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Topic: Impact of the environment on society 

Family/Consumer Sciences

 Standard 4.  Understand how knowledge and skills related to consumer and resources management affect the well-being of individuals, families, and society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 7.Understands the relationship of the environment to family and consumer resources (e.g., individual and family responsibilities in relation to environmental trends and issues affecting families and future generations)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the relationship of the environment to family resources
     2.Understands the relationship of the environment to consumer resources
     3.Understands individual responsibilities in relation to environmental trends affecting families
     4.Understands individual responsibilities in relation to environmental trends affecting future generations
     5.Understands individual responsibilities in relation to environmental issues affecting families
     6.Understands individual responsibilities in relation to environmental issues affecting future generations
     7.Understands family responsibilities in relation to environmental trends affecting families
     8.Understands family responsibilities in relation to environmental trends affecting future generations
     9.Understands family responsibilities in relation to environmental issues affecting families

Geography

 Standard 4.  Understands the physical and human characteristics of place
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows how the characteristics of places are shaped by physical and human processes (e.g., effects of agriculture on changing land use and vegetation; effects of settlement on the building of roads; relationship of population distribution to land forms, climate, vegetation, or resources)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how the characteristics of places are shaped by physical processes
     6.Knows the relationship between population distribution and land forms
     7.Knows the relationship between population distribution and climate
     8.Knows the relationship between population distribution and vegetation
     9.Knows the relationship between population distribution and resources
 Standard 7.  Knows the physical processes that shape patterns on Earth's surface
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 3.Knows how Earth’s position relative to the Sun affects events and conditions on Earth (e.g., how the tilt of the Earth in relation to the Sun explains seasons in different locations on Earth, how the length of day influences human activity in different regions of the world)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Knows how the length of day influences human activity in different regions of the world
 Standard 9.  Understands the nature, distribution and migration of human populations on Earth's surface
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the spatial distribution of population (e.g., that population density is higher east of the Mississippi River than west of it, population density is higher on the East Coast and West Coast than in the mountains and deserts of the western part of the country, few people live where it is very dry or very cold)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows that few people live where it is very dry
     4.Knows that few people live where it is very cold
 Standard 15.  Understands how physical systems affect human systems
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Knows how communities benefit from the physical environment (e.g., people make their living by farming on fertile land, fishing in local water, working in mines; the community is a port located on a natural harbor, a tourist center located in a scenic or historic area, an industrial center with good access to natural resources)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that communities are benefiting from the physical environment when people make their living by farming on fertile land
     2.Knows that communities are benefiting from the physical environment when people make their living by fishing in local water
     3.Knows that communities are benefiting from the physical environment when people make their living by working in mines
     4.Knows that communities are benefiting from the physical environment when the community is a port located on a natural harbor
     5.Knows that communities are benefiting from the physical environment when the community is a tourist center located in a scenic or historic area
     6.Knows that communities are benefiting from the physical environment when the community is an industrial center with good access to natural resources
   Benchmark 3.Knows the ways in which human activities are constrained by the physical environment (e.g., effects of weather, climate and land forms on agriculture, recreational activities, availability of water, expansion of settlement)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that human activities can be constrained by weather
     2.Knows that human activities can be constrained by the climate
     3.Knows that human activities can be constrained by the land forms in the area
     4.Knows that agriculture can be constrained by the physical environment
     5.Knows that recreational activities can be constrained by the physical environment
     6.Knows the availability of water can be constrained by the physical environment
     7.Knows that settlement expansion can be constrained by the physical environment
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 2.Knows how the physical environment affects life in different regions (e.g., how people in Siberia, Alaska, and other high-latitude places deal with the characteristics of tundra environments; limitations to coastline settlements as a result of tidal, storm, and erosional processes)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how people in high-latitude places deal with the characteristics of tundra environments
     2.Knows how people in Siberia deal with the characteristics of tundra environments
     3.Knows how people in Alaska deal with the characteristics of tundra environments
     4.Knows how coastline settlements are limited as a result of tidal processes
     5.Knows how coastline settlements are limited as a result of storm processes
     6.Knows how coastline settlements are limited as a result of erosional processes
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Knows conditions and locations that place limits on plant growth and therefore on the expansion of human settlement (e.g., soils with limited nutrients, high salt content, shallow depth; extremely cold, arid or humid tropical climates; mountainous and coastal environments)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows conditions that place limits on plant growth and therefore on the expansion of human settlement
     2.Knows locations that place limits on plant growth and therefore on the expansion of human settlement
     3.Knows that soils with limited nutrients place limits on plant growth and therefore on the expansion of human settlement
     4.Knows that soils with a high salt content place limits on plant growth and therefore on the expansion of human settlement
     5.Knows that shallow soils place limits on plant growth and therefore on the expansion of human settlement
     6.Knows that extremely cold climates place limits on plant growth and therefore on the expansion of human settlement
     7.Knows that extremely arid climates place limits on plant growth and therefore on the expansion of human settlement
     8.Knows that extremely humid tropical climates place limits on plant growth and therefore on the expansion of human settlement
     9.Knows that mountainous environments place limits on plant growth and therefore on the expansion of human settlement
     10.Knows that coastal environments place limits on plant growth and therefore on the expansion of human settlement
 Standard 18.  Understands global development and environmental issues
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the interaction between physical and human systems affects current conditions on Earth (e.g., relationships involved in economic, political, social, and environmental changes; geographic impact of using petroleum, coal, nuclear power, and solar power as major energy sources)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the relationship between physical and human systems involved in economic changes
     2.Understands the relationship between physical and human systems involved in political changes
     3.Understands the relationship between physical and human systems involved in social changes
     4.Understands the relationship between physical and human systems involved in environmental changes
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Understands contemporary issues in terms of Earth's physical and human systems (e.g., the processes of land degradation and desertification, the consequences of population growth or decline in a developed economy, the consequences of a world temperature increase)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands the consequences of a world temperature increase

Grades K-4 History

 Standard 2.  Understands the history of a local community and how communities in North America varied long ago
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 5.Understands how geographical features contributed to the establishment and growth of communities such as mining towns (e.g., Sacramento) and trading settlements (e.g., New Orleans, Vincennes, Astoria)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how geographical features contributed to the establishment of communities
     2.Understands how geographical features contributed to the growth of communities
     3.Understands that geographical features contributed to the establishment and growth of mining towns
     4.Understands that geographical features contributed to the establishment and growth of trading settlements
     5.Understands that geographical features contributed to the establishment and growth of Sacramento as a mining town
     6.Understands that geographical features contributed to the establishment and growth of New Orleans as a trading settlement
     7.Understands that geographical features contributed to the establishment and growth of Vincennes as a trading settlement
     8.Understands that geographical features contributed to the establishment and growth of Astoria as a trading settlement
 Standard 3.  Understands the people, events, problems, and ideas that were significant in creating the history of their state
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 9.Understands the influence of geography on the history of the state or region, and issues and approaches to problems (e.g., land use, environmental problems)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that the geography of a state has influenced the state’s history
     2.Understands that the geography of a region has influenced the region’s history
     3.Knows about land use issues that the state or region has encountered
     4.Knows how the state or region has approached land use issues
     5.Knows about environmental problems that the state or region has encountered
     6.Knows how the state or region has approached environmental problems
 Standard 7.  Understands selected attributes and historical developments of societies in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe
  Level II (Grade 3-4)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the effects geography has had on the different aspects of societies (e.g., the development of urban centers, food, clothing, industry, agriculture, shelter, trade)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the effects that geography has had on the development of urban centers in different societies
     2.Knows the effects that geography has had on the types of food eaten in different societies
     3.Knows the effects that geography has had on the kind of clothing worn in different societies
     4.Knows the effects that geography has had on industry in different societies
     5.Knows the effects that geography has had on agriculture in different societies
     6.Knows the effects that geography has had on the types of shelter used in different societies
     7.Knows the effects that geography has had on trade in different societies

World History

 Standard 1.  Understands the biological and cultural processes that shaped the earliest human communities
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the social and cultural characteristics of hunter-gatherer communities in various continental regions (e.g., similarities and differences between hunter-gatherer communities in Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas and their responses to local environments; characteristics of Cro-Magnon communities of western Eurasia; location and composition of archaeological discoveries and what understanding these bring to Neanderthal culture and community life)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the social and cultural similarities and differences between hunter-gatherer communities in Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas and their responses to local environments
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the role of the environment in the development of different human communities (e.g., current and past theories regarding the emergence of Homo sapiens sapiens and the processes by which human groups populated the major world regions; how environmental conditions in the last Ice Age possibly affected changes in the economy, culture, and organization of human communities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows current and past theories regarding the emergence of Homo sapiens sapiens
     2.Knows current and past theories regarding the processes by which human groups populated the major world regions
     3.Understands how environmental conditions in the last Ice Age possibly affected changes in the economy of early human communities
     4.Understands how environmental conditions in the last Ice Age possibly affected changes in the culture of early human communities
     5.Understands how environmental conditions in the last Ice Age possibly affected changes in the organization of early human communities
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how different kinds of evidence are used to determine the cultural characteristics of early human communities (e.g., how archaeological evidence demonstrates the influences of climate, geographic location, and economic specialization on everyday life; how nonverbal evidence such as burials, carvings, and paintings can indicate the presence of religion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how archaeological evidence demonstrates the influence of climate on everyday life in early human communities
     2.Understands how archaeological evidence demonstrates the influence of geographic location on everyday life in early human communities
   Benchmark 3.Understands physical, social, and cultural characteristics of different human communities (e.g., the possible types of early hominid communities; characteristics of skeletal remains of nonhominid, primate, hominid, and Homo sapiens and how to classify them chronologically; major features of flora, fauna, and climate associated with different hominid communities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Knows major features of flora, fauna, and climate associated with different hominid communities
   Benchmark 4.Understands environmental, biological, and cultural influences on early human communities (e.g., how language helped early humans hunt, establish roles, rules, and structure within communities; the proposition that Mesolithic peoples were the first to take advantage of a changing climate; biological and cultural relationships between Neanderthal and Homo sapiens sapiens)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands environmental influences on early human communities
     5.Knows the proposition that Mesolithic peoples were the first to take advantage of a changing climate
 Standard 2.  Understands the processes that contributed to the emergence of agricultural societies around the world
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands influences on the spread of agricultural communities (e.g., how local needs and conditions affected food plant domestication and world-wide patterns of settlement)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how local needs and conditions affected food plant domestication
 Standard 3.  Understands the major characteristics of civilization and the development of civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on the development of various civilizations in the 4th and 3rd millennia BCE (e.g., how the natural environment of the Tigris-Euphrates, Nile, and Indus Valleys shaped the early development of civilization; different characteristics of urban development in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the natural environment of the Tigris Euphrates shaped the early development of civilization
     2.Understands how the natural environment of the Nile Valley shaped the early development of civilization
     3.Understands how the natural environment of the Indus Valley shaped the early development of civilization
     6.Knows the characteristics of urban development in the Indus Valley
   Benchmark 3.Understands how economic, political, and environmental factors influenced the civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley (e.g., the impact of trade networks connecting various regions of Southwest Asia on Mesopotamian civilization; the importance of commercial, cultural, and political connections between Egypt and peoples of Nubia along the upper Nile; how geography and climate affected trade in the Nile Valley)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Understands how environmental factors influenced the civilization of Mesopotamia
     8.Understands how environmental factors influenced the early civilization of Egypt
     9.Understands how environmental factors influenced the civilization of the Indus Valley
     12.Understands how geography and climate affected trade in the Nile Valley
 Standard 4.  Understands how agrarian societies spread and new states emerged in the third and second millennia BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands significant characteristics of early Chinese society and religion (e.g., the influence of the natural environment on Huang He [Yellow River] civilization compared to its impact on Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley; early Chinese urban societies and how they compare to those of Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley, the nature of Shang ancestor worship and what it illustrates about concepts of life and death in Shang society)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the influence of the natural environment on Huang He (Yellow River) civilization compared to its impact on Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands how the natural environment shaped Huang He civilization (e.g., how changes in the course of the Huang He river challenged citizens and government)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how changes in the course of the Huang He river challenged citizens and government
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how environmental conditions such as the prevailing wind, current, and flooding patterns, influenced civilizations in the Tigris, Nile, and Huang He valleys
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how environmental conditions such as the prevailing wind, current, and flooding patterns, influenced civilizations in the Tigris valley
     2.Understands how environmental conditions such as the prevailing wind, current, and flooding patterns, influenced civilizations in the Nile valley
     3.Understands how environmental conditions such as the prevailing wind, current, and flooding patterns, influenced civilizations in the Huang He valley
 Standard 5.  Understands the political, social, and cultural consequences of population movements and militarization in Eurasia in the second millennium BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the rise of pastoral societies was linked to the climate and geography of the Central Asian steppes, and how kinship-based pastoral society differed from the social organization of agrarian states
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the rise of pastoral societies was linked to the climate and geography of the Central Asian steppes
   Benchmark 3.Understands characteristics of Mycenaean Greek society and culture (e.g., the political and social organization of the Mycenaean Greeks as revealed in archaeological and written records, how geography influenced the development of Mycenaean society, the significance of the story of the siege of Troy)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands how geography influenced the development of Mycenaean society
   Benchmark 4.Understands possible causes of the decline and collapse of Indus Valley civilization (e.g., possible causes for the disappearance of cities such as Mohenjo-Daro, the role environmental changes played in the fall of Indus cities)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the role environmental changes played in the fall of Indus cities
 Standard 6.  Understands major trends in Eurasia and Africa from 4000 to 1000 BCE
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands why geographic, environmental, and economic conditions favored hunter-gatherer, pastoral, and small-scale agricultural ways of life rather than urban civilizations in many parts of the world
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows parts of the world in which geographic, environmental, and economic conditions favored hunter gatherer, pastoral, and small scale agricultural ways of life rather than urban civilizations
     2.Understands why geographic conditions favored hunter gatherer, pastoral, and small scale agricultural ways of life rather than urban civilizations in many parts of the world
     3.Understands why environmental conditions favored hunter gatherer, pastoral, and small scale agricultural ways of life rather than urban civilizations in many parts of the world
 Standard 7.  Understands technological and cultural innovation and change from 1000 to 600 BCE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the development of Greek city-states (e.g., common features of Greek city-states in the Aegean region; the political, social, and legal character of the polis; how geography influenced the location and development of Greek city-states)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands how geography influenced the location and development of Greek city states
   Benchmark 6.Understands geographical and architectural features of Egypt and Kush (e.g., the locations of Egypt and Kush on the African continent and the geographic features that either assisted or hampered communication between these two kingdoms, what architectural evidence suggests about the relationship between Egypt and Kush)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows geographical features of Egypt and Kush
     4.Knows the geographic features that either assisted or hampered communication between the kingdoms of Egypt and Kush
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands characteristics of the Assyrian and Babylonian Empires (e.g., the geographic extent of the Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and sources of their power and wealth, the significance of geographic features to the success of these empires, what Assyrian art indicates about Assyrian culture and society)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     7.Understands the significance of geographic features to the success of the Assyrian Empire
     8.Understands the significance of geographic features to the success of the Babylonian Empire
   Benchmark 7.Understands elements of different pastoral nomadic peoples in Central Asia (e.g., what archaeological and other evidence has revealed about Scythian and Xiongnu society and culture; the geography of arid lands of the Eastern Hemisphere, aspects of social relations between peoples of these desert and steppe lands, and how individual communities adapted to the land)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the geography of arid lands of the Eastern Hemisphere
     4.Understands how individual nomadic communities adapted to the land
 Standard 10.  Understands how early agrarian civilizations arose in Mesoamerica
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the major characteristics and contributions of Olmec civilization (e.g, how maize cultivation influenced the development of the Olmec civilization, the major contributions of Olmec civilization to Mesoamerican civilization, the achievements of Olmec civilization circa 1200 to 400 BCE, how geography influenced the development of Olmec civilization, the essential aspects of the Olmec civilization)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     6.Understands how geography influenced the development of Olmec civilization
 Standard 13.  Understands the causes and consequences of the development of Islamic civilization between the 7th and 10th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the effect of geography on different groups and their trade practices (e.g., nomads, town-dwellers, trade practices on the Arabian peninsula; the goods traded and the origins of these goods)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effect of geography on nomads of the Arabian peninsula and their trade practices
     2.Understands the effect of geography on town-dwellers on the Arabian peninsula and their trade practices
     3.Understands the effects of geography on trade practices on the Arabian peninsula
     4.Knows the goods traded on the Arabian peninsula and the origins of these goods
 Standard 14.  Understands major developments in East Asia and Southeast Asia in the era of the Tang Dynasty from 600 to 900 CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands characteristics of Japanese society through the imperial period (e.g., aspects of the indigenous development of Japanese society until the 7th century CE; the establishment of the imperial state in Japan and the role of the emperor in government; the political, social, and cultural role of women and their contributions to the court of Heian; how the geography of Japan affected its development and its relations with China and Korea)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands how the geography of Japan affected its development and its relations with China and Korea
   Benchmark 3.Understands the importance of the commercial state of Srivijava and the Straits of Malacca in Southeast Asia as a trade link between India and China (e.g., how the monsoon winds and geography of the strait contributed to Srivijava's wealth and power)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands the importance of the Straits of Malacca in Southeast Asia as a trade link between India and China
     3.Understands how the monsoon winds contributed to Srivijava’s wealth and power
     4.Understands how the geography of the strait contributed to Srivijava’s wealth and power
 Standard 16.  Understands the development of agricultural societies and new states in tropical Africa and Oceania
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands influences on state-building in West Africa (e.g., how the natural environments of West Africa defined agricultural production, and the importance of the Niger River in promoting agriculture, commerce, and state-building; the growth of the Ghana empire; how Islam, labor specialization, regional commerce and the trans-Saharan camel trade promoted urbanization in West Africa; the governing system of the royal court in Ghana, and how the effectiveness of imperial efforts was aided by a belief in the king's divinity)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the natural environments of West Africa defined agricultural production
     2.Understands the importance of the Niger River in promoting agriculture, commerce, and state building
 Standard 17.  Understands the rise of centers of civilization in Mesoamerica and Andean South America in the 1st millennium CE
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the significant features of Mayan civilization (e.g., locations of Mayan city-states, road systems, and sea routes in Mesoamerica and the influence of the environment on these developments; the role and status of elite women and men in Mayan society as indicated by their portrayal in Mayan monumental architecture; the importance of religion in Mayan society; the structure and purpose of Mayan pyramids; ceremonial games among the Mayans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the influence of the environment on city-states, road systems, and sea routes in MesoAmerica
   Benchmark 2.Understands different farming methods of Teotihuacan and Moche civilization (e.g., agricultural methods, water utilization, and herding methods used by the Teotihuacan and Moche peoples, and how the natural environment of the Andes helped to influence these methods)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     9.Understands how the natural environment of the Andes helped to influence agriculture, water utilization, and herding methods used by the Teotihuacan and Moche peoples
 Standard 19.  Understands the maturation of an interregional system of communication, trade, and cultural exchange during a period of Chinese economic power and Islamic expansion
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 7.Understands elements of trade in different regions (e.g., the importance of Cairo and other major cities as centers of international trade and culture; how the spread of Islam was connected to trade in Central Asia, East Africa, West Africa, the coasts of India, and Southeast Asia; the importance to individual societies of goods traded between Asia, Africa, and Europe; the consequences placed on maritime trade by the seasonal monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean; features and functions of caravansaries and khans in Central Asian and Middle Eastern cities; which ships were most successfully used for trade in the Indian Ocean and why)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the consequences placed on maritime trade by the seasonal monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean
 Standard 23.  Understands patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia between 1300 and 1450
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Knows ways in which long-term climatic change contributed to Europe's economic and social crisis in the 14th century
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows ways in which long term climatic change contributed to Europe’s economic crisis in the 14th century
     2.Knows ways in which long term climatic change contributed to Europe’s social crisis in the 14th century
   Benchmark 8.Understands how economic conditions influenced the political and social climate in post 14th- century Europe (e.g., the impact of climatic change on the European agricultural system and the social and political consequences; how decreasing revenues led to competition between nobles for other sources of income, which increased the occurrence of civil wars)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Understands the impact of climatic change on the European agricultural system and the social consequences
     4.Understands the impact of climatic change on the European agricultural system and the political consequences
 Standard 24.  Understands the expansion of states and civilizations in the Americas between 1000 and 1500
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 3.Understands major political and social features of Incan society (e.g., the development of Incan social and political institutions, the chronology of Incan imperial expansion from 1230 to 1525 and the difficulties posed by its geographically an climatically diverse territories, the location and major features of Machu Picchu and what this site reveals about Incan civilization)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Understands the difficulties posed by the Incan empire’s geographically and climatically diverse territories
   Benchmark 5.Understands how the natural environment affected the organization of developing societies of the North American plains, Southwestern deserts, and the tropical forests of the Yucatan
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the natural environment affected the organization of developing societies of the North American plains
     2.Understands how the natural environment affected the organization of developing societies of the Southwestern deserts
     3.Understands how the natural environment affected the organization of developing societies of the tropical forests of the Yucatan
 Standard 32.  Understands the causes and consequences of political revolutions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the origins and development of Latin American independence movements (e.g., how the American, French, and Haitian revolutions and South American rebellions influenced the development of independence movements in Latin America; the political and ideological objectives, and the success of the independence movements between 1808 and 1830; how the colonial powers and independent countries of Latin America changed between 1790 and 1828; the role of geography in the outcome of the Latin American independence movements)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     11.Understands the role of geography in the outcome of the Latin American independence movements
 Standard 33.  Understands the causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial revolutions from 1700 to 1850
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands why industrialization flourished in Britain (e.g., Britain's commercial connections with foreign markets in the early industrial revolution; Britain's unique combination of geography, location, natural resources, economy, technology, and political tendencies)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how Britain’s unique combination of geography, location, natural resources, economy, technology, and political tendencies contributed to early industrialization
 Standard 35.  Understands patterns of nationalism, state-building, and social reform in Europe and the Americas from 1830 to 1914
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 4.Understands the political and social changes in 19th-century Latin America (e.g., where democracy failed and succeeded in Latin American nations after independence was achieved, how geography possibly influenced nation-building in Latin America, the class system in Latin America and its racial core)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Understands how geography possibly influenced nation building in Latin America
 Standard 36.  Understands patterns of global change in the era of Western military and economic dominance from 1800 to 1914
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 2.Understands influences on European migration, immigration, and emigration patterns throughout the world between 1846 and 1932 (e.g., the geographical, political, economic, and epidemiological factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions; possible connections of the rise of the Zulu Empire in South Africa to European settlements in the Cape Region; relations between migrating European and African peoples that laid the foundation for the apartheid system in the 20th century; how technology such as the steamship and the railroad facilitated emigration)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the geographical factors that contributed to the success of European colonial settlements in various regions
 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 7.Understands the importance or meaning of the natural environment for societies around the world
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how the view of the natural environment may depend upon economic perspective
     2.Knows the importance of a given natural environment can be national and international