is the number of people who live in that town
     3.Understands population patterns over time in a city or town in the state or region
     4.Understands population changes over time in a city or town in the state or region

United States History

 Standard 16.  Understands how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, and mechanized farming transformed American society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 5.Understands how rapid increase in population and industrial growth in urban areas influenced the environment (e.g., inefficient urban garbage collection and sewage disposal, how city leaders and residents coped with environmental problems in the city)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how rapid increase in population in urban areas influenced the environment
     2.Understands how industrial growth in urban areas influenced the environment
     3.Understands how inefficient urban garbage collection influenced the environment
     4.Understands how inefficient sewage disposal in urban areas influenced the environment
     5.Understands how city leaders coped with environmental problems in the city
     6.Understands how city residents coped with environmental problems in the city

World History

 Standard 20.  Understands the redefinition of European society and culture from 1000 to 1300 CE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands the connection between agricultural technology and increased agricultural production and population growth in Europe between 1000 and 1300 CE
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the connection between agricultural technology and population growth in Europe between 1000 and 1300 CE
 Standard 25.  Understands major global trends from 1000 to 1500 CE
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands demographic changes in various regions from 1000 to 1500 CE (e.g., the growth, decline, and recovery of the overall population of Afro-Eurasia; ways in which large demographic swings affected economic, social, and cultural life in various regions)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the growth, decline, and recovery of the overall population of Afro Eurasia from 1000 to 1500 CE
     2.Understands ways in which large demographic swings affected economic life in various regions from 1000 to 1500 CE
     3.Understands ways in which large demographic swings affected social life in various regions from 1000 to 1500 CE
     4.Understands ways in which large demographic swings affected cultural life in various regions from 1000 to 1500 CE
 Standard 27.  Understands how European society experienced political, economic, and cultural transformations in an age of global intercommunication between 1450 and 1750
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands changes in urban and rural Europe between the 15th and 18th centuries (e.g., social and economic consequences of population growth and urbanization in Europe between the 15th and 18th centuries; the growth pattern of European cities between the 17th and 18th centuries, and the major urban centers of this period; causes and effects of the "agrarian revolution" on Western and Eastern European society)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands changes in urban Europe between the 15th and 18th centuries
     3.Knows social consequences of population growth and urbanization in Europe between the 15th and 18th centuries
     4.Knows economic consequences of population growth and urbanization in Europe between the 15th and 18th centuries
     5.Knows the growth pattern of European cities between the 17th and 18th centuries
     6.Knows the major urban centers between the 17th and 18th centuries
 Standard 31.  Understands major global trends from 1450 to 1770
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands major shifts in world demography and urbanization between 1450 and 1770 and reasons for these changes
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major shifts in world demography and urbanization between 1450 and 1770
     2.Understands reasons for major shifts in world demography and urbanization between 1450 and 1770
 Standard 33.  Understands the causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions from 1700 to 1850
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the emergence and impact of industrialism in 18th-century England (e.g., the effects of the agricultural revolution on population growth, industrialization, and patterns of land-holding; major characteristics of industrialization; how the industrial revolution affected population shifts; how the industrial revolution in the textile industry changed the way people worked; how figures such as John Kay, James Hargreaves, James Watt, Edmund Cartwright, and Richard Arkwright contributed to industrialization in England)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the effects of the agricultural revolution on population growth, industrialization, and patterns of land holding
     5.Understands how the industrial revolution affected population shifts
   Benchmark 2.Understands the impact of the industrial revolution in Europe and the Atlantic Basin (e.g., connections between population growth, industrialization, and urbanization; the quality of life in early 19-century cities; the effects of urbanization on the development of class distinctions, family life, and the daily working lives of men, women, and children; advances made in communication and transportation; effects upon the political and economic status of women)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands connections between population growth, industrialization, and urbanization
 Standard 34.  Understands how Eurasian societies were transformed in an era of global trade and the emergence of European power from 1750 to 1870
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the economic and social consequences of rapid population growth in China between the 17th and 19th centuries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the economic consequences of rapid population growth in China between the 17th and 19th centuries
     2.Understands the social consequences of rapid population growth in China between the 17th and 19th centuries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the social structure of the Ottoman Empire in the early and middle 19th century (e.g., the effects of population growth and European commercial penetration on Ottoman society and government; the roles of janissaries and Jewish and Christian merchants and landowners changed by the middle of the 19th century; the relative presence and the location of diverse religious and ethnic groups within the Ottoman Empire in 1800, and the prevailing Ottoman policy toward religion; the success and reception of the reforms of 1856 in the Hatt-I-Humayun issued by Abdul-Mejid)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effects of population growth on Ottoman society and government
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 7.Understands trends in the population of Europe for the last three and a half centuries, and at what time Europe had the greatest number of inhabitants
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands trends in the population of Europe for the last three and a half centuries
     2.Knows at what time Europe had the greatest number of inhabitants
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 8.Understands the diverse factors (e.g., variations in birth and death rates, infant mortality rates) that contributed to the peaking and then leveling off of European population growth from the 17th to the 20th centuries
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how variations in birth and death rates contributed to the peaking and then leveling off of European population growth from the 17th to the 20th centuries
     2.Understands how infant mortality rates contributed to the peaking and then leveling off of European population growth from the 17th to the 20th centuries
 Standard 37.  Understand major global trends from 1750 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands major shifts in world population and urbanization in this era and how factors such as industrialization, migration, changing diets, and scientific and medical advances affected worldwide demographic trends (e.g., the changes large cities around the world went through during this period, such as Guangzhou [Canton], Cairo, Tokyo, Buenos Aires, Bombay, San Francisco, and London)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands major shifts in world population in the era from 1750 to 1914
     3.Understands how industrialization affected worldwide demographic trends
     4.Understands how migration affected worldwide demographic trends
     5.Understands how changing diets affected worldwide demographic trends
     6.Understands how scientific and medical advances affected worldwide demographic trends
     7.Understands the changes large cities around the world went through during the period from 1750 to 1914, such as Guangzhou (Canton), Cairo, Tokyo, Buenos Aires, Bombay, San Francisco, and London
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 5.Understands trends in world population between 1500 and 1900, where the greatest increases occurred, and possible factors for this growth
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands trends in world population between 1500 and 1900
     2.Understands where the greatest increases in world population occurred between 1500 and 1900
     3.Knows possible factors for population growth in different parts of the world between 1500 and 1900
 Standard 43.  Understands how post-World War II reconstruction occurred, new international power relations took shape, and colonial empires broke up
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the impact of independence movements in various countries and whether they were successful (e.g., the connections between the rise of independence movements in Africa and Southeast Asia and social transformations such as accelerated population growth, urbanization, and new Western-educated elites; the chronology of the Algerian struggle for independence, the role of domestic and international public opinion in the actions of the government, and how the French presence influenced the outcome; how diverse independence movements in Asia and Africa succeeded)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the connections between the rise of independence movements in Africa and Southeast Asia and social transformations such as accelerated population growth, urbanization, and new Western educated elites
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the causes and effects of population growth and urbanization (e.g., why population growth rate is accelerating around the world, and connections between population growth and economic and social development in many countries; the global proliferation of cities and the rise of the megalopolis, as well as the impact of urbanization on family life, standards of living, class relations, and ethnic identity; why scientific, technological, and medical advances have improved living standards but have failed to eradicate hunger, poverty, and epidemic disease)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the causes of population growth and urbanization
     2.Understands the effects of population growth and urbanization
     3.Understands why population growth rate is accelerating around the world
     4.Understands connections between population growth and economic and social development in many countries
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 9.Understands influences on population growth, and efforts to control such growth in modern society (e.g., how statistics from specific, diverse nations illustrate the relationship between scientific, medical, and technological advancements and population growth; China's population growth from the 1700s to 1990, why the population growth increased dramatically, and the effects of the "one-child" policy of the 1990s; issues and objections raised at the 1994 Cairo Conference on World Population and the difficulty of arriving at a consensus document on population growth)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands influences on population growth in modern society
     2.Understands efforts to control population growth in modern society
     3.Knows how statistics from specific, diverse nations illustrate the relationship between scientific, medical, and technological advancements and population growth
     4.Understands China’s population growth from the 1700s to 1990, why the population growth increased dramatically, and the effects of the "one child" policy of the 1990s
     5.Knows issues and objections raised at the 1994 Cairo Conference on World Population and the difficulty of arriving at a consensus document on population growth
 Standard 46.  Understands long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands major changes in world population from paleolithic times to the present (e.g., why these changes occurred, the effects of major disease pandemics)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands why changes in world population have occurred from paleolithic times to the present
     2.Understands the effects of major disease pandemics on world population from paleolithic times to the present