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Topic: Environmental issues 

Science

 Standard 9.  Understands the sources and properties of energy
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 11.Understands the origins and environmental impacts of renewable and nonrenewable resources, including energy sources like fossil fuels (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the origins of renewable energy resources
     2.Understands the origins of nonrenewable energy resources
     3.Understands the origins of fossil fuels
     4.Understands the origins of coal
     5.Understands the origins of oil
     6.Understands the origins of natural gas
     7.Understands that coal is a form of nonrenewable energy
     8.Understands that oil is a form of nonrenewable energy
     9.Understands that natural gas is a form of nonrenewable energy
     10.Understands that coal is a fossil fuel
     11.Understands that oil is a fossil fuel
     12.Understands that natural gas is a fossil fuel
     13.Understands the environmental impacts of renewable energy resources
     14.Understands the environmental impacts of nonrenewable energy resources
     15.Understands the environmental impacts of fossil fuels
     16.Understands the environmental impacts of coal
     17.Understands the environmental impacts of oil

Engineering Education

 Standard 11.  Understands the interrelationship of the building trades and society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 4.Understands how society and the environment have been affected by the construction industry
    Knowledge/skill statements
     2.Understands how the environment has been affected by the construction industry
 Standard 19.  Understands the interrelationship of manufacturing and society
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands the impact of manufacturing on the environment (e.g., use of resources, disposal of industrial waste)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the impact of manufacturing on the environment such as use of resources
     2.Understands the impact of manufacturing on the environment such as disposal of industrial waste

Geography

 Standard 8.  Understands the characteristics of ecosystems on Earth's surface
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 3.Knows the effects of biological magnification in ecosystems (e.g., the increase in contaminants in succeeding levels of the food chain and the consequences for different life forms)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that biological magnification in ecosystems involves an increase of contaminants in succeeding levels of the food chain
     2.Knows the consequences of increased contaminants for different life forms in a food chain
   Benchmark 4.Knows the effects of both physical and human changes in ecosystems (e.g., the disruption of energy flows and chemical cycles and the reduction of species diversity, how acid rain resulting from air pollution affects water bodies and forests and how depletion of the atmosphere's ozone layer through the use of chemicals may affect the health of humans)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     5.Knows how acid rain, resulting from air pollution, affects bodies of water
     6.Knows how acid rain, resulting from air pollution, affects the forests
     7.Knows how the depletion of the atmosphere’s ozone layer, through the use of chemicals, may affect the health of humans
 Standard 14.  Understands how human actions modify the physical environment
  Level Pre-K (Grade Pre-K)
   Benchmark 1.Knows how people affect the environment in negative (e.g., litter, pollution) and positive (e.g., recycling, picking up litter) ways
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that sometimes people harm the environment
     2.Knows that people harm the environment when they litter
     3.Knows that people harm the environment when they pollute
     4.Knows that sometimes people do good things for the environment
     5.Knows that some things that can be recycled
     6.Knows that picking up litter is one way to reverse negative affects
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows the ways people alter the physical environment (e.g., by creating irrigation projects; clearing the land to make room for houses and shopping centers; planting crops; building roads)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that people alter the physical environment by creating irrigation projects
     2.Knows that people alter the physical environment by clearing the land to make room for houses and shopping centers
     3.Knows that people alter the physical environment by planting crops
     4.Knows that people alter the physical environment by creating building roads
   Benchmark 2.Knows the ways in which the physical environment is stressed by human activities (e.g., changes in climate, air pollution, water pollution, expanding human settlement)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that the physical environment is stressed by changes in climate
     2.Knows that the physical environment is stressed by air pollution
     3.Knows that the physical environment is stressed by water pollution
     4.Knows that the physical environment is stressed by human settlement
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the environmental consequences of people changing the physical environment (e.g., the effects of ozone depletion, climate change, deforestation, land degradation, soil salinization and acidification, ocean pollution, groundwater-quality decline, using natural wetlands for recreational and housing development)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands that ozone depletion is an environmental consequences of people changing the physical environment
     2.Understands that climate change is an environmental consequences of people changing the physical environment
     3.Understands that deforestation is an environmental consequences of people changing the physical environment
     4.Understands that land degradation is an environmental consequences of people changing the physical environment
     5.Understands that soil salinization is an environmental consequences of people changing the physical environment
     6.Understands that soil acidification is an environmental consequences of people changing the physical environment
     7.Understands that ocean pollution is an environmental consequences of people changing the physical environment
     8.Understands that the decline of groundwater quality is an environmental consequences of people changing the physical environment
     9.Understands the environmental consequences of using natural wetlands for recreational and housing development
   Benchmark 2.Understands the ways in which human-induced changes in the physical environment in one place can cause changes in other places (e.g., the effect of a factory's airborne emissions on air quality in communities located downwind and, because of acid rain, on ecosystems located downwind; the effects of pesticides washed into river systems on water quality in communities located downstream; the effects of the construction of dams and levees on river systems in one region on places downstream)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the effect of a factory’s airborne emissions on air quality in communities located downwind
     2.Understands the effect of a factory’s airborne emissions on air quality on ecosystems located downwind, because of acid rain
     3.Understands the effects of pesticides washed into river systems on water quality in communities located downstream
     4.Understands the effects of the construction of dams and levees on river systems in one region on places downstream
   Benchmark 4.Understands the environmental consequences of both the unintended and intended outcomes of major technological changes in human history (e.g., the effects of automobiles using fossil fuels, nuclear power plants creating the problem of nuclear-waste storage, the use of steel-tipped plows or the expansion of the amount of land brought into agriculture)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the environmental consequences of the unintended outcomes of major technological changes in human history
     2.Understands the environmental consequences of the intended outcomes of major technological changes in human history
     3.Understands the environmental consequences of automobiles using fossil fuels
     4.Understands the environmental consequences of nuclear power plants creating the problem of nuclear-waste storage
     5.Understands the environmental consequences of the use of steel-tipped plows
     6.Understands the environmental consequences of the expansion of the amount of land brought into agriculture
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands how the concepts of synergy, feedback loops, carrying capacity and thresholds relate to the limitations of the physical environment to absorb the impacts of human activity (e.g., levee construction on a flood plain, logging in an old-growth forest, construction of golf courses in arid areas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the concept of synergy relates to the limitations of the physical environment to absorb the impacts of human activity
     2.Understands how the concept of feedback loops relates to the limitations of the physical environment to absorb the impacts of human activity
     3.Understands how the concept of carrying capacity relates to the limitations of the physical environment to absorb the impacts of human activity
     4.Understands how the concept of thresholds relates to the limitations of the physical environment to absorb the impacts of human activity
     5.Understands how the concepts of synergy, feedback loops, carrying capacity, and thresholds relate to the limitations of the physical environment to absorb the impact of levee construction on a flood plain
     6.Understands how the concepts of synergy, feedback loops, carrying capacity, and thresholds relate to the limitations of the physical environment to absorb the impact of logging in an old-growth forest
     7.Understands how the concepts of synergy, feedback loops, carrying capacity and thresholds relate to the limitations of the physical environment to absorb the impact of construction of golf courses in arid areas
   Benchmark 2.Understands the role of humans in decreasing the diversity of flora and fauna in a region (e.g., the impact of acid rain on rivers and forests in southern Ontario, the effects of toxic dumping on ocean ecosystems, the effects of overfishing along the coast of northeastern North America or the Philippine archipelago)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the role of humans in decreasing the diversity of flora in a region
     2.Understands the role of humans in decreasing the diversity of fauna in a region
     3.Understands the impact of acid rain on rivers and forests in southern Ontario
     4.Understands how toxic dumping affects ocean ecosystems
     5.Understands the effects of overfishing along the coast of northeastern North America
     6.Understands the effects of overfishing on the Philippine archipelago
   Benchmark 3.Understands the global impacts of human changes in the physical environment (e.g., increases in runoff and sediment, tropical soil degradation, habitat destruction, air pollution; alterations in the hydrologic cycle; increases in world temperatures; groundwater reduction)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the increase in runoff and sediment as a global impact of human changes in the physical environment
     2.Understands tropical soil degradation as a global impact of human changes in the physical environment
     3.Understands habitat destruction as a global impact of human changes in the physical environment
     4.Understands air pollution as a global impact of human changes in the physical environment
     5.Understands alterations in the hydrologic cycle as a global impact of human changes in the physical environment
     6.Understands increases in world temperatures as a global impact of human changes in the physical environment
     7.Understands groundwater reduction as a global impact of human changes in the physical environment
   Benchmark 4.Knows how people's changing attitudes toward the environment have led to landscape changes (e.g., pressure to replace farmlands with wetlands in flood plain areas, interest in preserving wilderness areas, support for the concept of historic preservation)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows that people’s changing attitudes toward the environment has resulted in pressure to replace farmlands with wetlands in flood plain areas
     2.Knows that people’s changing attitudes toward the environment has resulted in interest in preserving wilderness areas
     3.Knows that people’s changing attitudes toward the environment has resulted in support for the concept of historic preservation
 Standard 16.  Understands the changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution and importance of resources
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 5.Knows advantages and disadvantages of recycling and reusing different types of materials
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the advantages of recycling different types of materials
     2.Knows the disadvantages of recycling different types of materials
     3.Knows the advantages of reusing different types of materials
     4.Knows the disadvantages of reusing different types of materials
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the reasons for conflicting viewpoints regarding how resources should be used (e.g., attitudes toward electric cars, water-rationing, urban public transportation, use of fossil fuels, excessive timber cutting in old growth forests, buffalo in the western United States, soil conservation in semiarid areas)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the conflicting attitudes towards electric cars
     2.Understands the conflicting attitudes towards water-rationing
     3.Understands the conflicting attitudes towards urban public transportation
     4.Understands the conflicting attitudes towards the use of fossil fuels
     5.Understands the conflicting attitudes towards excessive timber cutting in old growth forests
     6.Understands the conflicting attitudes towards buffalo in the western United States
     7.Understands the conflicting attitudes towards soil conservation in semiarid areas
   Benchmark 2.Knows strategies for wise management and use of renewable, flow, and nonrenewable resources (e.g., wise management of agricultural soils, fossil fuels, and alternative energy sources; community programs for recycling or reusing materials)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows strategies for the wise management of renewable resources
     2.Knows strategies for the wise management of flow resources
     3.Knows strategies for the wise management of nonrenewable resources
     4.Knows strategies for the wise use of renewable resources
     5.Knows strategies for the wise use of flow resources
     6.Knows strategies for the wise use of nonrenewable resources
     7.Knows strategies for the wise management of agricultural soils
     8.Knows strategies for the wise management of fossil fuels
     9.Knows strategies for the wise management of alternative energy sources
     10.Knows community programs for recycling materials
     11.Knows community programs for reusing materials
   Benchmark 7.Understands how the development and widespread use of alternative energy sources (e.g., solar, wind, thermal) might have an impact on societies (in terms of, e.g., air and water quality, existing energy industries, and current manufacturing practices)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how the development and widespread use of solar power might impact societies in terms of air quality
     2.Understands how the development and widespread use of solar power might impact societies in terms of water quality
     3.Understands how the development and widespread use of solar power might impact societies in terms of existing energy industries
     4.Understands how the development and widespread use of solar power might impact societies in terms of current manufacturing practices
     5.Understands how the development and widespread use of wind power might impact societies in terms of air quality
     6.Understands how the development and widespread use of wind power might impact societies in terms of water quality
     7.Understands how the development and widespread use of wind power might impact societies in terms of existing energy industries
     8.Understands how the development and widespread use of wind power might impact societies in terms of current manufacturing practices
     9.Understands how the development and widespread use of thermal energy might impact societies in terms of air quality
     10.Understands how the development and widespread use of thermal energy might impact societies in terms of water quality
     11.Understands how the development and widespread use of thermal energy might impact societies in terms of existing energy industries
     12.Understands how the development and widespread use of thermal energy might impact societies in terms of current manufacturing practices
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Understands programs and positions related to the use of resources on a local to global scale (e.g., community regulations for water usage during drought periods; local recycling programs for glass, metal, plastic, and paper products; different points of view regarding uses of the Malaysian rain forests)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands programs related to the use of resources on a local to global scale
     2.Understands positions related to the use of resources on a local to global scale
     3.Knows community regulations for water usage during drought periods
     4.Knows local recycling programs for glass, metal, plastic, and paper products
     5.Knows different points of view regarding uses of the Malaysian rain forests
   Benchmark 4.Knows issues related to the reuse and recycling of resources (e.g., changing relocation strategies of industries seeking access to recyclable material, such as paper factories, container and can companies, glass, plastic, and bottle manufacturers; issues involved with the movement, handling, processing, and storing of toxic and hazardous waste materials; fully enforced vs. consistently neglected approaches to resource management)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows issues related to the reuse of resources
     2.Knows issues related to the recycling of resources
     3.Understands the strategy of industries seeking access to recyclable material to change locations, such as paper factories
     4.Understands the strategy of industries seeking access to recyclable material to change locations, such as container companies
     5.Understands the strategy of industries seeking access to recyclable material to change locations, such as can companies
     6.Understands the strategy of industries seeking access to recyclable material to change locations, such as glass manufacturers
     7.Understands the strategy of industries seeking access to recyclable material to change locations, such as plastic manufacturers
     8.Understands the strategy of industries seeking access to recyclable material to change locations, such as bottle manufacturers
     9.Knows the issues involved with the storing of toxic and hazardous waste materials
     10.Knows the issues involved with the movement of toxic and hazardous waste materials
     11.Knows the issues involved with the handling of toxic and hazardous waste materials
     12.Knows the issues involved with the processing of toxic and hazardous waste materials
 Standard 18.  Understands global development and environmental issues
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 2.Knows the ways in which resources can be managed and why it is important to do so (e.g., soil conservation practices, recycling nonrenewable resources)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows the ways in which resources can be managed
     2.Knows why resource management is important
     3.Understands soil conservation practices
     4.Understands the importance of soil conservation practices
     5.Understands how nonrenewable resources can be recycled
     6.Understands the importance of recycling nonrenewable resources
   Benchmark 4.Knows human-induced changes that are taking place in different regions and the possible future impacts of these changes (e.g., development and conservation issues in terms of the wetland of coastal New Jersey)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows development and conservation issues in terms of the wetlands of coastal New Jersey
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 1.Understands the concept of sustainable development and its effects in a variety of situations (e.g., toward cutting the rain forests in Indonesia in response to a demand for lumber in foreign markets, or mining the rutile sands along the coast of eastern Australia near the Great Barrier Reef)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands the concept of sustainable development
     2.Understands the effects of sustainable development in a variety of situations
     3.Understands the effects of sustainable development on cutting the rain forests in Indonesia in response to a demand for lumber in foreign markets
     4.Understands the effects of sustainable development on the mining of rutile sands along the coast of eastern Australia near the Great Barrier Reef
   Benchmark 3.Understands contemporary issues in terms of Earth's physical and human systems (e.g., the processes of land degradation and desertification, the consequences of population growth or decline in a developed economy, the consequences of a world temperature increase)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands contemporary issues in terms of the Earth’s physical systems
     2.Understands contemporary issues in terms of the Earth’s human systems
     3.Understands the processes of land degradation and desertification
     6.Understands the consequences of a world temperature increase

Health

 Standard 2.  Knows environmental and external factors that affect individual and community health
  Level I (Grade K-2)
   Benchmark 1.Knows sources and causes of pollution (e.g., air, ground, noise, water, food) in the community
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows sources of pollution in the community
     2.Knows causes of pollution in the community
     3.Knows sources of air pollution in the community
     4.Knows causes of air pollution in the community
     5.Knows sources of ground pollution in the community
     6.Knows causes of ground pollution in the community
     7.Knows sources of noise pollution in the community
     8.Knows causes of noise pollution in the community
     9.Knows sources of water pollution in the community
     10.Knows causes of water pollution in the community
     11.Knows sources of food pollution in the community
     12.Knows causes of food pollution in the community
  Level II (Grade 3-5)
   Benchmark 1.Knows how the physical environment can impact personal health (e.g., the effects of exposure to pollutants)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how exposure to pollutants can affect personal health
     2.Knows that the physical environment can impact personal health
   Benchmark 2.Knows how individuals, communities, and states cooperate to control environmental problems and maintain a healthy environment
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how individuals cooperate to control environmental problems
     2.Knows how individuals cooperate to maintain a healthy environment
     3.Knows how communities cooperate to control environmental problems
     4.Knows how communities cooperate to maintain a healthy environment
     5.Knows how states cooperate to control environmental problems
     6.Knows how states cooperate to maintain a healthy environment
  Level III (Grade 6-8)
   Benchmark 3.Knows local, state, federal, and international efforts to contain an environmental crisis and prevent a recurrence (e.g., acid rain, oil spills, solid waste contamination, nuclear leaks, ozone depletion)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows local efforts to contain an environmental crisis
     2.Knows local efforts to prevent the recurrence of an environmental crisis
     3.Knows state efforts to contain an environmental crisis
     4.Knows state efforts to prevent the recurrence of an environmental crisis
     5.Knows federal efforts to contain an environmental crisis
     6.Knows federal efforts to prevent the recurrence of an environmental crisis
     7.Knows international efforts to contain an environmental
     8.Knows international efforts to prevent the recurrence of an environmental crisis
     9.Knows the efforts at various levels of government to contain oil spills
     10.Knows the efforts at various levels of government to prevent the recurrence of oil spills
     11.Knows the efforts at various levels of government to contain nuclear leaks
     12.Knows the efforts at various levels of government to prevent the recurrence of nuclear leaks
     13.Knows the efforts at various levels of government to contain solid waste contamination
     14.Knows the efforts at various levels of government to prevent the recurrence of solid waste contamination
     15.Knows the efforts at various levels of government to prevent acid rain
     16.Knows the efforts at various levels of government to prevent ozone depletion
  Level IV (Grade 9-12)
   Benchmark 2.Knows how individuals can improve or maintain community health (e.g., becoming active in environmental and economic issues that affect health, assisting in the development of public health policies and laws, exercising voting privileges)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     3.Knows how becoming active in environmental issues that affect health can improve overall community health
     4.Knows how becoming active in environmental issues that affect health can maintain community health
   Benchmark 3.Understands how the environment influences the health of the community (e.g., environmental issues that affect the food supply and the nutritional quality of food)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how environmental issues that affect the food supply influence the health of the community
     2.Understands how environmental issues that affect the nutritional quality of food influence the health of the community
   Benchmark 5.Knows how public health policies and government regulations (e.g., OSHA regulations, Right to Know laws, DSS regulations, licensing laws) impact health-related issues (e.g., safe food handling, food production controls, household waste disposal controls, clean air, disposal of nuclear waste)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     4.Knows how the “Right to Know” laws impact health-related issues
     11.Knows how public health policies impact household waste disposal controls
     12.Knows how government regulations impact household waste disposal controls
     13.Knows how public health policies impact clean air
     14.Knows how government regulations impact clean air
     15.Knows how public health policies impact the disposal of nuclear waste
     16.Knows how government regulations impact the disposal of nuclear waste

World History

 Standard 44.  Understands the search for community, stability, and peace in an interdependent world
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 1.Understands global influences on the environment (e.g., how population growth, urbanization, industrialization, warfare, and the global market economy have contributed to environmental alterations; how effective governments and citizens' groups have been at protecting the global natural environment)
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands how population growth has contributed to environmental alterations
     2.Understands how urbanization has contributed to environmental alterations
     3.Understands how industrialization has contributed to environmental alterations
     4.Understands how warfare has contributed to environmental alterations
     5.Understands how the global market economy has contributed to environmental alterations
     6.Understands how effective governments and citizens’ groups have been at protecting the global natural environment
  Level III (Grade 7-8)
   Benchmark 7.Understands the importance or meaning of the natural environment for societies around the world
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Knows how the view of the natural environment may depend upon economic perspective
     2.Knows the importance of a given natural environment can be national and international
 Standard 46.  Understands long-term changes and recurring patterns in world history
  Level II (Grade 5-6)
   Benchmark 5.Understands ways in which human action has contributed to long-term changes in the natural environment in particular regions or worldwide
    Knowledge/skill statements
     1.Understands ways in which human action has contributed to long term changes in the natural environment in particular regions
     2.Understands ways in which human action has contributed to long term changes in the natural environment worldwide